Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 60

Search results for: interpolation

60 A Novel Interpolation Scheme and Apparatus to Extend DAC Usable Spectrum over Nyquist Frequency

Authors: Wang liguo, Wang zongmin, Kong ying

Abstract:

A novel interpolation scheme to extend usable spectrum and upconvert in high performance D/A converters is addressed in this paper. By adjusting the pulse width of cycle and the production circuit of code, the expansion code is a null code or complementary code that is interpolation process. What the times and codes of interpolation decide DAC works in one of a normal mode or multi-mixer mode so that convert the input digital data signal into normal signal or a mixed analog signal having a mixer frequency that is higher than the data frequency. Simulation results show that the novel scheme and apparatus most extend the usable frequency spectrum into fifth to sixth Nyquist zone beyond conventional DACs.

Keywords: interpolation, upconversion, modulation, switching function, duty cycle.

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59 Statistical Approach to Basis Function Truncation in Digital Interpolation Filters

Authors: F. Castillo, J. Arellano, S. Sánchez

Abstract:

In this paper an alternative analysis in the time domain is described and the results of the interpolation process are presented by means of functions that are based on the rule of conditional mathematical expectation and the covariance function. A comparison between the interpolation error caused by low order filters and the classic sinc(t) truncated function is also presented. When fewer samples are used, low-order filters have less error. If the number of samples increases, the sinc(t) type functions are a better alternative. Generally speaking there is an optimal filter for each input signal which depends on the filter length and covariance function of the signal. A novel scheme of work for adaptive interpolation filters is also presented.

Keywords: Interpolation, basis function, over-sampling.

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58 Fast and Efficient Algorithms for Evaluating Uniform and Nonuniform Lagrange and Newton Curves

Authors: Taweechai Nuntawisuttiwong, Natasha Dejdumrong

Abstract:

Newton-Lagrange Interpolations are widely used in numerical analysis. However, it requires a quadratic computational time for their constructions. In computer aided geometric design (CAGD), there are some polynomial curves: Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves, which have linear time complexity algorithms. Thus, the computational time for Newton-Lagrange Interpolations can be reduced by applying the algorithms of Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves. In order to use Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong algorithms, first, it is necessary to convert Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP or Dejdumrong polynomials. In this work, the algorithms for converting from both uniform and non-uniform Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong polynomials are investigated. Thus, the computational time for representing Newton-Lagrange polynomials can be reduced into linear complexity. In addition, the other utilizations of using CAGD curves to modify the Newton-Lagrange curves can be taken.

Keywords: Newton interpolation, Lagrange interpolation, linear complexity.

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57 Interpolation of Geofield Parameters

Authors: A. Pashayev, C. Ardil, R. Sadiqov

Abstract:

Various methods of geofield parameters restoration (by algebraic polynoms; filters; rational fractions; interpolation splines; geostatistical methods – kriging; search methods of nearest points – inverse distance, minimum curvature, local – polynomial interpolation; neural networks) have been analyzed and some possible mistakes arising during geofield surface modeling have been presented.

Keywords: interpolation methods, geofield parameters, neural networks.

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56 Visualization of Sediment Thickness Variation for Sea Bed Logging using Spline Interpolation

Authors: Hanita Daud, Noorhana Yahya, Vijanth Sagayan, Muizuddin Talib

Abstract:

This paper discusses on the use of Spline Interpolation and Mean Square Error (MSE) as tools to process data acquired from the developed simulator that shall replicate sea bed logging environment. Sea bed logging (SBL) is a new technique that uses marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) sounding technique and is proven to be very successful in detecting and characterizing hydrocarbon reservoirs in deep water area by using resistivity contrasts. It uses very low frequency of 0.1Hz to 10 Hz to obtain greater wavelength. In this work the in house built simulator was used and was provided with predefined parameters and the transmitted frequency was varied for sediment thickness of 1000m to 4000m for environment with and without hydrocarbon. From series of simulations, synthetics data were generated. These data were interpolated using Spline interpolation technique (degree of three) and mean square error (MSE) were calculated between original data and interpolated data. Comparisons were made by studying the trends and relationship between frequency and sediment thickness based on the MSE calculated. It was found that the MSE was on increasing trends in the set up that has the presence of hydrocarbon in the setting than the one without. The MSE was also on decreasing trends as sediment thickness was increased and with higher transmitted frequency.

