Search results for: turbine blades
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 330

Search results for: turbine blades

330 Stress Analysis of Turbine Blades of Turbocharger Using Structural Steel

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Saba Arif

Abstract:

Turbocharger is a device that is driven by the turbine and increases efficiency and power output of the engine by forcing external air into the combustion chamber. This study focused on the distribution of stress on the turbine blades and total deformation that may occur during its working along with turbocharger to carry out its static structural analysis of turbine blades. Structural steel was selected as the material for turbocharger. Assembly of turbocharger and turbine blades was designed on PRO ENGINEER. Furthermore, the structural analysis is performed by using ANSYS. This research concluded that by using structural steel, the efficiency of engine is improved and by increasing number of turbine blades, more waste heat from combustion chamber is emitted.

Keywords: Turbocharger, turbine blades, structural steel, ANSYS.

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329 Diagnostics of Fatigue Damage of Gas Turbine Engine Blades by Acoustic Emission Method

Authors: A.Urbach, M. Banov, V. Turko, Y.Feshchuk

Abstract:

the work contains the results of complex investigation related to the evaluation of condition of working blades of gas turbine engines during fatigue tests by applying the acoustic emission method. It demonstrates the possibility of estimating the fatigue damage of blades in the process of factory tests. The acoustic emission criteria for detecting and testing the kinetics of fatigue crack distribution were detected. It also shows the high effectiveness of the method for non-destructive testing of condition of solid and cooled working blades for high-temperature gas turbine engines.

Keywords: acoustic emission, blades for gas turbine engines, fatigue damage, diagnostics

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328 Modeling of Temperature Fields of Gas Turbine Blades by Considering Heat Flow and Specified Temperature

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

A new mathematical model for calculating the temperature field of the profile part of the cooled blades of gas turbines is developed. The theoretical substantiation of the method is based on the application of the method of potential theory (the method of boundary integral equations). The effectiveness of the implementation of the developed mathematical model is confirmed on the basis of a computational experiment.

Keywords: Modeling of temperature fields, gas turbine blades, integral methods, cooled blades, gas turbines.

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327 Experimental Tests of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Twisted Blades

Authors: Gabriele Bedon, Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

An experimental campaign of measurements for a Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is presented for open field conditions. The turbine is characterized by a twisted bladed design, each blade being placed at a fixed distance from the rotational shaft. The experimental setup to perform the acquisitions is described. The results are lower than expected, due to the high influence of the wind shear.

Keywords: Vertical-axis wind turbine, Darrieus wind turbine, twisted blades, experimental measurements, wind shear.

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326 Vibration Signals of Small Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

Authors: Aqoul H. H. Alanezy, Ali M. Abdelsalam, Nouby M. Ghazaly

Abstract:

In recent years, progress has been made in increasing the renewable energy share in the power sector particularly in the wind. The experimental study conducted in this paper aims to investigate the effects of number of blades and inflow wind speed on vibration signals of a vertical axis Savonius type wind turbine. The operation of the model of Savonius type wind turbine is conducted to compare two, three and four blades wind turbines to show vibration amplitudes related with wind speed. It is found that the increase of the number of blades leads to decrease of the vibration magnitude. Furthermore, inflow wind speed has reduced effect on the vibration level for higher number of blades.

Keywords: Savonius wind turbine, number of blades, vibration amplitude, renewable energy.

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325 Application of Powder Metallurgy Technologies for Gas Turbine Engine Wheel Production

Authors: Liubov Magerramova, Eugene Kratt, Pavel Presniakov

Abstract:

A detailed analysis has been performed for several schemes of Gas Turbine Wheels production based on additive and powder technologies including metal, ceramic, and stereolithography 3-D printing. During the process of development and debugging of gas turbine engine components, different versions of these components must be manufactured and tested. Cooled blades of the turbine are among of these components. They are usually produced by traditional casting methods. This method requires long and costly design and manufacture of casting molds. Moreover, traditional manufacturing methods limit the design possibilities of complex critical parts of engine, so capabilities of Powder Metallurgy Techniques (PMT) were analyzed to manufacture the turbine wheel with air-cooled blades. PMT dramatically reduce time needed for such production and allow creating new complex design solutions aimed at improving the technical characteristics of the engine: improving fuel efficiency and environmental performance, increasing reliability, and reducing weight. To accelerate and simplify the blades manufacturing process, several options based on additive technologies were used. The options were implemented in the form of various casting equipment for the manufacturing of blades. Methods of powder metallurgy were applied for connecting the blades with the disc. The optimal production scheme and a set of technologies for the manufacturing of blades and turbine wheel and other parts of the engine can be selected on the basis of the options considered.

