Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1728

Search results for: environmental degradation

1728 Effect of Different pH on Canthaxanthin Degradation

Authors: N. Seyedrazi, S. H. Razavi, Z. Emam-Djomeh

Abstract:

In this research, natural canthaxanthin as one of the most important carotenoids was extracted from Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1. The changes of canthaxanthin enriched in oilin- water emulsions with vegetable oil (5 mg/ 100 mL), Arabic gum (5 mg/100 mL), and potassium sorbate (0.5 g/100 mL) was investigated. The effects of different pH (3, 5 and 7), as well as, time treatment (3, 18 and 33 days) in the environmental temperature (24°C) on the degradation were studied by response surface methodology (RSM). The Hunter values (L*, a*, and b*) and the concentration of canthaxanthin (C, mg/L) illustrated more degradation of this pigment at low pHs (pH≤ 4) by passing the time (days≥10) with R² 97.00%, 91.31%, 97.60%, and 99.54% for C, L*, a*, and b* respectively. The predicted model were found to be significant (p<0.05).

Keywords: Degradation, Emulsion, Response SurfaceMethodology (RSM)

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1727 The Delaying Influence of Degradation on the Divestment of Gas Turbines for Associated Gas Utilisation: Part 1

Authors: Mafel Obhuo, Dodeye I. Igbong, Duabari S. Aziaka, Pericles Pilidis

Abstract:

An important feature of the exploitation of associated gas as fuel for gas turbine engines is a declining supply. So when exploiting this resource, the divestment of prime movers is very important as the fuel supply diminishes with time. This paper explores the influence of engine degradation on the timing of divestments. Hypothetical but realistic gas turbine engines were modelled with Turbomatch, the Cranfield University gas turbine performance simulation tool. The results were deployed in three degradation scenarios within the TERA (Techno-economic and environmental risk analysis) framework to develop economic models. An optimisation with Genetic Algorithms was carried out to maximize the economic benefit. The results show that degradation will have a significant impact. It will delay the divestment of power plants, while they are running less efficiently. Over a 20 year investment, a decrease of $0.11bn, $0.26bn and $0.45bn (billion US dollars) were observed for the three degradation scenarios as against the clean case.

Keywords: Economic return, flared associated gas, net present value, optimisation.

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1726 Weight Loss Degradation of Hybrid Blends LLDPE/Starch/PVA upon Exposure to UV Light and Soil Burial

Authors: M. Rahmah, Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz, M. Mohd Muizz Fahimi, M. Farhan

Abstract:

Poly bag and mulch films for agricultural field caused pose environmental problem due to the non-degradable plastics wastes upon disposal. Thus, a degradable poly bag was designed with hybrid sago starch (SS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Two Different blended compositions of SS and PVA hybrid have been compounded. Then, the hybrids blended are mixed with linear line density polyethylene (LLDPE) resin to fabricate poly bag film through conventional film blowing process. Samples of LLDPE, SS and PVA hybrid film were exposed to UV light and soil burial. The weight losses were determined during degradation process. Hybrid film by degradation of starch was found to hydrolyze and hydroxyl groups decrease on esterification upon exposure to soil burial and uv radiation. It was found out that, the hybrid film for 60% of SS composition showed greatest degradation in soil and UV radiation.

Keywords: LLDPE, PVA, sago starch, degradation, soil burial, UV radiation.

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1725 Photocatalytic and Sonophotocatalytic Degradation of Reactive Red 120 using Dye Sensitized TiO2 under Visible Light

Authors: S.K.Kavitha, P.N.Palanisamy

Abstract:

The accelerated sonophotocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red (RR) 120 dye under visible light using dye sensitized TiO2 activated by ultrasound has been carried out. The effect of sonolysis, photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis under visible light has been examined to study the influence on the degradation rates by varying the initial substrate concentration, pH and catalyst loading to ascertain the synergistic effect on the degradation techniques. Ultrasonic activation contributes degradation through cavitation leading to the splitting of H2O2 produced by both photocatalysis and sonolysis. This results in the formation of oxidative species, such as singlet oxygen (1O2) and superoxide (O2 -●) radicals in the presence of oxygen. The increase in the amount of reactive radical species which induce faster oxidation of the substrate and degradation of intermediates and also the deaggregation of the photocatalyst are responsible for the synergy observed under sonication. A comparative study of photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis using TiO2, Hombikat UV 100 and ZnO was also carried out.