Keywords: Spline Interpolation, Mean Square Error, Sea Bed Logging, Controlled Source Electromagnetic

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55 Generalized Morphological 3D Shape Decomposition Grayscale Interframe Interpolation Method

Authors: Dragos Nicolae VIZIREANU

Abstract:

One of the main image representations in Mathematical Morphology is the 3D Shape Decomposition Representation, useful for Image Compression and Representation,and Pattern Recognition. The 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition representation can be generalized a number of times,to extend the scope of its algebraic characteristics as much as possible. With these generalizations, the Morphological Shape Decomposition 's role to serve as an efficient image decomposition tool is extended to grayscale images.This work follows the above line, and further develops it. Anew evolutionary branch is added to the 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition's development, by the introduction of a 3D Multi Structuring Element Morphological Shape Decomposition, which permits 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition of 3D binary images (grayscale images) into "multiparameter" families of elements. At the beginning, 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition representations are based only on "1 parameter" families of elements for image decomposition.This paper addresses the gray scale inter frame interpolation by means of mathematical morphology. The new interframe interpolation method is based on generalized morphological 3D Shape Decomposition. This article will present the theoretical background of the morphological interframe interpolation, deduce the new representation and show some application examples.Computer simulations could illustrate results.

Keywords: 3D shape decomposition representation, mathematical morphology, gray scale interframe interpolation

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54 A Novel Deinterlacing Algorithm Based on Adaptive Polynomial Interpolation

Authors: Seung-Won Jung, Hye-Soo Kim, Le Thanh Ha, Seung-Jin Baek, Sung-Jea Ko

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel deinterlacing algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm approximates the distribution of the luminance into a polynomial function. Instead of using one polynomial function for all pixels, different polynomial functions are used for the uniform, texture, and directional edge regions. The function coefficients for each region are computed by matrix multiplications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better than the conventional algorithms.

Keywords: Deinterlacing, polynomial interpolation.

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53 Interpolation Issue in PVNPG-14M Application for Technical Control of Artillery Fire

Authors: Martin Blaha, Ladislav Potužák, Daniel Holesz

Abstract:

This paper focused on application support for technical control of artillery units – PVNPG-14M, especially on interpolation issue. Artillery units of the Army of the Czech Republic, reflecting the current global security neighborhood, can be used outside the Czech Republic. The paper presents principles, evolution and calculation in the process of complete preparation. The paper presents expertise using of application of current artillery communication and information system and suggests the perspective future system. The paper also presents problems in process of complete preparing of fire especially problems in permanently information (firing table) and calculated values. The paper presents problems of current artillery communication and information system and suggests requirements of the future system.

Keywords: Fire for effect, application, fire control, interpolation method, software development.

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52 A Localized Interpolation Method Using Radial Basis Functions

Authors: Mehdi Tatari

Abstract:

Finding the interpolation function of a given set of nodes is an important problem in scientific computing. In this work a kind of localization is introduced using the radial basis functions which finds a sufficiently smooth solution without consuming large amount of time and computer memory. Some examples will be presented to show the efficiency of the new method.

Keywords: Radial basis functions, local interpolation method, closed form solution.

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51 Numerical Solution of Hammerstein Integral Equations by Using Quasi-Interpolation

Authors: M. Zarebnia, S. Khani

Abstract:

In this paper first, a numerical method based on quasiinterpolation for solving nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the Hammerstein-type is presented. Then, we approximate the solution of Hammerstein integral equations by Nystrom’s method. Also, we compare the methods with some numerical examples.

Keywords: Hammerstein integral equations, quasi-interpolation, Nystrom’s method.

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50 Adaptive Bidirectional Flow for Image Interpolation and Enhancement

Authors: Shujun Fu, Qiuqi Ruan, Wenqia Wang

Abstract:

Image interpolation is a common problem in imaging applications. However, most interpolation algorithms in existence suffer visually the effects of blurred edges and jagged artifacts in the image to some extent. This paper presents an adaptive feature preserving bidirectional flow process, where an inverse diffusion is performed to sharpen edges along the normal directions to the isophote lines (edges), while a normal diffusion is done to remove artifacts (“jaggies") along the tangent directions. In order to preserve image features such as edges, corners and textures, the nonlinear diffusion coefficients are locally adjusted according to the directional derivatives of the image. Experimental results on synthetic images and nature images demonstrate that our interpolation algorithm substantially improves the subjective quality of the interpolated images over conventional interpolations.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, bidirectional flow, directional derivatives, edge enhancement, image interpolation, inverse flow, shock filter.