Keywords: Additive technologies, gas turbine engine, powder technology, turbine wheel.

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324 Dynamic Modeling of Underplateform Damper used in Turbomachinery

Authors: Vikas Rastogi, Vipan Kumar, Loveleen Kumar Bhagi

Abstract:

The present work deals with the structural analysis of turbine blades and modeling of turbine blades. A common failure mode for turbine machines is high cycle of fatigue of compressor and turbine blades due to high dynamic stresses caused by blade vibration and resonance within the operation range of the machinery. In this work, proper damping system will be analyzed to reduce the vibrating blade. The main focus of the work is the modeling of under platform damper to evaluate the dynamic analysis of turbine-blade vibrations. The system is analyzed using Bond graph technique. Bond graph is one of the most convenient ways to represent a system from the physical aspect in foreground. It has advantage of putting together multi-energy domains of a system in a single representation in a unified manner. The bond graph model of dry friction damper is simulated on SYMBOLS-shakti® software. In this work, the blades are modeled as Timoshenko beam. Blade Vibrations under different working conditions are being analyzed numerically.

Keywords: Turbine blade vibrations, Friction dampers, Timoshenko Beam, Bond graph modeling.

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323 Effect of Blade Shape on the Performance of Wells Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion

Authors: Katsuya Takasaki, Manabu Takao, Toshiaki Setoguchi

Abstract:

The effect of a 3-dimensional (3D) blade on the turbine characteristics of Wells turbine for wave energy conversion has been investigated experimentally by model testing under steady flow conditions in this study, in order to improve the peak efficiency and stall characteristics. The aim of use of 3D blade is to prevent flow separation on the suction surface near the tip. The chord length is constant with radius and the blade profile changes gradually from the mean radius to tip. The proposed blade profiles in the study are NACA0015 from the hub to mean radius and NACA0025 at the tip. The performances of Wells turbine with 3D blades has been compared with those of the original Wells turbine, i.e., the turbine with 2-dimensional (2D) blades. As a result, it was concluded that although the peak efficiency of Wells turbine can be improved by the use of the proposed 3D blade, its blade does not overcome the weakness of stalling.

Keywords: Fluid machinery, ocean engineering, stall, wave energy conversion, Wells turbine.

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322 Optimization of GAMM Francis Turbine Runner

Authors: Sh. Derakhshan, A. Mostafavi

Abstract:

Nowadays, the challenge in hydraulic turbine design is the multi-objective design of turbine runner to reach higher efficiency. The hydraulic performance of a turbine is strictly depends on runner blades shape. The present paper focuses on the application of the multi-objective optimization algorithm to the design of a small Francis turbine runner. The optimization exercise focuses on the efficiency improvement at the best efficiency operating point (BEP) of the GAMM Francis turbine. A global optimization method based on artificial neural networks (ANN) and genetic algorithms (GA) coupled by 3D Navier-Stokes flow solver has been used to improve the performance of an initial geometry of a Francis runner. The results show the good ability of optimization algorithm and the final geometry has better efficiency with initial geometry. The goal was to optimize the geometry of the blades of GAMM turbine runner which leads to maximum total efficiency by changing the design parameters of camber line in at least 5 sections of a blade. The efficiency of the optimized geometry is improved from 90.7% to 92.5%. Finally, design parameters and the way of selection have been considered and discussed.

Keywords: Francis Turbine, Runner, Optimization, CFD

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321 Cooling Turbine Blades using Exciting Boundary Layer

Authors: Ali Ghobadi, Seyed Mohammad Javadi, Behnam Rahimi

Abstract:

The present study is concerned with the effect of exciting boundary layer on cooling process in a gas-turbine blades. The cooling process is numerically investigated. Observations show cooling the first row of moving or stable blades leads to increase their life-time. Results show that minimum temperature in cooling line with exciting boundary layer is lower than without exciting. Using block in cooling line of turbines' blade causes flow pattern and stability in boundary layer changed that causes increase in heat transfer coefficient. Results show at the location of block, temperature of turbines' blade is significantly decreased. The k-ε turbulence model is used.

