Search results for: Architectural character
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 469

Search results for: Architectural character

469 The Shifting Urban Role of Buildings’ Facades: A Diachronic Analysis of El Korba

Authors: Virginia Bassily, Sherif Goubran

Abstract:

In heritage conservation and revival, much of the focus is placed on the techniques and methods to preserve, restore, and revive heritage structures and locations. However, more attention needs to be drawn to how deterioration happens and its effect on the area’s character and socio-economic status. To this end, this research aims to examine the decline and its effect in the El Korba area in Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt. El Korba was designed with a unique architectural character to stimulate social and economic life. However, the area has been on a path of physical deterioration that is corroding the social life on its streets. This research uses diachronic analysis in Ibrahim El-Lakkani Boulevard of El Korba based on a previously developed framework that connects buildings’ architectural features to the degree of social interaction in the street to document the changes that the building deterioration could have caused. Architectural features of the street level during both the original state (1906) and the current state (2021) are broken down and categorized in those six parameters to understand their decline or improvement over time. We find that the parameters that have decreased over the years and caused the deterioration are complexity and architectural character, permeability, territoriality and personalization, and physical comfort.  Based on these findings, revival projects can focus on physical parameters that create synergistic benefits by preserving and renewing heritage locations and revitalizing their socio-economic potential.

Keywords: Architectural character, heritage building conservation, enclosure, ground-floor use, El Korba, visual and physical permeability, personalization, physical comfort, social life, territoriality.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 430
468 Character Segmentation Method for a License Plate with Topological Transform

Authors: Jaedo Kim, Youngjoon Han, Hernsoo Hahn

Abstract:

This paper propose the robust character segmentation method for license plate with topological transform such as twist,rotation. The first step of the proposed method is to find a candidate region for character and license plate. The character or license plate must be appeared as closed loop in the edge image. In the case of detecting candidate for character region, the evaluation of detected region is using topological relationship between each character. When this method decides license plate candidate region, character features in the region with binarization are used. After binarization for the detected candidate region, each character region is decided again. In this step, each character region is fitted more than previous step. In the next step, the method checks other character regions with different scale near the detected character regions, because most license plates have license numbers with some meaningful characters around them. The method uses perspective projection for geometrical normalization. If there is topological distortion in the character region, the method projects the region on a template which is defined as standard license plate using perspective projection. In this step, the method is able to separate each number region and small meaningful characters. The evaluation results are tested with a number of test images.

Keywords: License Plate Detection, Character Segmentation, Perspective Projection, Topological Transform.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1910
467 Myanmar Character Recognition Using Eight Direction Chain Code Frequency Features

Authors: Kyi Pyar Zaw, Zin Mar Kyu

Abstract:

Character recognition is the process of converting a text image file into editable and searchable text file. Feature Extraction is the heart of any character recognition system. The character recognition rate may be low or high depending on the extracted features. In the proposed paper, 25 features for one character are used in character recognition. Basically, there are three steps of character recognition such as character segmentation, feature extraction and classification. In segmentation step, horizontal cropping method is used for line segmentation and vertical cropping method is used for character segmentation. In the Feature extraction step, features are extracted in two ways. The first way is that the 8 features are extracted from the entire input character using eight direction chain code frequency extraction. The second way is that the input character is divided into 16 blocks. For each block, although 8 feature values are obtained through eight-direction chain code frequency extraction method, we define the sum of these 8 feature values as a feature for one block. Therefore, 16 features are extracted from that 16 blocks in the second way. We use the number of holes feature to cluster the similar characters. We can recognize the almost Myanmar common characters with various font sizes by using these features. All these 25 features are used in both training part and testing part. In the classification step, the characters are classified by matching the all features of input character with already trained features of characters.

