Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32727
Examining How Constraints Influence NCAA Division II Athlete’s Physical Performance

Authors: Timothy Hinchman, Carrie Taylor


This quantitative quasi-experimental research investigated disparities in mean and median performance among millennial soccer players. According to research, the fear of failure causes millennials to struggle with difficult jobs. The application of specified limitations has been found to increase individual productivity. The study utilized the constraint-based model of novelty (C-BMN) framework and the game performance assessment instrument (GPAI) to assess data concerning constraint-type and its impact on the productivity of 18 soccer players. Individual components cooperation and trapping had statistical significance throughout the intervention, while positioning, passing, and dribbling did not. The GPAI was statistically significant between the control and both restriction types. A two-way mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction between limitations and temperaments, however only 72% of individuals completed the temperament exam.

Keywords: Constraints, temperament, physical performance, GPAI.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 242


[1] Atay, A., & Ashlock, M. Z. (2018). Millennial culture and communication pedagogies: Narratives from the classroom and higher education. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
[2] Caniels, M. J., & Rietzschel, E. F. (2015). Organizing creativity: Creativity and innovation under constraints. Creativity and Innovation Management, 24(2), 184-196. https://doi:10.1111/caim.12123
[3] Harvey, S. (2003). Teaching Games for Understanding: A study of U19 college soccer players improvement in game performance using the Game Performance Assessment Instrument. In Segunda Conferencia Internacional: Enseñanza del deporte y educación física para la comprensión. Universidad de Melbourne. Australia.
[4] Hatchuel, A., & Chen, M. K. (2017). Creativity under strong constraints: The hidden influence of design models. European Review, 25(2), 194-207. https://doi:10.1017/S1062798716000557
[5] Hinchman, T. (2021). Captioned: Do Constraints Impact Millennial Preservice Teachers' Creativity?. In Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 1010-1020).
[6] Littauer, F. (2007). Personality plus. Monarch Books.
[7] Onarheim, B. (2012). Creativity from constraints in engineering design: Lessons learned at Coloplast. Journal of Engineering Design, 23(4), 323-336. https://doi:10.1080/09544828.2011.631904
[8] Oslin, J. L., Mitchell, S. A., & Griffin, L. L. (1998). The Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI): Development and Preliminary Validation, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 17(2), 231-243.
[9] Roskes, M. (2015). Constraints that help or hinder creative performance: A motivational approach. Creativity & Innovation Management, 24(2), 197-206. https://doi:10.1111/caim.12086
[10] Rosso, B. D. (2014). Creativity and constraints: Exploring the role of constraints in the creative processes of research and development teams
[11] Stokes, P. D. (1999). Learned variability levels: Implications for creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 12(1), 37-45. https://doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1201_5
[12] Stokes, P. D. (2006). Creativity From constraints: The psychology of breakthrough. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
[13] Stokes, P. D. (2007). Using constraints to generate and sustain novelty. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 1(2), 107-113.
[14] Stokes, P. D. (2008). Creativity from constraints: What can we learn from Motherwell? from Modrian? from Klee? Journal of Creative Behavior, 42(4), 223-236. https://doi:10.1002/j.2162-6057.2008.tb01297.x
[15] Stokes, P. D. (2009). Using constraints to create novelty: A case study. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 3(3), 174-180. https://doi:10.1037/a0014970
[16] Stokes, P. D. (2010). Using constraints to develop creativity in the classroom. In R. A. Beghetto, J. C. Kaufman, R. A. Beghetto, J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), Nurturing Creativity in the Classroom, 88-112. New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press.
[17] Stokes, P. D. (2013). The effects of constraints in a mathematics classroom. Journal of Mathematics Education at Teachers College, 4(2), 25-31.
[18] Stokes, P. D. (2014). Thinking inside the box: Creativity, constraints, and the colossal portraits of Chuck Close. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 48(4), 276-289. doi:10.1002/jocb.52
[19] Torrents-Martin, C., Ric, A., & Hristovski, R. (2015). Creativity and emergence of specific dance movements using instructional constraints. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 9(1), 65-74. doi:10.1037/a0038706
[20] Weinbaum, C., Girven, R., & Oberholtzer, J. (2016). The millennial generation: Implications for the intelligence and policy communities. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, National Defense Research Institute.