Keywords: Photocatalysis, Reactive Red 120, Sonophotocatalysis, Sonolysis.

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1724 Rail Degradation Modelling Using ARMAX: A Case Study Applied to Melbourne Tram System

Authors: M. Karimpour, N. Elkhoury, L. Hitihamillage, S. Moridpour, R. Hesami

Abstract:

There is a necessity among rail transportation authorities for a superior understanding of the rail track degradation overtime and the factors influencing rail degradation. They need an accurate technique to identify the time when rail tracks fail or need maintenance. In turn, this will help to increase the level of safety and comfort of the passengers and the vehicles as well as improve the cost effectiveness of maintenance activities. An accurate model can play a key role in prediction of the long-term behaviour of railroad tracks. An accurate model can decrease the cost of maintenance. In this research, the rail track degradation is predicted using an autoregressive moving average with exogenous input (ARMAX). An ARMAX has been implemented on Melbourne tram data to estimate the values for the tram track degradation. Gauge values and rail usage in Million Gross Tone (MGT) are the main parameters used in the model. The developed model can accurately predict the future status of the tram tracks.

Keywords: ARMAX, Dynamic systems, MGT, Prediction, Rail degradation.

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1723 Kinetic Study of Thermal Degradation of a Lignin Nanoparticle-Reinforced Phenolic Foam

Authors: Juan C. Domínguez, Belén Del Saz-Orozco, María V. Alonso, Mercedes Oliet, Francisco Rodríguez

Abstract:

In the present study, the kinetics of thermal degradation of a phenolic and lignin reinforced phenolic foams, and the lignin used as reinforcement were studied and the activation energies of their degradation processes were obtained by a DAEM model. The average values for five heating rates of the mean activation energies obtained were: 99.1, 128.2, and 144.0 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam; 109.5, 113.3, and 153.0 kJ.mol-1 for the lignin reinforcement; and 82.1, 106.9, and 124.4 kJ.mol-1 for the lignin reinforced phenolic foam. The standard deviation ranges calculated for each sample were 1.27-8.85, 2.22-12.82, and 3.17-8.11 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, lignin and the reinforced foam, respectively. The DAEM model showed low mean square errors (<1x10-5), proving that is a suitable model to study the kinetics of thermal degradation of the foams and the reinforcement.

Keywords: Kinetics, lignin, phenolic foam, thermal degradation.

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1722 Degradation in Organic Light Emitting Diodes

Authors: Saba Zare Zardareh, Farhad Akbari Boroumand

Abstract:

The objective is to fabricate organic light emitting diode and to study its degradation process in atmosphere condition in which PFO as an emitting material and PEDOT:PSS as a hole injecting material were used on ITO substrate. Thus degradation process of the OLED was studied upon its current-voltage characteristic. By fabricating this OLED and obtaining blue light and analysis of current-voltage characteristic during the time after fabrication, it was observed that the current of the OLED was exponentially decreased. Current reduction during the initial hours of fabrication was outstanding and after few days its reduction rate was dropped significantly, while the diode was dying.

Keywords: OLED, Degradation, Dark spot.

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1721 The Mechanistic and Oxidative Study of Methomyl and Parathion Degradation by Fenton Process

Authors: Chihhao Fan, Ming-Chu Liao

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the chemical degradation of the organophosphorus pesticide of parathion and carbamate insecticide of methomyl in the aqueous phase through Fenton process. With the employment of batch Fenton process, the degradation of the two selected pesticides at different pH, initial concentration, humic acid concentration, and Fenton reagent dosages was explored. The Fenton process was found effective to degrade parathion and methomyl. The optimal dosage of Fenton reagents (i.e., molar concentration ratio of H2O2 to Fe2+) at pH 7 for parathion degradation was equal to 3, which resulted in 50% removal of parathion. Similarly, the optimal dosage for methomyl degradation was 1, resulting in 80% removal of methomyl. This study also found that the presence of humic substances has enhanced pesticide degradation by Fenton process significantly. The mass spectroscopy results showed that the hydroxyl free radical may attack the single bonds with least energy of investigated pesticides to form smaller molecules which is more easily to degrade either through physio-chemical or bilolgical processes.