Keywords: Chain code frequency, character recognition, feature extraction, features matching, segmentation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 724
466 The Performance of the Character-Access on the Checking Phase in String Searching Algorithms

Authors: Mahmoud M. Mhashi

Abstract:

A new algorithm called Character-Comparison to Character-Access (CCCA) is developed to test the effect of both: 1) converting character-comparison and number-comparison into character-access and 2) the starting point of checking on the performance of the checking operation in string searching. An experiment is performed; the results are compared with five algorithms, namely, Naive, BM, Inf_Suf_Pref, Raita, and Circle. With the CCCA algorithm, the results suggest that the evaluation criteria of the average number of comparisons are improved up to 74.0%. Furthermore, the results suggest that the clock time required by the other algorithms is improved in range from 28% to 68% by the new CCCA algorithm

Keywords: Pattern matching, string searching, charactercomparison, character-access, and checking.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1289
465 A Character Detection Method for Ancient Yi Books Based on Connected Components and Regressive Character Segmentation

Authors: Xu Han, Shanxiong Chen, Shiyu Zhu, Xiaoyu Lin, Fujia Zhao, Dingwang Wang

Abstract:

Character detection is an important issue for character recognition of ancient Yi books. The accuracy of detection directly affects the recognition effect of ancient Yi books. Considering the complex layout, the lack of standard typesetting and the mixed arrangement between images and texts, we propose a character detection method for ancient Yi books based on connected components and regressive character segmentation. First, the scanned images of ancient Yi books are preprocessed with nonlocal mean filtering, and then a modified local adaptive threshold binarization algorithm is used to obtain the binary images to segment the foreground and background for the images. Second, the non-text areas are removed by the method based on connected components. Finally, the single character in the ancient Yi books is segmented by our method. The experimental results show that the method can effectively separate the text areas and non-text areas for ancient Yi books and achieve higher accuracy and recall rate in the experiment of character detection, and effectively solve the problem of character detection and segmentation in character recognition of ancient books.

Keywords: Computing methodologies, interest point, salient region detections, image segmentation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 824
464 A Quantitative Study on the Effects of School Development on Character Development

Authors: Merve Gücen

Abstract:

One of the aims of education is to educate individuals who have embraced universal moral principles and transform universal moral principles into moral values. Character education aims to educate behaviors of individuals in their mental activities to transform moral principles into moral values in their lives. As the result of this education, individuals are expected to develop positive character traits and become morally indifferent individuals. What are the characteristics of the factors that influence character education at this stage? How should character education help individuals develop positive character traits? Which methods are more effective? These questions come to mind when studying character education. Our research was developed within the framework of these questions. The aim of our study is to provide the most effective use of the education factor that affects character. In this context, we tried to explain character definition, character development, character education and the factors affecting character education using qualitative research methods. At this stage, character education programs applied in various countries were examined and a character education program consisting of Islamic values was prepared and implemented in an International Imam Hatip High School in Istanbul. Our application was carried out with the collaboration of school and families. Various seminars were organized in the school and participation of families was ensured. In the last phase of our study, we worked with the students and their families on the effectiveness of the events held during the program. In this study, it was found that activities such as storytelling and theater in character education programs were effective in recognizing wrong behaviors in individuals. It was determined that our program had a positive effect on the quality of education. It was seen that applications of this educational program affected the behavior of the employees in the educational institution.

Keywords: Character development, values education, family activities, education program.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1012
463 Urban Intensification and the Character of Urban Landscape: A Morphological Perspective

Authors: Xindong An, Kai Gu

Abstract:

Urban intensification is regarded as the prevalent strategy in many cities of the world to ease the pressures of urban sprawl and deliver sustainable development through increasing the density of built form and activities. However, within the context of intensive development, planning and design control measures that help to maintain and promote the character of existing residential environments have been slow to develop. This causes the possible loss of the character of an area that makes a place unique and distinctive. The purpose of this paper is to explore the way of identifying the character of an urban area for the planning of urban landscape in the implementation of intensification. By employing the theory of urban morphology, the concept of morphological region is used for the analysis and characterisation of the spatial structure of the urban landscape in terms of ground plans, building types, and building and land utilisation. The morphological mapping of the character of urban landscape is suggested, which lays a foundation for more sensitive planning of urban landscape changes.

