Search results for: Detecting of Envelope Modulation on Noise.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1499

Search results for: Detecting of Envelope Modulation on Noise.

1499 Vibroacoustic Modulation of Wideband Vibrations and Its Possible Application for Windmill Blade Diagnostics

Authors: Abdullah Alnutayfat, Alexander Sutin, Dong Liu

Abstract:

Wind turbine has become one of the most popular energy production methods. However, failure of blades and maintenance costs evolve into significant issues in the wind power industry, so it is essential to detect the initial blade defects to avoid the collapse of the blades and structure. This paper aims to apply modulation of high-frequency blade vibrations by low-frequency blade rotation, which is close to the known Vibro-Acoustic Modulation (VAM) method. The high-frequency wideband blade vibration is produced by the interaction of the surface blades with the environment air turbulence, and the low-frequency modulation is produced by alternating bending stress due to gravity. The low-frequency load of rotational wind turbine blades ranges between 0.2-0.4 Hz and can reach up to 2 Hz for strong wind. The main difference between this study and previous ones on VAM methods is the use of a wideband vibration signal from the blade's natural vibrations. Different features of the VAM are considered using a simple model of breathing crack. This model considers the simple mechanical oscillator, where the parameters of the oscillator are varied due to low-frequency blade rotation. During the blade's operation, the internal stress caused by the weight of the blade modifies the crack's elasticity and damping. The laboratory experiment using steel samples demonstrates the possibility of VAM using a probe wideband noise signal. A cycle load with a small amplitude was used as a pump wave to damage the tested sample, and a small transducer generated a wideband probe wave. The received signal demodulation was conducted using the Detecting of Envelope Modulation on Noise (DEMON) approach. In addition, the experimental results were compared with the modulation index (MI) technique regarding the harmonic pump wave. The wideband and traditional VAM methods demonstrated similar sensitivity for earlier detection of invisible cracks. Importantly, employing a wideband probe signal with the DEMON approach speeds up and simplifies testing since it eliminates the need to conduct tests repeatedly for various harmonic probe frequencies and to adjust the probe frequency.

Keywords: Damage detection, turbine blades, Vibro-Acoustic Structural Health Monitoring, SHM, Detecting of Envelope Modulation on Noise.

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1498 Novel Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation with Least Correlated Noise

Authors: Shiang-Hwua Yu, Han-Sheng Tseng

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel sinusoidal modulation scheme that features least correlated noise and high linearity. The modulation circuit, which is composed of a quantizer, a resonator, and a comparator, is capable of eliminating correlated modulation noise while doing modulation. The proposed modulation scheme combined with the linear quadratic optimal control is applied to a single-phase voltage source inverter and validated with the experiment results. The experiments show that the inverter supplies stable 60Hz 110V AC power with a total harmonic distortion of less than 1%, under the DC input variation from 190 V to 300 V and the output power variation from 0 to 600 W.

Keywords: Pulse width modulation, feedback dithering, linear quadratic control, inverter.

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1497 A Methodological Approach for Detecting Burst Noise in the Time Domain

Authors: Liu Dan, Wang Xue, Wang Guiqin, Qian Zhihong

Abstract:

The burst noise is a kind of noises that are destructive and frequently found in semiconductor devices and ICs, yet detecting and removing the noise has proved challenging for IC designers or users. According to the properties of burst noise, a methodological approach is presented (proposed) in the paper, by which the burst noise can be analysed and detected in time domain. In this paper, principles and properties of burst noise are expounded first, Afterwards, feasibility (viable) of burst noise detection by means of wavelet transform in the time domain is corroborated in the paper, and the multi-resolution characters of Gaussian noise, burst noise and blurred burst noise are discussed in details by computer emulation. Furthermore, the practical method to decide parameters of wavelet transform is acquired through a great deal of experiment and data statistics. The methodology may yield an expectation in a wide variety of applications.