Keywords: Fenton Process, humic acid, methomyl, parathion, pesticides

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1720 Standard and Processing of Photodegradable Polyethylene

Authors: Nurul-Akidah M. Yusak, Rahmah Mohamed, Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz

Abstract:

The introduction of degradable plastic materials into agricultural sectors has represented a promising alternative to promote green agriculture and environmental friendly of modern farming practices. Major challenges of developing degradable agricultural films are to identify the most feasible types of degradation mechanisms, composition of degradable polymers and related processing techniques. The incorrect choice of degradable mechanisms to be applied during the degradation process will cause premature losses of mechanical performance and strength. In order to achieve controlled process of agricultural film degradation, the compositions of degradable agricultural film also important in order to stimulate degradation reaction at required interval of time and to achieve sustainability of the modern agricultural practices. A set of photodegradable polyethylene based agricultural film was developed and produced, following the selective optimization of processing parameters of the agricultural film manufacturing system. Example of agricultural films application for oil palm seedlings cultivation is presented.

Keywords: Photodegradable polyethylene, plasticulture, processing schemes.

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1719 The Use of Degradation Measures to Design Reliability Test Plans

Authors: Stephen V. Crowder, Jonathan W. Lane

Abstract:

With short production development times, there is an increased need to demonstrate product reliability relatively quickly with minimal testing. In such cases there may be few if any observed failures. Thus it may be difficult to assess reliability using the traditional reliability test plans that measure only time (or cycles) to failure. For many components, degradation measures will contain important information about performance and reliability. These measures can be used to design a minimal test plan, in terms of number of units placed on test and duration of the test, necessary to demonstrate a reliability goal. In this work we present a case study involving an electronic component subject to degradation. The data, consisting of 42 degradation paths of cycles to failure, are first used to estimate a reliability function. Bootstrapping techniques are then used to perform power studies and develop a minimal reliability test plan for future production of this component. 

Keywords: Degradation Measure, Time to Failure Distribution, Bootstrap.

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1718 Degradation Model of Optical Characteristics of Zno-Pigmented White Paint by Electron Radiation

Authors: Tian Hai, Yang Shengsheng, Jr., Wang Yi

Abstract:

Based on an analysis of the mechanism of degradation of optical characteristics of the ZnO-pigmented white paint by electron irradiation, a model of single molecular color centers is built. An equation that explains the relationship between the changes of variation of the ZnO-pigmented white paint-s spectrum absorptance and electron fluence is derived. The uncertain parameters in the equation can be calculated using the curve fitting by experimental data. The result indicates that the model can be applied to predict the degradation of optical characteristics of ZnO-pigmented white paint by electron radiation.

Keywords: ZnO-pigmented white pain, effects of electron radiation, optical characteristics degradation, prediction model.

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1717 Degradation of Endosulfan in Different Soils by Indigenous and Adapted Microorganisms

Authors: A. Özyer, N. G. Turan, Y. Ardalı

Abstract:

The environmental fate of organic contaminants in soils is influenced significantly by the pH, texture of soil, water content and also presence of organic matter. In this study, biodegradation of endosulfan isomers was studied in two different soils (Soil A and Soil B) that have contrasting properties in terms of their texture, pH, organic content, etc. Two Nocardia sp., which were isolated from soil, were used for degradation of endosulfan. Soils were contaminated with commercial endosulfan. Six sets were maintained from two different soils, contaminated with different endosulfan concentrations for degradation experiments. Inoculated and uninoculated mineral media with Nocardia isolates were added to the soils and mixed. Soils were incubated at a certain temperature (30 °C) during ten weeks. Residue endosulfan and its metabolites’ concentrations were determined weekly during the incubation period. The changes of the soil microorganisms were investigated weekly.