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49 Feature Preserving Image Interpolation and Enhancement Using Adaptive Bidirectional Flow

Authors: Shujun Fu, Qiuqi Ruan, Wenqia Wang

Abstract:

Image interpolation is a common problem in imaging applications. However, most interpolation algorithms in existence suffer visually to some extent the effects of blurred edges and jagged artifacts in the image. This paper presents an adaptive feature preserving bidirectional flow process, where an inverse diffusion is performed to enhance edges along the normal directions to the isophote lines (edges), while a normal diffusion is done to remove artifacts (''jaggies'') along the tangent directions. In order to preserve image features such as edges, angles and textures, the nonlinear diffusion coefficients are locally adjusted according to the first and second order directional derivatives of the image. Experimental results on synthetic images and nature images demonstrate that our interpolation algorithm substantially improves the subjective quality of the interpolated images over conventional interpolations.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, bidirectional flow, directionalderivatives, edge enhancement, image interpolation, inverse flow, shock filter.

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48 Investigating Polynomial Interpolation Functions for Zooming Low Resolution Digital Medical Images

Authors: Maninder Pal

Abstract:

Medical digital images usually have low resolution because of nature of their acquisition. Therefore, this paper focuses on zooming these images to obtain better level of information, required for the purpose of medical diagnosis. For this purpose, a strategy for selecting pixels in zooming operation is proposed. It is based on the principle of analog clock and utilizes a combination of point and neighborhood image processing. In this approach, the hour hand of clock covers the portion of image to be processed. For alignment, the center of clock points at middle pixel of the selected portion of image. The minute hand is longer in length, and is used to gain information about pixels of the surrounding area. This area is called neighborhood pixels region. This information is used to zoom the selected portion of the image. The proposed algorithm is implemented and its performance is evaluated for many medical images obtained from various sources such as X-ray, Computerized Tomography (CT) scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). However, for illustration and simplicity, the results obtained from a CT scanned image of head is presented. The performance of algorithm is evaluated in comparison to various traditional algorithms in terms of Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), maximum error, SSIM index, mutual information and processing time. From the results, the proposed algorithm is found to give better performance than traditional algorithms.

Keywords: Zooming, interpolation, medical images, resolution.

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47 A New Quadrature Rule Derived from Spline Interpolation with Error Analysis

Authors: Hadi Taghvafard

Abstract:

We present a new quadrature rule based on the spline interpolation along with the error analysis. Moreover, some error estimates for the reminder when the integrand is either a Lipschitzian function, a function of bounded variation or a function whose derivative belongs to Lp are given. We also give some examples to show that, practically, the spline rule is better than the trapezoidal rule.

Keywords: Quadrature, Spline interpolation, Trapezoidal rule, Numericalintegration, Error analysis.

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46 Solving One-dimensional Hyperbolic Telegraph Equation Using Cubic B-spline Quasi-interpolation

Authors: Marzieh Dosti, Alireza Nazemi

Abstract:

In this paper, the telegraph equation is solved numerically by cubic B-spline quasi-interpolation .We obtain the numerical scheme, by using the derivative of the quasi-interpolation to approximate the spatial derivative of the dependent variable and a low order forward difference to approximate the temporal derivative of the dependent variable. The advantage of the resulting scheme is that the algorithm is very simple so it is very easy to implement. The results of numerical experiments are presented, and are compared with analytical solutions by calculating errors L2 and L∞ norms to confirm the good accuracy of the presented scheme.

Keywords: Cubic B-spline, quasi-interpolation, collocation method, second-order hyperbolic telegraph equation.

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45 Low Resolution Face Recognition Using Mixture of Experts

Authors: Fatemeh Behjati Ardakani, Fatemeh Khademian, Abbas Nowzari Dalini, Reza Ebrahimpour

Abstract:

Human activity is a major concern in a wide variety of applications, such as video surveillance, human computer interface and face image database management. Detecting and recognizing faces is a crucial step in these applications. Furthermore, major advancements and initiatives in security applications in the past years have propelled face recognition technology into the spotlight. The performance of existing face recognition systems declines significantly if the resolution of the face image falls below a certain level. This is especially critical in surveillance imagery where often, due to many reasons, only low-resolution video of faces is available. If these low-resolution images are passed to a face recognition system, the performance is usually unacceptable. Hence, resolution plays a key role in face recognition systems. In this paper we introduce a new low resolution face recognition system based on mixture of expert neural networks. In order to produce the low resolution input images we down-sampled the 48 × 48 ORL images to 12 × 12 ones using the nearest neighbor interpolation method and after that applying the bicubic interpolation method yields enhanced images which is given to the Principal Component Analysis feature extractor system. Comparison with some of the most related methods indicates that the proposed novel model yields excellent recognition rate in low resolution face recognition that is the recognition rate of 100% for the training set and 96.5% for the test set.