Keywords: Burst noise, detection, wavelet transform

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1496 Modelling of Electron States in Quantum -Wire Systems - Influence of Stochastic Effects on the Confining Potential

Authors: Mikhail Vladimirovich Deryabin, Morten Willatzen

Abstract:

In this work, we address theoretically the influence of red and white Gaussian noise for electronic energies and eigenstates of cylindrically shaped quantum dots. The stochastic effect can be imagined as resulting from crystal-growth statistical fluctuations in the quantum-dot material composition. In particular we obtain analytical expressions for the eigenvalue shifts and electronic envelope functions in the k . p formalism due to stochastic variations in the confining band-edge potential. It is shown that white noise in the band-edge potential leaves electronic properties almost unaffected while red noise may lead to changes in state energies and envelopefunction amplitudes of several percentages. In the latter case, the ensemble-averaged envelope function decays as a function of distance. It is also shown that, in a stochastic system, constant ensembleaveraged envelope functions are the only bounded solutions for the infinite quantum-wire problem and the energy spectrum is completely discrete. In other words, the infinite stochastic quantum wire behaves, ensemble-averaged, as an atom.

Keywords: cylindrical quantum dots, electronic eigen energies, red and white Gaussian noise, ensemble averaging effects.

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1495 Synchronization Technique for Random Switching Frequency Pulse-Width Modulation

Authors: Apinan Aurasopon, Worawat Sa-ngiavibool

Abstract:

This paper proposes a synchronized random switching frequency pulse width modulation (SRSFPWM). In this technique, the clock signal is used to control the random noise frequency which is produced by the feedback voltage of a hysteresis circuit. These make the triangular carrier frequency equaling to the random noise frequency in each switching period with the symmetrical positive and negative slopes of triangular carrier. Therefore, there is no error voltage in PWM signal. The PSpice simulated results shown the proposed technique improved the performance in case of low frequency harmonics of PWM signal comparing with conventional random switching frequency PWM.

Keywords: Random switching frequency pulse - width modulation.

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1494 Rolling Element Bearing Diagnosis by Improved Envelope Spectrum: Optimal Frequency Band Selection

Authors: Juan David Arango, Alejandro Restrepo-Martinez

Abstract:

The Rolling Element Bearing (REB) vibration diagnosis is worth of special interest by the variety of REB and the wide necessity of those elements in industrial applications. The presence of a localized fault in a REB gives rise to a vibrational response, characterized by the modulation of a carrier signal. Frequency content of carrier signal (Spectral Frequency –f) is mainly related to resonance frequencies of the REB. This carrier signal is modulated by another signal, governed by the periodicity of the fault impact (Cyclic Frequency –α). In this sense, REB fault vibration response gives rise to a second-order cyclostationary signal. Second order cyclostationary signals could be represented in a bi-spectral map, where Spectral Coherence –SCoh are plotted against f and α. The Improved Envelope Spectrum –IES, is a useful approach to execute REB fault diagnosis. IES could be applied by the integration of SCoh over a predefined bandwidth on the f axis. Approaches to select f-bandwidth have been recently exposed by the definition of a metric which intends to evaluate the magnitude of the IES at the fault characteristics frequencies. This metric is represented in a 1/3-binary tree as a function of the frequency bandwidth and centre. Based on this binary tree the optimal frequency band is selected. However, some advantages have been seen if the metric is changed, which in fact tends to dictate different optimal f-bandwidth and so improve the IES representation. This paper evaluates the behaviour of the IES from a different metric optimization. This metric is based on the sample correlation coefficient, detecting high peaks in the selected frequencies while penalizing high peaks in the neighbours of the selected frequencies. Prior results indicate an improvement on the signal-noise ratio (SNR) on around 86% of samples analysed, which belong to IMS database.

Keywords: Sample Correlation IESFOgram, cyclostationary analysis, improved envelope spectrum, IES, rolling element bearing diagnosis, spectral coherence.

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1493 Phase Noise Impact on BER in Space Communication

Authors: Ondrej Baran, Miroslav Kasal, Petr Vagner, Tomas Urbanec

Abstract:

This paper deals with the modeling and the evaluation of a multiplicative phase noise influence on the bit error ratio in a general space communication system. Our research is focused on systems with multi-state phase shift keying modulation techniques and it turns out, that the phase noise significantly affects the bit error rate, especially for higher signal to noise ratios. These results come from a system model created in Matlab environment and are shown in a form of constellation diagrams and bit error rate dependencies. The change of a user data bit rate is also considered and included into simulation results. Obtained outcomes confirm theoretical presumptions.

Keywords: Additive thermal noise, AWGN, BER, bit error rate, multiplicative phase noise, phase shift keying.