Keywords: Endosulfan, biodegradation, Nocardia sp., soil, organochlorine pesticide.

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1716 Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol in Aqueous Solutions Using Titanium Dioxide

Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm, Ahmed Tawfik

Abstract:

In this study, photocatalytic degradation of phenol by  titanium dioxide (TiO2) in aqueous solution was evaluated. The UV  energy of solar light was utilized by compound parabolic collectors  (CPCs) technology. The effect of irradiation time, initial pH, and  dosage of TiO2 were investigated. Aromatic intermediates (catechol,  benzoquinone, and hydroquinone) were quantified during the reaction  to study the pathways of the oxidation process. 94.5% degradation  efficiency of phenol was achieved after 150 minutes of irradiation  when the initial concentration was 100 mg/L. The dosage of TiO2  significantly affected the degradation efficiency of phenol. The  observed optimum pH for the reaction was 5.2. Phenol photocatalytic  degradation fitted to the pseudo-first order kinetic according to  Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.

 

Keywords: Compound parabolic collectors, phenol, photocatalytic, titanium dioxide.

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1715 A Study of Classification Models to Predict Drill-Bit Breakage Using Degradation Signals

Authors: Bharatendra Rai

Abstract:

Cutting tools are widely used in manufacturing processes and drilling is the most commonly used machining process. Although drill-bits used in drilling may not be expensive, their breakage can cause damage to expensive work piece being drilled and at the same time has major impact on productivity. Predicting drill-bit breakage, therefore, is important in reducing cost and improving productivity. This study uses twenty features extracted from two degradation signals viz., thrust force and torque. The methodology used involves developing and comparing decision tree, random forest, and multinomial logistic regression models for classifying and predicting drill-bit breakage using degradation signals.

Keywords: Degradation signal, drill-bit breakage, random forest, multinomial logistic regression.

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1714 Degradability Studies of Photodegradable Plastic Film

Authors: Nurul, A.M.Y., Rahmah, M., Muhammad, A.

Abstract:

Polypropylene blended with natural oil and pigment additives has been studied. Different formulations for each compound were made into polybag used for cultivation of oil palm seedlings for strength and mechanical properties studies. One group of sample was exposed under normal sunlight to initiate degradation and another group of sample was placed under shaded area for five months. All samples were tested for tensile strength to determine the degradation effects. The tensile strength of directly exposed sunlight samples and shaded area showed up to 50% and 25% degradation respectively. However, similar reduction of Young’s modulus for all samples was found for both exposures. Structural investigations were done using FTIR to detect deformation. The natural additives that were used in the studies were all natural and environmental friendly

Keywords: Agriculture, mechanical strength, photodegradable polymer.

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1713 Magnesium Alloy: A Biomaterial for Development of Degradation Rate Controllable Esophageal Stent

Authors: Li Hong Chen, Wei Zhou, Chu Sing Lim, Eng Kiong Teo, Ngai Moh Law

Abstract:

Magnesium alloy has been widely investigated as biodegradable cardiovascular stent and bone implant. Its application for biodegradable esophageal stenting remains unexplored. This paper reports the biodegradation behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy in artificial saliva and various types of beverage in vitro. Results show that the magnesium ion release rate of AZ31 in artificial saliva for a stent (2cm diameter, 10cm length at 50% stent surface coverage) is 43 times lower than the daily allowance of human body magnesium intakes. The degradation rates of AZ31 in different beverages could also be significantly different. These results suggest that the esophagus in nature is a less aggressive chemical environment for degradation of magnesium alloys. The significant difference in degradation rates of AZ31 in different beverages opens new opportunities for development of degradation controllable esophageal stent through customizing ingested beverages.

Keywords: Biodegradable esophageal stent, beverages, magnesium alloy, saliva.