Keywords: Cooling, Exciting Boundary Layer, Heat Transfer, Turbine Blade.

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320 CFD Analysis on Aerodynamic Design Optimization of Wind Turbine Rotor Blades

Authors: R.S. Amano, R.J. Malloy

Abstract:

Wind energy has been shown to be one of the most viable sources of renewable energy. With current technology, the low cost of wind energy is competitive with more conventional sources of energy such as coal. Most blades available for commercial grade wind turbines incorporate a straight span-wise profile and airfoil shaped cross sections. These blades are found to be very efficient at lower wind speeds in comparison to the potential energy that can be extracted. However as the oncoming wind speed increases the efficiency of the blades decreases as they approach a stall point. This paper explores the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the blades at higher wind speeds while maintaining efficiency at the lower wind speeds. The design intends to maintain efficiency at lower wind speeds by selecting the appropriate orientation and size of the airfoil cross sections based on a low oncoming wind speed and given constant rotation rate. The blades will be made more efficient at higher wind speeds by implementing a swept blade profile. Performance was investigated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

Keywords: CFD, wind turbine blade, renewable energy.

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319 Performance Characteristics of Some Small Scale Wind Turbines Fabricated in Tanzania

Authors: Talam K. E, Kainkwa R. M.

Abstract:

In this study, a field testing has been carried out to assess the power characteristics of some small scale wind turbines fabricated by one native technician from Tanzania. Two Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs), one with five and other with sixteen blades were installed at a height of 2.4m above the ground. The rotation speed of the rotor blade and wind speed approaching the turbines were measured simultaneously. The data obtained were used to determine how the power coefficient varies as a function of tip speed ratio and also the way in which the output power compares with available power in the wind for each turbine. For the sixteen-bladed wind turbine the maximum value of power coefficient of about 0.14 was found to occur at a tip speed ratio of around 0.65 while for the five bladed, these extreme values were respectively attained at approximately 0.2 and 1.7. The five bladed-wind turbine was found to have a higher power efficiency of about 37.5% which is higher compared to the sixteen bladed wind turbine whose corresponding value was 14.37%. This is what would be expected, as the smaller the number of blades of a wind turbine, the higher the electric power efficiency and vice versa. Some of the main reasons for the low efficiency of these machines may be due to the low aerodynamic efficiency of the turbine or low efficiency of the transmission mechanisms such as gearbox and generator which were not examined in this study. It is recommended that some other researches be done to investigate the power efficiency of such machines from different manufacturers in the country. The manufacturers should also be encouraged to use fewer blades in their designs so as to improve the efficiency and at the same time reduce materials used to fabricate the blades. The power efficiency of the electric generators used in the locally fabricated wind turbines should also be examined.

Keywords: Tip speed ratio, Power coefficients and power efficiency.

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318 Numerical Modeling of Temperature Fields in Aviation Gas Turbine Elements

Authors: A. M. Pashaev, R. A. Sadihov, A. S. Samedov, C. Ardil

Abstract:

A mathematical model and a numerical method for computing the temperature field of the profile part of convectionally cooled blades are developed. The theoretical substantiation of the method is proved by corresponding theorems. To this end, convergent quadrature processes were developed and error estimates were obtained in terms of the Zygmund continuity moduli. The boundary conditions for heat exchange are determined from the solution of the corresponding integral equations and empirical relations. The reliability of the developed methods is confirmed by calculation and experimental studies of the thermohydraulic characteristics of the nozzle apparatus of the first stage of the gas turbine.

Keywords: Aviation gas turbine, temperature field, cooled blades, numerical modeling.

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317 Calculus of Turbojet Performances for Ideal Case

Authors: S. Bennoud, S. Hocine, H. Slme

Abstract:

Developments in turbine cooling technology play an important role in increasing the thermal efficiency and the power output of recent gas turbines, in particular the turbojets.

Advanced turbojets operate at high temperatures to improve thermal efficiency and power output. These temperatures are far above the permissible metal temperatures. Therefore, there is a critical need to cool the blades in order to give theirs a maximum life period for safe operation.

The focused objective of this work is to calculate the turbojet performances, as well as the calculation of turbine blades cooling.

The developed application able the calculation of turbojet performances to different altitudes in order to find a point of optimal use making possible to maintain the turbine blades at an acceptable maximum temperature and to limit the local variations in temperatures in order to guarantee their integrity during all the lifespan of the engine.