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1492 Broadband Baseband Impedance Control for Linearity Enhancement in Microwave Devices

Authors: Muhammad Akmal Chaudhary

Abstract:

The out-of-band impedance environment is considered to be of paramount importance in engineering the in-band impedance environment. Presenting the frequency independent and constant outof- band impedances across the wide modulation bandwidth is extremely important for reliable device characterization for future wireless systems. This paper presents an out-of-band impedance optimization scheme based on simultaneous engineering of significant baseband components IF1 (twice the modulation frequency) and IF2 (four times the modulation frequency) and higher baseband components such as IF3 (six times the modulation frequency) and IF4 (eight times the modulation frequency) to engineer the in-band impedance environment. The investigations were carried out on a 10W GaN HEMT device driven to deliver a peak envelope power of approximately 40.5dBm under modulated excitation. The presentation of frequency independent baseband impedances to all the significant baseband components whilst maintaining the optimum termination for fundamental tones as well as reactive termination for 2nd harmonic under class-J mode of operation has outlined separate optimum impedances for best intermodulation (IM) linearity.

Keywords: Active load-pull, baseband, device characterisation, waveform measurements.

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1491 Average Switching Thresholds and Average Throughput for Adaptive Modulation using Markov Model

Authors: Essam S. Altubaishi

Abstract:

The motivation for adaptive modulation and coding is to adjust the method of transmission to ensure that the maximum efficiency is achieved over the link at all times. The receiver estimates the channel quality and reports it back to the transmitter. The transmitter then maps the reported quality into a link mode. This mapping however, is not a one-to-one mapping. In this paper we investigate a method for selecting the proper modulation scheme. This method can dynamically adapt the mapping of the Signal-to- Noise Ratio (SNR) into a link mode. It enables the use of the right modulation scheme irrespective of changes in the channel conditions by incorporating errors in the received data. We propose a Markov model for this method, and use it to derive the average switching thresholds and the average throughput. We show that the average throughput of this method outperforms the conventional threshold method.

Keywords: Adaptive modulation and coding, CDMA, Markov model.

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1490 Channel Estimation/Equalization with Adaptive Modulation and Coding over Multipath Faded Channels for WiMAX

Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi

Abstract:

Different order modulations combined with different coding schemes, allow sending more bits per symbol, thus achieving higher throughputs and better spectral efficiencies. However, it must also be noted that when using a modulation technique such as 64- QAM with less overhead bits, better signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are needed to overcome any Inter symbol Interference (ISI) and maintain a certain bit error ratio (BER). The use of adaptive modulation allows wireless technologies to yielding higher throughputs while also covering long distances. The aim of this paper is to implement an Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) features of the WiMAX PHY in MATLAB and to analyze the performance of the system in different channel conditions (AWGN, Rayleigh and Rician fading channel) with channel estimation and blind equalization. Simulation results have demonstrated that the increment in modulation order causes to increment in throughput and BER values. These results derived a trade-off among modulation order, FFT length, throughput, BER value and spectral efficiency. The BER changes gradually for AWGN channel and arbitrarily for Rayleigh and Rician fade channels.

Keywords: AMC, CSI, CMA, OFDM, OFDMA, WiMAX.

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1489 Optimization of Bit Error Rate and Power of Ad-hoc Networks Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Anjana Choudhary

Abstract:

The ad hoc networks are the future of wireless technology as everyone wants fast and accurate error free information so keeping this in mind Bit Error Rate (BER) and power is optimized in this research paper by using the Genetic Algorithm (GA). The digital modulation techniques used for this paper are Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK), M-ary Phase Shift Keying (M-ary PSK), and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). This work is implemented on Wireless Ad Hoc Networks (WLAN). Then it is analyze which modulation technique is performing well to optimize the BER and power of WLAN.

Keywords: Bit Error Rate, Genetic Algorithm, Power, Phase Shift Keying, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, Signal to Noise Ratio, Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

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1488 Determining of Threshold Levels of Burst by Burst AQAM/CDMA in Slow Rayleigh Fading Environments

Authors: F. Nejadebrahimi, M. ArdebiliPour

Abstract:

In this paper, we are going to determine the threshold levels of adaptive modulation in a burst by burst CDMA system by a suboptimum method so that the above method attempts to increase the average bit per symbol (BPS) rate of transceiver system by switching between the different modulation modes in variable channel condition. In this method, we choose the minimum values of average bit error rate (BER) and maximum values of average BPS on different values of average channel signal to noise ratio (SNR) and then calculate the relative threshold levels of them, so that when the instantaneous SNR increases, a higher order modulation be employed for increasing throughput and vise-versa when the instantaneous SNR decreases, a lower order modulation be employed for improvement of BER. In transmission step, by this adaptive modulation method, in according to comparison between obtained estimation of pilot symbols and a set of above suboptimum threshold levels, above system chooses one of states no transmission, BPSK, 4QAM and square 16QAM for modulation of data. The expected channel in this paper is a slow Rayleigh fading.