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1712 Influence of Hygro-Chemo-Mechanical Degradation on Performance of Concrete Gravity Dam

Authors: Kalyan Kumar Mandal, Damodar Maity

Abstract:

The degradation of concrete due to various hygrochemo- mechanical actions is inevitable for the structures particularly built to store water. Therefore, it is essential to determine the material properties of dam-like structures due to ageing to predict the behavior of such structures after a certain age. The degraded material properties are calculated by introducing isotropic degradation index. The predicted material properties are used to study the behavior of aged dam at different ages. The dam is modeled by finite elements and displacement and is considered as an unknown variable. The parametric study reveals that the displacement is quite larger for comparatively lower design life of the structure because the degradation of elastic properties depends on the design life of the dam. The stresses in dam cam be unexpectedly large at any age with in the design life. The outcomes of the present study indicate the importance of the consideration ageing effect of concrete exposed to water for the safe design of dam throughout its life time.

Keywords: Hygro-chemo-mechanical, isotropic degradation, finite element method, Koyna earthquake.

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1711 Synthesis and Study the Effect of HNTs on PVA/Chitosan Composite Material

Authors: Malek Ali

Abstract:

Composites materials of Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/Chitosan (CS) have been synthesized and characterized successfully. HNTs have been added to composites to enhance the mechanical and degradation properties by hydrogen bonding interactions, compatibility, and chemical crosslink between HNTs and PVA. PVA/CS/HNTs composites prepared with different concentration ratio. SEM micrographs of composites surface showed that more agglomeration with more chitosan ratio. Mechanical and degradation properties were characterized and the result indicates that Mechanical and degradation of 80%PVA/5%Chitosan/15%HNTs higher than the others PVA/CS/HNTs composites.

Keywords: PVA/Chitosan, Composites, PVA/CS/HNTs, HNTs.

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1710 Catalytic Activity of Aluminum Impregnated Catalysts for the Degradation of Waste Polystyrene

Authors: J. Shah, M. Rasul Jan, Adnan

Abstract:

The aluminum impregnated catalysts of Al-alumina (Al-Al2O3), Al-montmorillonite (Al-Mmn) and Al-activated charcoal (Al-AC) of various percent loadings were prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized by SEM, XRD and N2 adsorption/desorption (BET). The catalytic properties were investigated in the degradation of waste polystyrene (WPS). The results of catalytic degradation of Al metal, 20% Al-Al2O3, 5% Al-Mmn and 20% Al-AC were compared with each other for optimum conditions. Among the catalyst used 20% Al-Al2O3 was found the most effective catalyst. The BET surface area of 20% Al-Al2O3 determined was 70.2 m2/g. The SEM data revealed the catalyst with porous structure throughout the frame work with small nanosized crystallites. The yield of liquid products with 20% Al-Al2O3 (91.53 ± 2.27 wt%) was the same as compared to Al metal (91.20 ± 0.35 wt%) but the selectivity of hydrocarbons and yield of styrene monomer (56.32 wt%) was higher with 20% Al-Al2O3 catalyst.

 

Keywords: Impregnation, catalytic degradation, waste polystyrene, styrene.

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1709 Pseudo-Homogeneous Kinetic of Dilute-Acid Hydrolysis of Rice Husk for Ethanol Production: Effect of Sugar Degradation

Authors: Megawati, Wahyudi B. Sediawan, Hary Sulistyo, Muslikhin Hidayat

Abstract:

Rice husk is a lignocellulosic source that can be converted to ethanol. Three hundreds grams of rice husk was mixed with 1 L of 0.18 N sulfuric acid solutions then was heated in an autoclave. The reaction was expected to be at constant temperature (isothermal), but before that temperature was achieved, reaction has occurred. The first liquid sample was taken at temperature of 140 0C and repeated every 5 minute interval. So the data obtained are in the regions of non-isothermal and isothermal. It was observed that the degradation has significant effects on the ethanol production. The kinetic constants can be expressed by Arrhenius equation with the frequency factors for hydrolysis and sugar degradation of 1.58 x 105 1/min and 2.29 x 108 L/mole/min, respectively, while the activation energies are 64,350 J/mole and 76,571 J/mole. The highest ethanol concentration from fermentation is 1.13% v/v, attained at 220 0C.