Keywords: Brayton cycle, Turbine Blades Cooling, Turbojet Cycle, turbojet performances.

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316 The High Temperature Damage of DV – 2 Turbine Blade Made from Ni – Base Superalloy

Authors: Juraj Belan, Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová, Alan Vaško, Milan Uhríčik

Abstract:

High pressure turbine (HPT) blades of DV – 2 jet engines are made from Ni – based superalloy. This alloy was originally manufactured in the Soviet Union and referred as ŽS6K. For improving alloy’s high temperature resistance are blades coated with Al – Si diffusion layer. A regular operation temperature of HPT blades vary from 705°C to 750°C depending on jet engine regime. An overcrossing working temperature range causes degradation of the protective coating as well as base material which microstructure is formed by the gamma matrix and strengthening phase gamma prime (forming small particles in the microstructure). Diffusion processes inside the material during exposition of the material to high temperatures causes mainly coarsening of the gamma prime particles, thus decreasing its strengthening effect. Degradation of the Al – Si coating caused its thickness growth. All the microstructure changes and coating layer thickness growth results in decreasing of the turbine blade operation lifetime.

Keywords: Alitize coating layer, gamma prime phase, high temperature degradation, Ni – base superalloy ŽS6K, turbine blade.

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315 Fatigue Life Consumption for Turbine Blades-Vanes Accelerated by Erosion-Contour Modification

Authors: Julio C. Gómez-Mancilla, Luis M. Palacios-Pineda, Yunuén López-Grijalba

Abstract:

A new mechanism responsible for structural life consumption due to resonant fatigue in turbine blades, or vanes, is presented and explained. A rotating blade or vane in a gas turbine can change its contour due to erosion and/or material build up, in any of these instances, the surface pressure distribution occurring on the suction and pressure sides of blades-vanes can suffer substantial modification of their pressure and temperatures envelopes and flow characteristics. Meanwhile, the relative rotation between the blade and duct vane while the pressurized gas flows and the consequent wake crossings, will induce a fluctuating thrust force or lift that will excite the blade. An actual totally used up set of vane-blade components in a HP turbine power stage in a gas turbine is analyzed. The blade suffered some material erosion mostly at the trailing edge provoking a peculiar surface pressure envelope which evolved as the relative position between the vane and the blade passed in front of each other. Interestingly preliminary modal analysis for this eroded blade indicates several natural frequencies within the aeromechanic power spectrum, moreover, the highest frequency component is 94% of one natural frequency indicating near resonant condition. Independently of other simultaneously occurring fatigue cycles (such as thermal, centrifugal stresses).

Keywords: Aeromechanic induced vibration, potential flowinteraction, turbine unsteady flow, rotor/stator interaction, turbinevane-blade aerodynamic interaction, airfoil clocking

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314 Stability Analysis of a Low Power Wind Turbine for the Simultaneous Generation of Energy through Two Electric Generators

Authors: Daniel Icaza, Federico Córdova, Chiristian Castro, Fernando Icaza, Juan Portoviejo

Abstract:

In this article, the mathematical model is presented, and simulations were carried out using specialized software such as MATLAB before the construction of a 900-W wind turbine. The present study was conducted with the intention of taking advantage of the rotation of the blades of the wind generator after going through a process of amplification of speed by means of a system of gears to finally mechanically couple two electric generators of similar characteristics. This coupling allows generating a maximum voltage of 6 V in DC for each generator and putting in series the 12 V DC is achieved, which is later stored in batteries and used when the user requires it. Laboratory tests were made to verify the level of power generation produced based on the wind speed at the entrance of the blades.

Keywords: Smart grids, wind turbine, modeling, renewable energy, robust control.

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313 Investigations of Flow Field with Different Turbulence Models on NREL Phase VI Blade

Authors: T. Y. Liu, C. H Lin., Y. M Ferng

Abstract:

Wind energy is one of the clean renewable energy. However, the low frequency (20-200HZ) noise generated from the wind turbine blades, which bothers the residents, becomes the major problem to be developed. It is useful for predicting the aerodynamic noise by flow field and pressure distribution analysis on the wind turbine blades. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to use different turbulence models to analyze the flow field and pressure distributions of the wing blades.

Three-dimensional Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow field was used to calculate the flow phenomena for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Phase VI horizontal axis wind turbine rotor. Two different flow cases with different wind speeds were investigated: 7m/s with 72rpm and 15m/s with 72rpm.