Keywords: AQAM, burst, BER, BPS, CDMA, threshold.

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1487 A novel Iterative Approach for Phase Noise Cancellation in Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) Systems

Authors: Joumana Farah, François Marx, Clovis Francis

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to emphasize and alleviate the effect of phase noise due to imperfect local oscillators on the performances of a Multi-Carrier CDMA system. After the cancellation of Common Phase Error (CPE), an iterative approach is introduced which iteratively estimates Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI) components in the frequency domain and cancels their contribution in the time domain. Simulation are conducted in order to investigate the achievable performances for several parameters, such as the spreading factor, the modulation order, the phase noise power and the transmission Signal-to-Noise Ratio.

Keywords: Inter-carrier Interference, Multi-Carrier Code DivisionMultiple Access, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, Phase noise.

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1486 Enhanced Spectral Envelope Coding Based On NLMS for G.729.1

Authors: Keunseok Cho, Sangbae Jeong, Hyungwook Chang, Minsoo Hahn

Abstract:

In this paper, a new encoding algorithm of spectral envelope based on NLMS in G.729.1 for VoIP is proposed. In the TDAC part of G.729.1, the spectral envelope and MDCT coefficients extracted in the weighted CELP coding error (lower-band) and the higher-band input signal are encoded. In order to reduce allocation bits for spectral envelope coding, a new quantization algorithm based on NLMS is proposed. Also, reduced bits are used to enhance sound quality. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by sound quality and bit reduction rates in clean and frame loss conditions.

Keywords: G.729.1, MDCT coefficient, NLMS, spectral envelope.

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1485 A Low Cost and High Quality Duty-Cycle Modulation Scheme and Applications

Authors: B. Lonla Moffo, J. Mbihi, L. Nneme Nneme

Abstract:

In this paper, a low cost duty-cycle modulation scheme is studied in depth and compared to the standard pulse width modulation technique. Using a mix of analytical reasoning and electronics simulation tools, it is shown that under the same operating conditions, most characteristics of the proposed duty-cycle modulation scheme are better than those provided by a standard pulse width modulation technique. The simulation results obtained when testing both modulation control policies on prototyping systems, indicate that the proposed duty-cycle modulation approach, appears to be a high quality control policy in a wide variety of application areas, including A/D and D/A conversion, signal transmission and switching control in power electronics.

Keywords: Duty-cycle Modulation, Operational amplifiers, Pulse width modulation, Power electronics, Signal processing.

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1484 Level Shifted Carrier Signal Based Scalar Random Pulse Width Modulation Algorithms for Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive

Authors: M. Nayeemuddin, T. Bramhananda Reddy, M. Vijaya Kumar

Abstract:

Acoustic noise becoming ever more obnoxious radiated by voltage source inverter fed induction motor drive in modern and industrial applications. The drive utilized for industrial and modern applications should use “spread spectrum” innovation known as Random pulse width modulation (PWM) algorithms where acoustic noise emanates through the machine should be critically concerned. This paper illustrates three types of random PWM control algorithms with fixed switching frequency namely 1) Random modulating PWM 2) Random carrier PWM and 3) Random modulating-carrier PWM. The spectrum plots of the motor stator current demonstrate the strength and robustness of the proposed PWM algorithms. To affirm the proposed algorithms, experimental tests have been conducted using dSPACE rt1104 control board on a v/f control three phase induction motor drive fed by DC link cascaded multilevel inverter.

Keywords: Multilevel inverter, acoustic noise, CSVPWM, total harmonic distortion, random PWM algorithm.