Keywords: Character areas, urban intensification, urban morphology, urban landscape.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1108
462 An Investigation into Kanji Character Discrimination Process from EEG Signals

Authors: Hiroshi Abe, Minoru Nakayama

Abstract:

The frontal area in the brain is known to be involved in behavioral judgement. Because a Kanji character can be discriminated visually and linguistically from other characters, in Kanji character discrimination, we hypothesized that frontal event-related potential (ERP) waveforms reflect two discrimination processes in separate time periods: one based on visual analysis and the other based on lexcical access. To examine this hypothesis, we recorded ERPs while performing a Kanji lexical decision task. In this task, either a known Kanji character, an unknown Kanji character or a symbol was presented and the subject had to report if the presented character was a known Kanji character for the subject or not. The same response was required for unknown Kanji trials and symbol trials. As a preprocessing of signals, we examined the performance of a method using independent component analysis for artifact rejection and found it was effective. Therefore we used it. In the ERP results, there were two time periods in which the frontal ERP wavefoms were significantly different betweeen the unknown Kanji trials and the symbol trials: around 170ms and around 300ms after stimulus onset. This result supported our hypothesis. In addition, the result suggests that Kanji character lexical access may be fully completed by around 260ms after stimulus onset.

Keywords: Character discrimination, Event-related Potential, IndependentComponent Analysis, Kanji, Lexical access.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1762
461 A Cognitive Model of Character Recognition Using Support Vector Machines

Authors: K. Freedman

Abstract:

In the present study, a support vector machine (SVM) learning approach to character recognition is proposed. Simple feature detectors, similar to those found in the human visual system, were used in the SVM classifier. Alphabetic characters were rotated to 8 different angles and using the proposed cognitive model, all characters were recognized with 100% accuracy and specificity. These same results were found in psychiatric studies of human character recognition.

Keywords: Character recognition, cognitive model, support vector machine learning.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1857
460 The Negative Effect of Traditional Loops Style on the Performance of Algorithms

Authors: Mahmoud Moh'd Mhashi

Abstract:

A new algorithm called Character-Comparison to Character-Access (CCCA) is developed to test the effect of both: 1) converting character-comparison and number-comparison into character-access and 2) the starting point of checking on the performance of the checking operation in string searching. An experiment is performed using both English text and DNA text with different sizes. The results are compared with five algorithms, namely, Naive, BM, Inf_Suf_Pref, Raita, and Cycle. With the CCCA algorithm, the results suggest that the evaluation criteria of the average number of total comparisons are improved up to 35%. Furthermore, the results suggest that the clock time required by the other algorithms is improved in range from 22.13% to 42.33% by the new CCCA algorithm.

Keywords: Pattern matching, string searching, charactercomparison, character-access, text type, and checking

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1245
459 Off-Line Hand Written Thai Character Recognition using Ant-Miner Algorithm

Authors: P. Phokharatkul, K. Sankhuangaw, S. Somkuarnpanit, S. Phaiboon, C. Kimpan

Abstract:

Much research into handwritten Thai character recognition have been proposed, such as comparing heads of characters, Fuzzy logic and structure trees, etc. This paper presents a system of handwritten Thai character recognition, which is based on the Ant-minor algorithm (data mining based on Ant colony optimization). Zoning is initially used to determine each character. Then three distinct features (also called attributes) of each character in each zone are extracted. The attributes are Head zone, End point, and Feature code. All attributes are used for construct the classification rules by an Ant-miner algorithm in order to classify 112 Thai characters. For this experiment, the Ant-miner algorithm is adapted, with a small change to increase the recognition rate. The result of this experiment is a 97% recognition rate of the training set (11200 characters) and 82.7% recognition rate of unseen data test (22400 characters).

Keywords: Hand written, Thai character recognition, Ant-mineralgorithm, distinct feature.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1911
458 The Architectural and Imaginary Spaces of the Anime Models

Authors: Kussain Marden

Abstract:

Architecture as a form of art, whilst actively developing, finds new methods and conceptions. Currently, architectural animation is actively developing as a step, successive to architectural visualization. Interesting vistas of architectural ideas were discovered by artists of Japanese animation, in which there are traditional spirits, kami, and imaginary spaces relating to them. Anime art should be considered abstract painting, another kind of an architectural workshop, where new architectural ideas are generated.