Keywords: Low resolution face recognition, Multilayered neuralnetwork, Mixture of experts neural network, Principal componentanalysis, Bicubic interpolation, Nearest neighbor interpolation.

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44 Design of Nonlinear Observer by Using Chebyshev Interpolation based on Formal Linearization

Authors: Kazuo Komatsu, Hitoshi Takata

Abstract:

This paper discusses a design of nonlinear observer by a formal linearization method using an application of Chebyshev Interpolation in order to facilitate processes for synthesizing a nonlinear observer and to improve the precision of linearization. A dynamic nonlinear system is linearized with respect to a linearization function, and a measurement equation is transformed into an augmented linear one by the formal linearization method which is based on Chebyshev interpolation. To the linearized system, a linear estimation theory is applied and a nonlinear observer is derived. To show effectiveness of the observer design, numerical experiments are illustrated and they indicate that the design shows remarkable performances for nonlinear systems.

Keywords: nonlinear system, nonlinear observer, formal linearization, Chebyshev interpolation.

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43 Supercompression for Full-HD and 4k-3D (8k)Digital TV Systems

Authors: Mario Mastriani

Abstract:

In this work, we developed the concept of supercompression, i.e., compression above the compression standard used. In this context, both compression rates are multiplied. In fact, supercompression is based on super-resolution. That is to say, supercompression is a data compression technique that superpose spatial image compression on top of bit-per-pixel compression to achieve very high compression ratios. If the compression ratio is very high, then we use a convolutive mask inside decoder that restores the edges, eliminating the blur. Finally, both, the encoder and the complete decoder are implemented on General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) cards. Specifically, the mentio-ned mask is coded inside texture memory of a GPGPU.

Keywords: General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units, Image Compression, Interpolation, Super-resolution.

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42 Efficient CT Image Volume Rendering for Diagnosis

Authors: HaeNa Lee, Sun K. Yoo

Abstract:

Volume rendering is widely used in medical CT image visualization. Applying 3D image visualization to diagnosis application can require accurate volume rendering with high resolution. Interpolation is important in medical image processing applications such as image compression or volume resampling. However, it can distort the original image data because of edge blurring or blocking effects when image enhancement procedures were applied. In this paper, we proposed adaptive tension control method exploiting gradient information to achieve high resolution medical image enhancement in volume visualization, where restored images are similar to original images as much as possible. The experimental results show that the proposed method can improve image quality associated with the adaptive tension control efficacy.

Keywords: Tension control, Interpolation, Ray-casting, Medical imaging analysis.

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41 Implementation of Meshless FEM for Engineering Applications

Authors: A. Seidl, Th. Schmidt

Abstract:

Meshless Finite Element Methods, namely element-free Galerkin and point-interpolation method were implemented and tested concerning their applicability to typical engineering problems like electrical fields and structural mechanics. A class-structure was developed which allows a consistent implementation of these methods together with classical FEM in a common framework. Strengths and weaknesses of the methods under investigation are discussed. As a result of this work joint usage of meshless methods together with classical Finite Elements are recommended.

Keywords: Finite Elements, meshless, element-free Galerkin, point-interpolation.

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40 Better Perception of Low Resolution Images Using Wavelet Interpolation Techniques

Authors: Tarun Gulati, Kapil Gupta, Dushyant Gupta

Abstract:

High resolution images are always desired as they contain the more information and they can better represent the original data. So, to convert the low resolution image into high resolution interpolation is done. The quality of such high resolution image depends on the interpolation function and is assessed in terms of sharpness of image. This paper focuses on Wavelet based Interpolation Techniques in which an input image is divided into subbands. Each subband is processed separately and finally combined the processed subbandsto get the super resolution image. 

Keywords: SWT, DWTSR, DWTSWT, DWCWT.