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1483 Acoustic Noise Reduction in Single Phase SRM Drives by Random Switching Technique

Authors: Minh-Khai Nguyen, Young-Gook Jung, Young-Cheol Lim

Abstract:

It is known that if harmonic spectra are decreased, then acoustic noise also decreased. Hence, this paper deals with a new random switching strategy using DSP TMS320F2812 to decrease the harmonics spectra of single phase switched reluctance motor. The proposed method which combines random turn-on, turn-off angle technique and random pulse width modulation technique is shown. A harmonic spread factor (HSF) is used to evaluate the random modulation scheme. In order to confirm the effectiveness of the new method, the experimental results show that the harmonic intensity of output voltage for the proposed method is better than that for conventional methods.

Keywords: Single phase switched reluctance motor (SRM), harmonic spread factor (HSF), random switching technique.

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1482 A Paradigm for Characterization and Checking of a Human Noise Behavior

Authors: Himanshu Dehra

Abstract:

This paper presents a paradigm for characterization and checking of human noise behavior. The definitions of ‘Noise’ and ‘Noise Behavior’ are devised. The concept of characterization and examining of Noise Behavior is obtained from the proposed paradigm of Psychoacoustics. The measurement of human noise behavior is discussed through definitions of noise sources and noise measurements. The noise sources, noise measurement equations and noise filters are further illustrated through examples. The theory and significance of solar energy acoustics is presented for life and its activities. Human comfort and health are correlated with human brain through physiological responses and noise protection. Examples of heat stress, intense heat, sweating and evaporation are also enumerated.

Keywords: Human brain, noise behavior, noise characterization, noise filters, physiological responses, psychoacoustics.

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1481 Performance of Coded Multi-Line Copper Wire for G.fast Communications in the Presence of Impulsive Noise

Authors: Israa Al-Neami, Ali J. Al-Askery, Martin Johnston, Charalampos Tsimenidis

Abstract:

In this paper, we focus on the design of a multi-line copper wire (MLCW) communication system. First, we construct our proposed MLCW channel and verify its characteristics based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In addition, we apply Middleton class A impulsive noise (IN) to the copper channel for further investigation. Second, the MIMO G.fast system is adopted utilizing the proposed MLCW channel model and is compared to a single line G-fast system. Second, the performance of the coded system is obtained utilizing concatenated interleaved Reed-Solomon (RS) code with four-dimensional trellis-coded modulation (4D TCM), and compared to the single line G-fast system. Simulations are obtained for high quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations that are commonly used with G-fast communications, the results demonstrate that the bit error rate (BER) performance of the coded MLCW system shows an improvement compared to the single line G-fast systems.

Keywords: G.fast, Middleton Class A impulsive noise, mitigation techniques, copper channel Model.

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1480 Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Noise-Reduction Transformer

Authors: Toshiaki Yanada, Kazumi Ishikawa

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the analysis and development of noise-reduction transformer that has a filter function for conductive noise transmission. Two types of prototype noise-reduction transformers with two different output voltages are proposed. To determine an optimum design for the noise-reduction transformer, noise attenuation characteristics are discussed based on the experiments and the equivalent circuit analysis. The analysis gives a relation between the circuit parameters and the noise attenuation. High performance step-down noise-reduction transformer for direct power supply to electronics equipment is developed. The input voltage of the transformer is 100 V and the output voltage is 5 V. Frequency characteristics of noise attenuation are discussed, and prevention of pulse noise transmission is demonstrated. Normal mode noise attenuation of this transformer is –80 dB, and common mode exceeds –90 dB. The step-down noise-reduction transformer eliminates pulse noise efficiently.

Keywords: conductive noise, EMC, EMI, noise attenuation, transformer.

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1479 Least Square-SVM Detector for Wireless BPSK in Multi-Environmental Noise

Authors: J. P. Dubois, Omar M. Abdul-Latif

Abstract:

Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a statistical learning tool developed to a more complex concept of structural risk minimization (SRM). In this paper, SVM is applied to signal detection in communication systems in the presence of channel noise in various environments in the form of Rayleigh fading, additive white Gaussian background noise (AWGN), and interference noise generalized as additive color Gaussian noise (ACGN). The structure and performance of SVM in terms of the bit error rate (BER) metric is derived and simulated for these advanced stochastic noise models and the computational complexity of the implementation, in terms of average computational time per bit, is also presented. The performance of SVM is then compared to conventional binary signaling optimal model-based detector driven by binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. We show that the SVM performance is superior to that of conventional matched filter-, innovation filter-, and Wiener filter-driven detectors, even in the presence of random Doppler carrier deviation, especially for low SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) ranges. For large SNR, the performance of the SVM was similar to that of the classical detectors. However, the convergence between SVM and maximum likelihood detection occurred at a higher SNR as the noise environment became more hostile.