Four kinds of RANS-based turbulence models, Standard k-ε, Realizable k-ε, SST k-ω, and v2f, were used to predict and analyze the results in the present work. The results show that the predictions on pressure distributions with SST k-ω and v2f turbulence models have good agreements with experimental data.

Keywords: Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine, turbulence model, noise.

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312 Modeling and Simulating of Gas Turbine Cooled Blades

Authors: А. Pashayev, D. Askerov, R. Sadiqov, A. Samedov, C. Ardil

Abstract:

In contrast to existing methods which do not take into account multiconnectivity in a broad sense of this term, we develop mathematical models and highly effective combination (BIEM and FDM) numerical methods of calculation of stationary and quasistationary temperature field of a profile part of a blade with convective cooling (from the point of view of realization on PC). The theoretical substantiation of these methods is proved by appropriate theorems. For it, converging quadrature processes have been developed and the estimations of errors in the terms of A.Ziqmound continuity modules have been received. For visualization of profiles are used: the method of the least squares with automatic conjecture, device spline, smooth replenishment and neural nets. Boundary conditions of heat exchange are determined from the solution of the corresponding integral equations and empirical relationships. The reliability of designed methods is proved by calculation and experimental investigations heat and hydraulic characteristics of the gas turbine first stage nozzle blade.

Keywords: Modeling, Simulating, Gas Turbine, Cooled Blades.

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311 Structural Performance Evaluation of Segmented Wind Turbine Blade through Finite Element Simulation

Authors: Chandrashekhar Bhat, Dilifa J. Noronha, Faber A. Saldanha

Abstract:

Transportation of long turbine blades from one place to another is a difficult process. Hence a feasibility study of modularization of wind turbine blade was taken from structural standpoint through finite element analysis. Initially, a non-segmented blade is modeled and its structural behavior is evaluated to serve as reference. The resonant, static bending and fatigue tests are simulated in accordance with IEC61400-23 standard for comparison purpose. The non-segmented test blade is separated at suitable location based on trade off studies and the segments are joined with an innovative double strap bonded joint configuration. The adhesive joint is modeled by adopting cohesive zone modeling approach in ANSYS. The developed blade model is analyzed for its structural response through simulation. Performances of both the blades are found to be similar, which indicates that, efficient segmentation of the long blade is possible which facilitates easy transportation of the blades and on site reassembling. The location selected for segmentation and adopted joint configuration has resulted in an efficient segmented blade model which proves the methodology adopted for segmentation was quite effective. The developed segmented blade appears to be the viable alternative considering its structural response specifically in fatigue within considered assumptions.

Keywords: Cohesive zone modeling, fatigue, segmentation, wind turbine blade.

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310 Integral Methods in the Determination of Temperature Fields of Cooled Blades of Gas Turbines

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

A mathematical model and an effective numerical method for calculating the temperature field of the profile part of convection cooled blades have been developed. The theoretical substantiation of the method is proved by corresponding theorems. To this end, convergent quadrature processes were developed and error estimates were obtained in terms of the Zygmund continuity moduli.The boundary conditions for heat exchange are determined from the solution of the corresponding integral equations and empirical relations.The reliability of the developed methods is confirmed by the calculation-experimental studies of the thermohydraulic characteristics of the nozzle apparatus of the first stage of a gas turbine.

Keywords: Integral methods, determination of temperature fields, cooled blades, gas turbines.

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309 Model the Off-Shore Ocean-Sea Waves to Generate Electric Power by Design of a Converting Device

Authors: Muthana A. M. Jameel Al-Jaboori

Abstract:

In this paper, we will present a mathematical model to design a system able to generate electricity from ocean-sea waves. We will use the basic principles of the transfer of the energy potential of waves in a chamber to force the air inside a vertical or inclined cylindrical column, which is topped by a wind turbine to rotate the electric generator. The present mathematical model included a high number of variables such as the wave, height, width, length, velocity, and frequency, as well as others for the energy cylindrical column, like varying diameters and heights, and the wave chamber shape diameter and height. While for the wells wind turbine the variables included the number of blades, length, width, and clearance, as well as the rotor and tip radius. Additionally, the turbine rotor and blades must be made from the light and strong material for a smooth blade surface. The variables were too vast and high in number. Then the program was run successfully within the MATLAB and presented very good modeling results.