Keywords: degradation, ethanol, hydrolysis, rice husk

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1708 Pseudo-Homogeneous Kinetic of Dilute-Acid Hydrolysis of Rice Huskfor Ethanol Production: Effect of Sugar Degradation

Authors: Megawati, Wahyudi B. Sediawan, Hary Sulistyo, Muslikhin Hidayat

Abstract:

Rice husk is a lignocellulosic source that can be converted to ethanol. Three hundreds grams of rice husk was mixed with 1 L of 0.18 N sulfuric acid solutions then was heated in an autoclave. The reaction was expected to be at constant temperature (isothermal), but before that temperature was achieved, reaction has occurred. The first liquid sample was taken at temperature of 140 0C and repeated every 5 minute interval. So the data obtained are in the regions of non-isothermal and isothermal. It was observed that the degradation has significant effects on the ethanol production. The kinetic constants can be expressed by Arrhenius equation with the frequency factors for hydrolysis and sugar degradation of 1.58 x 105 min-1 and 2.29 x 108 L/mole-min, respectively, while the activation energies are 64,350 J/mole and 76,571 J/mole. The highest ethanol concentration from fermentation is 1.13% v/v, attained at 220 0C.

Keywords: degradation, ethanol, hydrolysis, rice husk.

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1707 Recycling of Polymers in the Presence of Nanocatalysts: A Green Approach towards Sustainable Environment

Authors: Beena Sethi

Abstract:

This work involves the degradation of plastic waste in the presence of three different nanocatalysts. A thin film of LLDPE was formed with all three nanocatalysts separately in the solvent. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) analysis of polymers suggest that the presence of these catalysts lowers the degradation temperature and the change mechanism of degradation. Gas chromatographic analysis was carried out for two films. In gas chromatography (GC) analysis, it was found that degradation of pure polymer produces only 32% C3/C4 hydrocarbons and 67.6% C5/C9 hydrocarbons. In the presence of these catalysts, more than 80% of polymer by weight was converted into either liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons. Change in the mechanism of degradation of polymer was observed therefore more C3/C4 hydrocarbons along with valuable feedstock are produced. Adjustment of dose of nanocatalyst, use of nano-admixtures and recycling of catalyst can make this catalytic feedstock recycling method a good tool to get sustainable environment. The obtained products can be utilized as fuel or can be transformed into other useful products. In accordance with the principles of sustainable development, chemical recycling i.e. tertiary recycling of polymers along with the reuse (zero order recycling) of plastics can be the most appropriate and promising method in this direction. The tertiary recycling is attracting much attention from the viewpoint of the energy resource.

Keywords: Degradation, differential scanning calorimetry, feedstock recycling, gas chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis. DSC.

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1706 Ultrasonic Intensification of the Chemical Degradation of Methyl Violet: An Experimental Study

Authors: N. P. Dhanalakshmi, R. Nagarajan

Abstract:

The sonochemical decolorization and degradation of azo dye Methyl violet using Fenton-s reagent in the presence of a high-frequency acoustic field has been investigated. Dyeing and textile effluents are the major sources of azo dyes, and are most troublesome among industrial wastewaters, causing imbalance in the eco-system. The effect of various operating conditions (initial concentration of dye, liquid-phase temperature, ultrasonic power and frequency and process time) on sonochemical degradation was investigated. Conversion was found to increase with increase in initial concentration, temperature, power level and frequency. Both horntype and tank-type sonicators were used, at various power levels (250W, 400W and 500W) for frequencies ranging from 20 kHz - 1000 kHz. A 'Process Intensification' parameter PI, was defined to quantify the enhancement of the degradation reaction by ultrasound when compared to control (i.e., without ultrasound). The present work clearly demonstrates that a high-frequency ultrasonic bath can be used to achieve higher process throughput and energy efficiency at a larger scale of operation.