Keywords: Colour noise, Doppler shift, innovation filter, least square-support vector machine, matched filter, Rayleigh fading, Wiener filter.

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1478 Power Transformer Noise, Noise Tests, and Example Test Results

Authors: E. Doğan, B. Kekezoğlu

Abstract:

Voltage level must be raised in order to deliver the produced energy to the consumption zones with less loss and less cost. Power transformers used to raise or lower voltage are important parts of the energy transmission system. Power transformers used in switchgear and power generation plants stay in human's intensive habitat zones as a result of expanding cities. Accordingly, noise levels produced by power transformers have begun more and more important and they have established itself as one of the research field. In this research, the noise cause on transformers has been investigated, it's causes has been examined and noise measurement techniques have been introduced. Examples of transformer noise test results are submitted and precautions to be taken were discussed for the purpose of decreasing of the noise which will occurred by transformers.

Keywords: Power transformer, noise measurement, core noise, load noise, fan-pump noise.

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1477 Modern Vibration Signal Processing Techniques for Vehicle Gearbox Fault Diagnosis

Authors: Mohamed El Morsy, Gabriela Achtenová

Abstract:

This paper presents modern vibration signalprocessing techniques for vehicle gearbox fault diagnosis, via the wavelet analysis and the Squared Envelope (SE) technique. The wavelet analysis is regarded as a powerful tool for the detection of sudden changes in non-stationary signals. The Squared Envelope (SE) technique has been extensively used for rolling bearing diagnostics. In the present work a scheme of using the Squared Envelope technique for early detection of gear tooth pit. The pitting defect is manufactured on the tooth side of a fifth speed gear on the intermediate shaft of a vehicle gearbox. The objective is to supplement the current techniques of gearbox fault diagnosis based on using the raw vibration and ordered signals. The test stand is equipped with three dynamometers; the input dynamometer serves as the internal combustion engine, the output dynamometers introduce the load on the flanges of output joint shafts. The gearbox used for experimental measurements is the type most commonly used in modern small to mid-sized passenger cars with transversely mounted powertrain and front wheel drive; a five-speed gearbox with final drive gear and front wheel differential. The results show that the approaches methods are effective for detecting and diagnosing localized gear faults in early stage under different operation conditions, and are more sensitive and robust than current gear diagnostic techniques.

Keywords: Wavelet analysis, Squared Envelope, gear faults.

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1476 Minimization of Switching Losses in Cascaded Multilevel Inverters Using Efficient Sequential Switching Hybrid-Modulation Techniques

Authors: P. Satish Kumar, K. Ramakrishna, Ch. Lokeshwar Reddy, G. Sridhar

Abstract:

This paper presents two different sequential switching hybrid-modulation strategies and implemented for cascaded multilevel inverters. Hybrid modulation strategies represent the combinations of Fundamental-frequency pulse width modulation (FFPWM) and Multilevel sinusoidal-modulation (MSPWM) strategies, and are designed for performance of the well-known Alternative Phase opposition disposition (APOD), Phase shifted carrier (PSC). The main characteristics of these modulations are the reduction of switching losses with good harmonic performance, balanced power loss dissipation among the devices with in a cell, and among the series-connected cells. The feasibility of these modulations is verified through spectral analysis, power loss analysis and simulation.

Keywords: Cascaded multilevel inverters, hybrid modulation, power loss analysis, pulse width modulation.

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1475 An Experimental Helicopter Wind Envelope for Ship Operations

Authors: R. Bardera Mora

Abstract:

Launch and recovery helicopter wind envelope for a ship type was determined as the first step to the helicopter qualification program. Flight deck velocities data were obtained by means of a two components laser Doppler anemometer testing a 1/50th model in the wind tunnel stream. Full-scale flight deck measurements were obtained on board the ship using a sonic anemometer. Wind tunnel and full-scale measurements were compared, showing good agreement and finally, a preliminary launch and recovery helicopter wind envelope for this specific ship was built.