Keywords: Water wave, model, wells turbine, MATLAB program, results.

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308 Effect of Plunging Oscillation on an Offshore Wind Turbine Blade Section

Authors: F. Rasi Marzabadi

Abstract:

A series of experiments were carried out to study unsteady behavior of the flow field as well as the boundary layer of an airfoil oscillating in plunging motion in a subsonic wind tunnel. The measurements involved surface pressure distribution complimented with surface-mounted hot-films. The effect of leadingedge roughness that simulates surface irregularities on the wind turbine blades was also studied on variations of aerodynamic loads and boundary layer behavior.

Keywords: Boundary layer transition, plunging, reduced frequency, wind turbine.

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307 Determination of Stress Concentration Factors of a Steam Turbine Rotor by FEA

Authors: R. Nagendra Babu, K. V. Ramana, K. Mallikarjuna Rao

Abstract:

Stress Concentration Factors are significant in machine design as it gives rise to localized stress when any change in the design of surface or abrupt change in the cross section occurs. Almost all machine components and structural members contain some form of geometrical or microstructural discontinuities. These discontinuities are very dangerous and lead to failure. So, it is very much essential to analyze the stress concentration factors for critical applications like Turbine Rotors. In this paper Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with extremely fine mesh in the vicinity of the blades of Steam Turbine Rotor is applied to determine stress concentration factors. A model of Steam Turbine Rotor is shown in Fig. 1.

Keywords: Stress Concentration Factors, Finite Element Analysis, and ANSYS.

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306 The Effect of Blockage Factor on Savonius Hydrokinetic Turbine Performance

Authors: Thochi Seb Rengma, Mahendra Kumar Gupta, P. M. V. Subbarao

Abstract:

Hydrokinetic turbines can be used to produce power in inaccessible villages located near rivers. The hydrokinetic turbine uses the kinetic energy of the water and maybe put it directly into the natural flow of water without dams. For off-grid power production, the Savonius-type vertical axis turbine is the easiest to design and manufacture. This proposal uses three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to measure the considerable interaction and complexity of turbine blades. Savonius hydrokinetic turbine (SHKT) performance is affected by a blockage in the river, canals, and waterways. Putting a large object in a water channel causes water obstruction and raises local free stream velocity. The blockage correction factor or velocity increment measures the impact of velocity on the performance. SHKT performance is evaluated by comparing power coefficient (Cp) with tip-speed ratio (TSR) at various blockage ratios. The maximum Cp was obtained at a TSR of 1.1 with a blockage ratio of 45%, whereas TSR of 0.8 yielded the highest Cp without blockage. The greatest Cp of 0.29 was obtained with a 45% blockage ratio compared to a Cp max of 0.18 without a blockage.

Keywords: Savonius hydrokinetic turbine, blockage ratio, vertical axis turbine, power coefficient.

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305 An Investigation on Designing and Enhancing the Performance of H-Darrieus Wind Turbine of 10 kW at the Medium Range of Wind Speed in Vietnam

Authors: Ich Long Ngo, Dinh Tai Dang, Ngoc Tu Nguyen, Minh Duc Nguyen

Abstract:

This paper describes an investigation on designing and enhancing the performance of H-Darrieus Wind Turbine (HDWT) of 10 kW at the medium wind speed. The aerodynamic characteristics of this turbine were investigated by both theoretical and numerical approaches. The optimal design procedure was first proposed to enhance the power coefficient under various effects, such as airfoil type, number of blades, solidity, aspect ratio, and tip speed ratio. As a result, the overall design of the 10 kW HDWT was well achieved, and the power characteristic of this turbine was found by numerical approach. Additionally, the maximum power coefficient predicted is up to 0.41 at the tip speed ratio of 3.7 and wind speed of 8 m/s. Particularly, a generalized correlation of power coefficient with tip speed ratio and wind speed is first proposed. These results obtained are very useful for enhancing the performance of the HDWTs placed in a country with high wind power potential like Vietnam.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, double multiple stream tube, H-Darrieus wind turbine, renewable energy.