Keywords: Anime, architecture, imaginary spaces.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2573
457 Interactive Chinese Character Learning System though Pictograph Evolution

Authors: J.H. Low, C.O. Wong, E.J. Han, K.R Kim K.C. Jung, H.K. Yang

Abstract:

This paper proposes an Interactive Chinese Character Learning System (ICCLS) based on pictorial evolution as an edutainment concept in computer-based learning of language. The advantage of the language origination itself is taken as a learning platform due to the complexity in Chinese language as compared to other types of languages. Users especially children enjoy more by utilize this learning system because they are able to memories the Chinese Character easily and understand more of the origin of the Chinese character under pleasurable learning environment, compares to traditional approach which children need to rote learning Chinese Character under un-pleasurable environment. Skeletonization is used as the representation of Chinese character and object with an animated pictograph evolution to facilitate the learning of the language. Shortest skeleton path matching technique is employed for fast and accurate matching in our implementation. User is required to either write a word or draw a simple 2D object in the input panel and the matched word and object will be displayed as well as the pictograph evolution to instill learning. The target of computer-based learning system is for pre-school children between 4 to 6 years old to learn Chinese characters in a flexible and entertaining manner besides utilizing visual and mind mapping strategy as learning methodology.

Keywords: Computer-based learning, Chinese character, pictograph evolution, skeletonization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1885
456 Persian Printed Numeral Characters Recognition Using Geometrical Central Moments and Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network

Authors: Hamid Reza Boveiri

Abstract:

In this paper, a new proposed system for Persian printed numeral characters recognition with emphasis on representation and recognition stages is introduced. For the first time, in Persian optical character recognition, geometrical central moments as character image descriptor and fuzzy min-max neural network for Persian numeral character recognition has been used. Set of different experiments on binary images of regular, translated, rotated and scaled Persian numeral characters has been done and variety of results has been presented. The best result was 99.16% correct recognition demonstrating geometrical central moments and fuzzy min-max neural network are adequate for Persian printed numeral character recognition.

Keywords: Fuzzy min-max neural network, geometrical centralmoments, optical character recognition, Persian digits recognition, Persian printed numeral characters recognition.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1696
455 Javanese Character Recognition Using Hidden Markov Model

Authors: Anastasia Rita Widiarti, Phalita Nari Wastu

Abstract:

Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is a stochastic method which has been used in various signal processing and character recognition. This study proposes to use HMM to recognize Javanese characters from a number of different handwritings, whereby HMM is used to optimize the number of state and feature extraction. An 85.7 % accuracy is obtained as the best result in 16-stated vertical model using pure HMM. This initial result is satisfactory for prompting further research.

Keywords: Character recognition, off-line handwritingrecognition, Hidden Markov Model.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1970
454 A New Recognition Scheme for Machine- Printed Arabic Texts based on Neural Networks

Authors: Z. Shaaban

Abstract:

This paper presents a new approach to tackle the problem of recognizing machine-printed Arabic texts. Because of the difficulty of recognizing cursive Arabic words, the text has to be normalized and segmented to be ready for the recognition stage. The new scheme for recognizing Arabic characters depends on multiple parallel neural networks classifier. The classifier has two phases. The first phase categories the input character into one of eight groups. The second phase classifies the character into one of the Arabic character classes in the group. The system achieved high recognition rate.

Keywords: Neural Networks, character recognition, feature extraction, multiple networks, Arabic text.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1455
453 The Impact of Character Strengths on Employee Well-Being: The Mediating Effect of Work-Family Relationship

Authors: Jing Wang, Yong Wang

Abstract:

For organizational development, employee well-being is critical and has been influenced deeply by character strengths. Therefore, investigating the relationship between character strengths and employee well-being and its inner mechanism is crucial. In this study, we explored the features of Chinese employees' character strengths, studied the relationship between character strengths and employees' subjective well-being, work well-being and psychological well-being respectively, and examined the mediating effect of work-family relationship (both enrichment and conflict). An online survey was conducted. The results showed that: (1) The top five character strengths of Chinese employees were gratitude, citizenship, kindness, appreciation of beauty and excellence, justice, while the bottom five ones were creativity, authenticity, bravery, spirituality, open-mindedness. (2) Subjective well-being was significantly correlated to courage, humanity, transcendence and justice. Work well-being was significantly correlated to wisdom, courage, humanity, justice and transcendence. Psychological well-being was significantly correlated to all the above five character strengths and temperance. (3) Wisdom and humanity influenced Chinese employees’ subjective well-being through work-family enrichment. Justice enhanced psychological well-being via work-family enrichment; meanwhile, it also played a positive role in subjective well-being, work well-being, and psychological well-being by decreasing the family-work conflict. At the end of this paper, some theoretical and practical contributions to organizational management were further discussed.

Keywords: Character strengths, work-family conflict, work-family enrichment, employee well-being, work well-being.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1755
452 On-line Handwritten Character Recognition: An Implementation of Counterpropagation Neural Net

Authors: Muhammad Faisal Zafar, Dzulkifli Mohamad, Razib M. Othman

Abstract:

On-line handwritten scripts are usually dealt with pen tip traces from pen-down to pen-up positions. Time evaluation of the pen coordinates is also considered along with trajectory information. However, the data obtained needs a lot of preprocessing including filtering, smoothing, slant removing and size normalization before recognition process. Instead of doing such lengthy preprocessing, this paper presents a simple approach to extract the useful character information. This work evaluates the use of the counter- propagation neural network (CPN) and presents feature extraction mechanism in full detail to work with on-line handwriting recognition. The obtained recognition rates were 60% to 94% using the CPN for different sets of character samples. This paper also describes a performance study in which a recognition mechanism with multiple thresholds is evaluated for counter-propagation architecture. The results indicate that the application of multiple thresholds has significant effect on recognition mechanism. The method is applicable for off-line character recognition as well. The technique is tested for upper-case English alphabets for a number of different styles from different peoples.

Keywords: On-line character recognition, character digitization, counter-propagation neural networks, extreme coordinates.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2409
451 Three-Level Tracking Method for Animating a 3D Humanoid Character

Authors: Tainchi Lu, Chochih Lin

Abstract:

With a rapid growth in 3D graphics technology over the last few years, people are desired to see more flexible reacting motions of a biped in animations. In particular, it is impossible to anticipate all reacting motions of a biped while facing a perturbation. In this paper, we propose a three-level tracking method for animating a 3D humanoid character. First, we take the laws of physics into account to attach physical attributes, such as mass, gravity, friction, collision, contact, and torque, to bones and joints of a character. The next step is to employ PD controller to follow a reference motion as closely as possible. Once the character cannot tolerate a strong perturbation to prevent itself from falling down, we are capable of tracking a desirable falling-down action to avoid any falling condition inaccuracy. From the experimental results, we demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the proposed method in comparison with conventional data-driven approaches.

Keywords: Character Animation, Forward Dynamics, Motion Tracking, PD Control.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1464
450 Handwritten Character Recognition Using Multiscale Neural Network Training Technique

Authors: Velappa Ganapathy, Kok Leong Liew

Abstract:

Advancement in Artificial Intelligence has lead to the developments of various “smart" devices. Character recognition device is one of such smart devices that acquire partial human intelligence with the ability to capture and recognize various characters in different languages. Firstly multiscale neural training with modifications in the input training vectors is adopted in this paper to acquire its advantage in training higher resolution character images. Secondly selective thresholding using minimum distance technique is proposed to be used to increase the level of accuracy of character recognition. A simulator program (a GUI) is designed in such a way that the characters can be located on any spot on the blank paper in which the characters are written. The results show that such methods with moderate level of training epochs can produce accuracies of at least 85% and more for handwritten upper case English characters and numerals.