Keywords: Flight deck flow, relative wind, ship airwake, wind envelope

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1474 Experimental Demonstration of an Ultra-Low Power Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser for Optical Power Generation

Authors: S. Nazhan, Hassan K. Al-Musawi, Khalid A. Humood

Abstract:

This paper reports on an experimental investigation into the influence of current modulation on the properties of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a direct square wave modulation. The optical output power response, as a function of the pumping current, modulation frequency, and amplitude, is measured for an 850 nm VCSEL. We demonstrate that modulation frequency and amplitude play important roles in reducing the VCSEL’s power consumption for optical generation. Indeed, even when the biasing current is below the static threshold, the VCSEL emits optical power under the square wave modulation. The power consumed by the device to generate light is significantly reduced to > 50%, which is below the threshold current, in response to both the modulation frequency and amplitude. An operating VCSEL device at low power is very desirable for less thermal effects, which are essential for a high-speed modulation bandwidth.

Keywords: VCSELs, optical power generation, power consumption, square wave modulation.

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1473 New Approach in Diagnostics Method for Milling Process using Envelope Analysis

Authors: C. Bisu, M. Zapciu, A. Gérard

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method to vibration analysis in order to on-line monitoring and predictive maintenance during the milling process. Adapting envelope method to diagnostics and the analysis for milling tool materials is an important contribution to the qualitative and quantitative characterization of milling capacity and a step by modeling the three-dimensional cutting process. An experimental protocol was designed and developed for the acquisition, processing and analyzing three-dimensional signal. The vibration envelope analysis is proposed to detect the cutting capacity of the tool with the optimization application of cutting parameters. The research is focused on Hilbert transform optimization to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the machine/ tool/workpiece.

Keywords: diagnostics, envelope, milling, vibration

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1472 Frequency Modulation in Vibro-Acoustic Modulation Method

Authors: D. Liu, D. M. Donskoy

Abstract:

The vibroacoustic modulation method is based on the modulation effect of high-frequency ultrasonic wave (carrier) by low-frequency vibration in the presence of various defects, primarily contact-type such as cracks, delamination, etc. The presence and severity of the defect are measured by the ratio of the spectral sidebands and the carrier in the spectrum of the modulated signal. This approach, however, does not differentiate between amplitude and frequency modulations, AM and FM, respectfully. This paper is an attempt to explain the generation mechanisms of FM and its correlation with the flaw properties. Here we proposed two possible mechanisms leading to FM modulation based on nonlinear local defect resonance and dynamic acoustoelastic models.

Keywords: Non-destructive testing, nonlinear acoustics, structural health monitoring, acoustoelasticity, local defect resonance.

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1471 A Study of Dose Distribution and Image Quality under an Automatic Tube Current Modulation (ATCM) System for a Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT Scanner Using a New Design of Phantom

Authors: S. Sookpeng, C. J. Martin, D. J. Gentle

Abstract:

Automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) systems are available for all CT manufacturers and are used for the majority of patients. Understanding how the systems work and their influence on patient dose and image quality is important for CT users, in order to gain the most effective use of the systems. In the present study, a new phantom was used for evaluating dose distribution and image quality under the ATCM operation for the Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT scanner using different ATCM options and a fixed mAs technique. A routine chest, abdomen and pelvis (CAP) protocol was selected for study and Gafchromic film was used to measure entrance surface dose (ESD), peripheral dose and central axis dose in the phantom. The results show the dose reductions achievable with various ATCM options, in relation with the target noise. The doses and image noise distribution were more uniform when the ATCM system was implemented compared with the fixed mAs technique. The lower limit set for the tube current will affect the modulations especially for the lower dose option. This limit prevented the tube current being reduced further and therefore the lower dose ATCM setting resembled a fixed mAs technique. Selection of a lower tube current limit is likely to reduce doses for smaller patients in scans of chest and neck regions.

Keywords: Computed Tomography (CT), Automatic Tube Current Modulation (ATCM), Automatic Exposure Control (AEC).

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1470 Noise Optimization Techniques for 1V 1GHz CMOS Low-Noise Amplifiers Design

Authors: M. Zamin Khan, Yanjie Wang, R. Raut

Abstract:

A 1V, 1GHz low noise amplifier (LNA) has been designed and simulated using Spectre simulator in a standard TSMC 0.18um CMOS technology.With low power and noise optimization techniques, the amplifier provides a gain of 24 dB, a noise figure of only 1.2 dB, power dissipation of 14 mW from a 1 V power supply.

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