Keywords: Fenton oxidation, process intensification, sonochemical degradation of MV, ultrasonic frequency.

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1705 Environmental Accounting: A Conceptual Study of Indian Context

Authors: Pradip Kumar Das

Abstract:

As the entire world continues its rapid move towards industrialization, it has seriously threatened mankind’s ability to maintain an ecological balance. Geographical and natural forces have a significant influence on the location of industries. Industrialization is the foundation stone of the development of any country, while the unplanned industrialization and discharge of waste by industries is the cause of environmental pollution. There is growing degree of awareness and concern globally among nations about environmental degradation or pollution. Environmental resources endowed by the gift of nature and not manmade are invaluable natural resources of a country like India. Any developmental activity is directly related to natural and environmental resources. Economic development without environmental considerations brings about environmental crises and damages the quality of life of present, as well as future generation. As corporate sectors in the global market, especially in India, are becoming anxious about environmental degradation, naturally more and more emphasis will be ascribed to how environment-friendly the outcomes are. Maintaining accounts of such environmental and natural resources in the country has become more urgent. Moreover, international awareness and acceptance of the importance of environmental issues has motivated the development of a branch of accounting called “Environmental Accounting”. Environmental accounting attempts to detect and focus the resources consumed and the costs rendered by an industrial unit to the environment. For the sustainable development of mankind, a healthy environment is indispensable. Gradually, therefore, in many countries including India, environment matters are being given top most priority. Accounting and disclosure of environmental matters have been increasingly manifesting as an important dimension of corporate accounting and reporting practices. But, as conventional accounting deals with mainly non-living things, the formulation of valuation, and measurement and accounting techniques for incorporating environment-related matters in the corporate financial statement sometimes creates problems for the accountant. In the light of this situation, the conceptual analysis of the study is concerned with the rationale of environmental accounting on the economy and society as a whole, and focuses the failures of the traditional accounting system. A modest attempt has been made to throw light on the environmental awareness in developing nations like India and discuss the problems associated with the implementation of environmental accounting. The conceptual study also reflects that despite different anomalies, environmental accounting is becoming an increasing important aspect of the accounting agenda within the corporate sector in India. Lastly, a conclusion, along with recommendations, has been given to overcome the situation.

Keywords: Environmental accounting, environmental degradation, environmental management, environmental resources.

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1704 Spark Breakdown Voltage and Surface Degradation of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Electrode Surfaces

Authors: M. G. Rostedt, M. J. Hall, L. Shi, R. D. Matthews

Abstract:

Silicon substrates coated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were experimentally investigated to determine spark breakdown voltages relative to uncoated surfaces, the degree of surface degradation associated with the spark discharge, and techniques to minimize the surface degradation. The results may be applicable to instruments or processes that use MWCNT as a means of increasing local electric field strength and where spark breakdown is a possibility that might affect the devices’ performance or longevity. MWCNTs were shown to reduce the breakdown voltage of a 1mm gap in air by 30-50%. The relative decrease in breakdown voltage was maintained over gap distances of 0.5 to 2mm and gauge pressures of 0 to 4 bar. Degradation of the MWCNT coated surfaces was observed. Several techniques to improve durability were investigated. These included: chromium and gold-palladium coatings, tube annealing, and embedding clusters of MWCNT in a ceramic matrix.

Keywords: Ionization sensor, spark, nanotubes, electrode, breakdown.

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1703 A Partially Accelerated Life Test Planning with Competing Risks and Linear Degradation Path under Tampered Failure Rate Model

Authors: Fariba Azizi, Firoozeh Haghighi, Viliam Makis

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a method to model the relationship between failure time and degradation for a simple step stress test where underlying degradation path is linear and different causes of failure are possible. It is assumed that the intensity function depends only on the degradation value. No assumptions are made about the distribution of the failure times. A simple step-stress test is used to shorten failure time of products and a tampered failure rate (TFR) model is proposed to describe the effect of the changing stress on the intensities. We assume that some of the products that fail during the test have a cause of failure that is only known to belong to a certain subset of all possible failures. This case is known as masking. In the presence of masking, the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of the model parameters are obtained through an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm by treating the causes of failure as missing values. The effect of incomplete information on the estimation of parameters is studied through a Monte-Carlo simulation. Finally, a real example is analyzed to illustrate the application of the proposed methods.