Keywords: Character recognition, multiscale, backpropagation, neural network, minimum distance technique.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1900
449 Bi-lingual Handwritten Character and Numeral Recognition using Multi-Dimensional Recurrent Neural Networks (MDRNN)

Authors: Kandarpa Kumar Sarma

Abstract:

The key to the continued success of ANN depends, considerably, on the use of hybrid structures implemented on cooperative frame-works. Hybrid architectures provide the ability to the ANN to validate heterogeneous learning paradigms. This work describes the implementation of a set of Distributed and Hybrid ANN models for Character Recognition applied to Anglo-Assamese scripts. The objective is to describe the effectiveness of Hybrid ANN setups as innovative means of neural learning for an application like multilingual handwritten character and numeral recognition.

Keywords: Assamese, Feature, Recurrent.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1506
448 A Study on the Impacts of Computer Aided Design on the Architectural Design Process

Authors: Halleh Nejadriahi, Kamyar Arab

Abstract:

Computer-aided design (CAD) tools have been extensively used by the architects for the several decades. It has evolved from being a simple drafting tool to being an intelligent architectural software and a powerful means of communication for architects. CAD plays an essential role in the profession of architecture and is a basic tool for any architectural firm. It is not possible for an architectural firm to compete without taking the advantage of computer software, due to the high demand and competition in the architectural industry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impacts of CAD on the architectural design process from conceptual level to final product, particularly in architectural practice. It examines the range of benefits of integrating CAD into the industry and discusses the possible defects limiting the architects. Method of this study is qualitatively based on data collected from the professionals’ perspective. The identified benefits and limitations of CAD on the architectural design process will raise the awareness of professionals on the potentials of CAD and proper utilization of that in the industry, which would result in a higher productivity along with a better quality in the architectural offices.

Keywords: Architecture, architectural practice, computer aided design, CAD, design process.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1876
447 Investigating Aesthetics According to Gestalt's Theories and Principles of Architectural Design

Authors: D. Moussazadeh, A. Aytug

Abstract:

In this study, aesthetics, which is architecture-dependent, covers the interpretable, debatable, and mathematical features. The purpose of this study is to provide a different perspective on the values of formal aesthetics and to analyze architectural forms to examine the factors that are related to the form of architectural works. In this study, the formal factors of aesthetics have been objectively studied and analyzed.

Keywords: Architecture design, Gestalt, architectural principle, museum.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1049
446 Architectural Thinking in a Time of Climate Emergency

Authors: Manoj Parmar

Abstract:

The article uses reflexivity as a research method to investigate and propose an architectural theory plan for climate change. It hypothecates that to discuss or formulate discourse on "architectural paradigm and climate change," firstly, we need to understand the modes of integration that enable architectural thinking with climate change. The research intends to study the various integration modes that have evolved historically and situate them in time. Subsequently, it analyzes the integration pattern, challenges the existing model, and finds a way towards climate change as central to architectural thinking. The study is fundamental on-premises that ecology and climate change scholarship has consistently out lashed the asymmetrical and nonlinear knowledge and needs approaches for architecture that are less burden to climate change to people and minimize its impact on ecology.

Keywords: Climate change, architectural theory, reflexivity, modernity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 196
445 Innovative Pictogram Chinese Characters Representation

Authors: J. H. Low, S. H. Hew, C. O. Wong

Abstract:

This paper proposes an innovative approach to represent the Pictogram Chinese Characters. The advantage of this representation is using an extraordinary representation to represent the pictogram Chinese character. This extraordinary representation is created accordingly to the original pictogram Chinese characters revolution or transition. The purpose of this innovative creation is to assist the learner to learn Chinese as second language (CSL) in Chinese language learning, specifically on memorizing Chinese characters. Commonly, the CSL will give up and frustrate easily while memorizing the Chinese characters by rote. So, our innovative representation helps on memorizing the Chinese character by visual storytelling. This innovative representation enhances the Chinese language learning experience of the CSL.