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39 Low Resolution Single Neural Network Based Face Recognition

Authors: Jahan Zeb, Muhammad Younus Javed, Usman Qayyum

Abstract:

This research paper deals with the implementation of face recognition using neural network (recognition classifier) on low-resolution images. The proposed system contains two parts, preprocessing and face classification. The preprocessing part converts original images into blurry image using average filter and equalizes the histogram of those image (lighting normalization). The bi-cubic interpolation function is applied onto equalized image to get resized image. The resized image is actually low-resolution image providing faster processing for training and testing. The preprocessed image becomes the input to neural network classifier, which uses back-propagation algorithm to recognize the familiar faces. The crux of proposed algorithm is its beauty to use single neural network as classifier, which produces straightforward approach towards face recognition. The single neural network consists of three layers with Log sigmoid, Hyperbolic tangent sigmoid and Linear transfer function respectively. The training function, which is incorporated in our work, is Gradient descent with momentum (adaptive learning rate) back propagation. The proposed algorithm was trained on ORL (Olivetti Research Laboratory) database with 5 training images. The empirical results provide the accuracy of 94.50%, 93.00% and 90.25% for 20, 30 and 40 subjects respectively, with time delay of 0.0934 sec per image.

Keywords: Average filtering, Bicubic Interpolation, Neurons, vectorization.

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38 Piecewise Interpolation Filter for Effective Processing of Large Signal Sets

Authors: Anatoli Torokhti, Stanley Miklavcic

Abstract:

Suppose KY and KX are large sets of observed and reference signals, respectively, each containing N signals. Is it possible to construct a filter F : KY → KX that requires a priori information only on few signals, p  N, from KX but performs better than the known filters based on a priori information on every reference signal from KX? It is shown that the positive answer is achievable under quite unrestrictive assumptions. The device behind the proposed method is based on a special extension of the piecewise linear interpolation technique to the case of random signal sets. The proposed technique provides a single filter to process any signal from the arbitrarily large signal set. The filter is determined in terms of pseudo-inverse matrices so that it always exists.

Keywords: Wiener filter, filtering of stochastic signals.

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37 A 24-Bit, 8.1-MS/s D/A Converter for Audio Baseband Channel Applications

Authors: N. Ben Ameur, M. Loulou

Abstract:

This paper study the high-level modelling and design of delta-sigma (ΔΣ) noise shapers for audio Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) so as to eliminate the in-band Signal-to-Noise- Ratio (SNR) degradation that accompany one channel mismatch in audio signal. The converter combines a cascaded digital signal interpolation, a noise-shaping single loop delta-sigma modulator with a 5-bit quantizer resolution in the final stage. To reduce sensitivity of Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) nonlinearities of the last stage, a high pass second order Data Weighted Averaging (R2DWA) is introduced. This paper presents a MATLAB description modelling approach of the proposed DAC architecture with low distortion and swing suppression integrator designs. The ΔΣ Modulator design can be configured as a 3rd-order and allows 24-bit PCM at sampling rate of 64 kHz for Digital Video Disc (DVD) audio application. The modeling approach provides 139.38 dB of dynamic range for a 32 kHz signal band at -1.6 dBFS input signal level.

Keywords: DVD-audio, DAC, Interpolator and Interpolation Filter, Single-Loop ΔΣ Modulation, R2DWA, Clock Jitter

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36 Single Frame Supercompression of Still Images,Video, High Definition TV and Digital Cinema

Authors: Mario Mastriani

Abstract:

Super-resolution is nowadays used for a high-resolution image produced from several low-resolution noisy frames. In this work, we consider the problem of high-quality interpolation of a single noise-free image. Such images may come from different sources, i.e., they may be frames of videos, individual pictures, etc. On the other hand, in the encoder we apply a downsampling via bidimen-sional interpolation of each frame, and in the decoder we apply a upsampling by which we restore the original size of the image. If the compression ratio is very high, then we use a convolutive mask that restores the edges, eliminating the blur. Finally, both, the encoder and the complete decoder are implemented on General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) cards. In fact, the mentioned mask is coded inside texture memory of a GPGPU.

Keywords: General-Purpose computation on Graphics ProcessingUnits, Image Compression, Interpolation, Super-resolution.

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35 Two-dimensional Differential Transform Method for Solving Linear and Non-linear Goursat Problem

Authors: H. Taghvafard, G. H. Erjaee

Abstract:

A method for solving linear and non-linear Goursat problem is given by using the two-dimensional differential transform method. The approximate solution of this problem is calculated in the form of a series with easily computable terms and also the exact solutions can be achieved by the known forms of the series solutions. The method can easily be applied to many linear and non-linear problems and is capable of reducing the size of computational work. Several examples are given to demonstrate the reliability and the performance of the presented method.