Keywords: Expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, cause of failure, intensity, linear degradation path, masked data, reliability function.

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1702 Sustainable Urban Development of Slum Prone Area of Dhaka City

Authors: S. Ahmed Sinthia

Abstract:

Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, is one of the densely populated cities in the world. Due to rapid urbanization 60% of its population lives in slum and squatter settlements. The reason behind this poverty is low economic growth, inequitable distribution of income, unequal distribution of productive assets, unemployment and underemployment, high rate of population growth, low level of human resource development, natural disasters, and limited access to public services. Along with poverty, creating pressure on urban land, shelter, plots, open spaces this creates environmental and ecological degradation. These constraints are mostly resulted from the failures of the government policies and measures and only Government can solve this problem. This is now prime time to establish planning and environmental management policy and sustainable urban development for the city and for the urban slum dwellers which are free from eviction, criminals, rent seekers and other miscreants.

Keywords: Economic and resource constraints, environmental degradation and management, government policy, land management and policy, sustainable development.

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1701 Preparation of Fe, Cr Codoped TiO2 Nanostructure for Phenol Removal from Wastewaters

Authors: N. Nowzari-Dalini, S. Sabbaghi

Abstract:

Phenol is a hazardous material found in many industrial wastewaters. Photocatalytic degradation and furthermore catalyst doping are promising techniques in purpose of effective phenol removal, which have been studied comprehensively in this decade. In this study, Fe, Cr codoped TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method, and its photocatalytic activity was investigated through degradation of phenol under visible light. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, BET, and EDX. The results showed that nanoparticles possess anatase phase, and the average size of nanoparticles was about 21 nm. Also, photocatalyst has significant surface area. Effect of experimental parameters such as pH, irradiation time, pollutant concentration, and catalyst concentration were investigated by using Design-Expert® software. 98% of phenol degradation was achieved after 6h of irradiation.

Keywords: Wastewater, doping, metals, sol-gel, titanium dioxide.

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1700 Sustainable and Ecological Designs of the Built Environment

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Alexander Mudiwakure

Abstract:

This paper reviews designs of the built environment from a sustainability perspective, emphasizing their importance in achieving ecological and sustainable economic objectives. The built environment has traditionally resulted in loss of biodiversity, extinction of some species, climate change, excessive water use, land degradation, space depletion, waste accumulation, energy consumption and environmental pollution. Materials used like plastics, metals, bricks, concrete, cement, natural aggregates, glass and plaster have wreaked havoc on the earth´s resources, since they have high levels of embodied energy hence not sustainable. Additional resources are consumed during use and disposal phases. Proposed designs for sustainability solutions include: ecological sanitation and eco-efficiency systems that ensure social, economic, environmental and technical sustainability. Renewable materials and energy systems, passive cooling and heating systems and material and energy reduction, reuse and recycling can improve the sector. These ideas are intended to inform the field of ecological design of the built environment.

Keywords: Ecological and sustainability designs, environmental degradation, ecological sanitation, energy use efficiency.

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1699 Assessment of Collapse Potential of Degrading SDOF Systems

Authors: Muzaffer Borekci, Murat S. Kirçil

Abstract:

Predicting the collapse potential of a structure during earthquakes is an important issue in earthquake engineering. Many researchers proposed different methods to assess the collapse potential of structures under the effect of strong ground motions. However most of them did not consider degradation and softening effect in hysteretic behavior. In this study, collapse potential of SDOF systems caused by dynamic instability with stiffness and strength degradation has been investigated. An equation was proposed for the estimation of collapse period of SDOF system which is a limit value of period for dynamic instability. If period of the considered SDOF system is shorter than the collapse period then the relevant system exhibits dynamic instability and collapse occurs.

Keywords: Collapse, degradation, dynamic instability, seismic response.

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