Keywords: Chinese E-learning, Innovative Chinese character representation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2566
444 A New High Speed Neural Model for Fast Character Recognition Using Cross Correlation and Matrix Decomposition

Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry

Abstract:

Neural processors have shown good results for detecting a certain character in a given input matrix. In this paper, a new idead to speed up the operation of neural processors for character detection is presented. Such processors are designed based on cross correlation in the frequency domain between the input matrix and the weights of neural networks. This approach is developed to reduce the computation steps required by these faster neural networks for the searching process. The principle of divide and conquer strategy is applied through image decomposition. Each image is divided into small in size sub-images and then each one is tested separately by using a single faster neural processor. Furthermore, faster character detection is obtained by using parallel processing techniques to test the resulting sub-images at the same time using the same number of faster neural networks. In contrast to using only faster neural processors, the speed up ratio is increased with the size of the input image when using faster neural processors and image decomposition. Moreover, the problem of local subimage normalization in the frequency domain is solved. The effect of image normalization on the speed up ratio of character detection is discussed. Simulation results show that local subimage normalization through weight normalization is faster than subimage normalization in the spatial domain. The overall speed up ratio of the detection process is increased as the normalization of weights is done off line.

Keywords: Fast Character Detection, Neural Processors, Cross Correlation, Image Normalization, Parallel Processing.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1517
443 Automatic Lip Contour Tracking and Visual Character Recognition for Computerized Lip Reading

Authors: Harshit Mehrotra, Gaurav Agrawal, M.C. Srivastava

Abstract:

Computerized lip reading has been one of the most actively researched areas of computer vision in recent past because of its crime fighting potential and invariance to acoustic environment. However, several factors like fast speech, bad pronunciation, poor illumination, movement of face, moustaches and beards make lip reading difficult. In present work, we propose a solution for automatic lip contour tracking and recognizing letters of English language spoken by speakers using the information available from lip movements. Level set method is used for tracking lip contour using a contour velocity model and a feature vector of lip movements is then obtained. Character recognition is performed using modified k nearest neighbor algorithm which assigns more weight to nearer neighbors. The proposed system has been found to have accuracy of 73.3% for character recognition with speaker lip movements as the only input and without using any speech recognition system in parallel. The approach used in this work is found to significantly solve the purpose of lip reading when size of database is small.

Keywords: Contour Velocity Model, Lip Contour Tracking, LipReading, Visual Character Recognition.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2377
442 A Study of Touching Characters in Degraded Gurmukhi Text

Authors: M. K. Jindal, G. S. Lehal, R. K. Sharma

Abstract:

Character segmentation is an important preprocessing step for text recognition. In degraded documents, existence of touching characters decreases recognition rate drastically, for any optical character recognition (OCR) system. In this paper a study of touching Gurmukhi characters is carried out and these characters have been divided into various categories after a careful analysis.Structural properties of the Gurmukhi characters are used for defining the categories. New algorithms have been proposed to segment the touching characters in middle zone. These algorithms have shown a reasonable improvement in segmenting the touching characters in degraded Gurmukhi script. The algorithms proposed in this paper are applicable only to machine printed text.

Keywords: Character Segmentation, Middle Zone, Touching Characters.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1818
441 A Persian OCR System using Morphological Operators

Authors: M. Salmani Jelodar, M.J. Fadaeieslam, N. Mozayani, M. Fazeli

Abstract:

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is a very old and of great interest in pattern recognition field. In this paper we introduce a very powerful approach to recognize Persian text. We have used morphological operators, especially Hit/Miss operator to descript each sub-word and by using a template matching approach we have tried to classify generated description. We used just one font in two different sizes to verify our approach. We achieved a very good rate, up to 99.9%.

Keywords: A Persian Optical Character Recognition.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2287
440 Application of Genetic Algorithms to Feature Subset Selection in a Farsi OCR

Authors: M. Soryani, N. Rafat

Abstract:

Dealing with hundreds of features in character recognition systems is not unusual. This large number of features leads to the increase of computational workload of recognition process. There have been many methods which try to remove unnecessary or redundant features and reduce feature dimensionality. Besides because of the characteristics of Farsi scripts, it-s not possible to apply other languages algorithms to Farsi directly. In this paper some methods for feature subset selection using genetic algorithms are applied on a Farsi optical character recognition (OCR) system. Experimental results show that application of genetic algorithms (GA) to feature subset selection in a Farsi OCR results in lower computational complexity and enhanced recognition rate.

Keywords: Feature Subset Selection, Genetic Algorithms, Optical Character Recognition.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1955