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304 Vibroacoustic Modulation of Wideband Vibrations and Its Possible Application for Windmill Blade Diagnostics

Authors: Abdullah Alnutayfat, Alexander Sutin, Dong Liu

Abstract:

Wind turbine has become one of the most popular energy production methods. However, failure of blades and maintenance costs evolve into significant issues in the wind power industry, so it is essential to detect the initial blade defects to avoid the collapse of the blades and structure. This paper aims to apply modulation of high-frequency blade vibrations by low-frequency blade rotation, which is close to the known Vibro-Acoustic Modulation (VAM) method. The high-frequency wideband blade vibration is produced by the interaction of the surface blades with the environment air turbulence, and the low-frequency modulation is produced by alternating bending stress due to gravity. The low-frequency load of rotational wind turbine blades ranges between 0.2-0.4 Hz and can reach up to 2 Hz for strong wind. The main difference between this study and previous ones on VAM methods is the use of a wideband vibration signal from the blade's natural vibrations. Different features of the VAM are considered using a simple model of breathing crack. This model considers the simple mechanical oscillator, where the parameters of the oscillator are varied due to low-frequency blade rotation. During the blade's operation, the internal stress caused by the weight of the blade modifies the crack's elasticity and damping. The laboratory experiment using steel samples demonstrates the possibility of VAM using a probe wideband noise signal. A cycle load with a small amplitude was used as a pump wave to damage the tested sample, and a small transducer generated a wideband probe wave. The received signal demodulation was conducted using the Detecting of Envelope Modulation on Noise (DEMON) approach. In addition, the experimental results were compared with the modulation index (MI) technique regarding the harmonic pump wave. The wideband and traditional VAM methods demonstrated similar sensitivity for earlier detection of invisible cracks. Importantly, employing a wideband probe signal with the DEMON approach speeds up and simplifies testing since it eliminates the need to conduct tests repeatedly for various harmonic probe frequencies and to adjust the probe frequency.

Keywords: Damage detection, turbine blades, Vibro-Acoustic Structural Health Monitoring, SHM, Detecting of Envelope Modulation on Noise.

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303 Depressing Turbine-Generator Supersynchronous Torsional Torques by Using Virtual Inertia

Authors: Jong-Ian Tsai, Chi-Chuan Chen, Tung-Sheng Zhan, Rong-Ching Wu

Abstract:

Single-pole switching scheme is widely used in the Extra High Voltage system. However, the substantial negativesequence current injected to the turbine-generators imposes the electromagnetic (E/M) torque of double system- frequency components during the dead time (between single-pole clearing and line reclosing). This would induce supersynchronous resonance (SPSR) torque amplifications on low pressure turbine generator blades and even lead to fatigue damage. This paper proposes the design of a mechanical filter (MF) with natural frequency close to double-system frequency. From the simulation results, it is found that such a filter not only successfully damps the resonant effect, but also has the characteristics of feasibility and compact.

Keywords: Single-pole, Supersynchronous, Blade, Unbalance, filter

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302 Power Generation from Sewage by a Micro-Hydraulic Turbine

Authors: Tomomi Uchiyama, Tomoko Okayama, Yukio Ide

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the development of a micro-hydraulic turbine for power generation installed in sewer pipes. The runner has a circular hollow around the central (rotating) axis so that solid materials included in water can be easily flow through the runner without blocking the turbine. The laboratory experiments are also conducted. The hollow is very effective to make polyester fibers pass through the turbine. The guide vane is useful to heighten the turbine performance. But it is easily blocked by the fibers, making the turbine lose the function.

Keywords: Generation of electricity, micro-hydraulic turbine, sewage, sewer pipe.

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301 Modeling of Gas Turbine Cooled Blades

Authors: A. Pashayev, D. Askerov, R. Sadiqov, A. Samedov, C. Ardil

Abstract:

In contrast to existing methods which do not take into account multiconnectivity in a broad sense of this term, we develop mathematical models and highly effective combination (BIEM and FDM) numerical methods of calculation of stationary and quasi-stationary temperature field of a profile part of a blade with convective cooling (from the point of view of realization on PC). The theoretical substantiation of these methods is proved by appropriate theorems. For it, converging quadrature processes have been developed and the estimations of errors in the terms of A.Ziqmound continuity modules have been received. For visualization of profiles are used: the method of the least squares with automatic conjecture, device spline, smooth replenishment and neural nets. Boundary conditions of heat exchange are determined from the solution of the corresponding integral equations and empirical relationships. The reliability of designed methods is proved by calculation and experimental investigations heat and hydraulic characteristics of the gas turbine first stage nozzle blade.

Keywords: Gas turbine, cooled blade, nozzle blade, temperature field.

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