Keywords: Quadrature, Spline interpolation, Trapezoidal rule, Numericalintegration, Error analysis.

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34 CT Reconstruction from a Limited Number of X-Ray Projections

Authors: Tao Quang Bang, Insu Jeon

Abstract:

Most CT reconstruction system x-ray computed tomography (CT) is a well established visualization technique in medicine and nondestructive testing. However, since CT scanning requires sampling of radiographic projections from different viewing angles, common CT systems with mechanically moving parts are too slow for dynamic imaging, for instance of multiphase flows or live animals. A large number of X-ray projections are needed to reconstruct CT images, so the collection and calculation of the projection data consume too much time and harmful for patient. For the purpose of solving the problem, in this study, we proposed a method for tomographic reconstruction of a sample from a limited number of x-ray projections by using linear interpolation method. In simulation, we presented reconstruction from an experimental x-ray CT scan of a Aluminum phantom that follows to two steps: X-ray projections will be interpolated using linear interpolation method and using it for CT reconstruction based upon Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (OSEM) method.

Keywords: CT reconstruction, X-ray projections, Interpolation technique, OSEM

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33 Symbolic Analysis of Large Circuits Using Discrete Wavelet Transform

Authors: Ali Al-Ataby , Fawzi Al-Naima

Abstract:

Symbolic Circuit Analysis (SCA) is a technique used to generate the symbolic expression of a network. It has become a well-established technique in circuit analysis and design. The symbolic expression of networks offers excellent way to perform frequency response analysis, sensitivity computation, stability measurements, performance optimization, and fault diagnosis. Many approaches have been proposed in the area of SCA offering different features and capabilities. Numerical Interpolation methods are very common in this context, especially by using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The aim of this paper is to present a method for SCA that depends on the use of Wavelet Transform (WT) as a mathematical tool to generate the symbolic expression for large circuits with minimizing the analysis time by reducing the number of computations.

Keywords: Numerical Interpolation, Sparse Matrices, SymbolicAnalysis, Wavelet Transform.

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32 Development of Integrated GIS Interface for Characteristics of Regional Daily Flow

Authors: Ju Young Lee, Jung-Seok Yang, Jaeyoung Choi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper primarily intends to develop GIS interface for estimating sequences of stream-flows at ungauged stations based on known flows at gauged stations. The integrated GIS interface is composed of three major steps. The first, precipitation characteristics using statistical analysis is the procedure for making multiple linear regression equation to get the long term mean daily flow at ungauged stations. The independent variables in regression equation are mean daily flow and drainage area. Traditionally, mean flow data are generated by using Thissen polygon method. However, method for obtaining mean flow data can be selected by user such as Kriging, IDW (Inverse Distance Weighted), Spline methods as well as other traditional methods. At the second, flow duration curve (FDC) is computing at unguaged station by FDCs in gauged stations. Finally, the mean annual daily flow is computed by spatial interpolation algorithm. The third step is to obtain watershed/topographic characteristics. They are the most important factors which govern stream-flows. In summary, the simulated daily flow time series are compared with observed times series. The results using integrated GIS interface are closely similar and are well fitted each other. Also, the relationship between the topographic/watershed characteristics and stream flow time series is highly correlated.

Keywords: Integrated GIS interface, spatial interpolation algorithm, FDC.

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31 Method of Finding Aerodynamic Characteristic Equations of Missile for Trajectory Simulation

Authors: Attapon Charoenpon, Ekkarach Pankeaw

Abstract:

This paper present a new way to find the aerodynamic characteristic equation of missile for the numerical trajectories prediction more accurate. The goal is to obtain the polynomial equation based on two missile characteristic parameters, angle of attack (α ) and flight speed (╬¢ ). First, the understudied missile is modeled and used for flow computational model to compute aerodynamic force and moment. Assume that performance range of understudied missile where range -10< α <10 and 0< ╬¢ <200. After completely obtained results of all cases, the data are fit by polynomial interpolation to create equation of each case and then combine all equations to form aerodynamic characteristic equation, which will be used for trajectories simulation.

Keywords: Aerodynamic, Characteristic Equation, Angle ofAttack, Polynomial interpolation, Trajectories

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