Puhr(i)puhr ‘Son’s Son’ at the Shahpuhr Inscription at Haji-Abad
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32795
Puhr(i)puhr ‘Son’s Son’ at the Shahpuhr Inscription at Haji-Abad

Authors: Behzad Moeini Sam, Sara Mohammadi Avandi, Abbas Moradi Zirkuhi

Abstract:

Ancient Near East civilizations were successive powers with a similar structure as the Median and Persian Empires that came after them; that is, the ancient Empires were founded under new leadership, and their political power transferred from one nation to another. The replacement of the Iranians instead of the Mesopotamian civilizations caused the Old Iranian languages to influence the Mesopotamian ones. However, the changes were relatively small. This paper aims to compare the word of puhre(ī)puhr or son’s son in Haji-Abad inscription with that of the son of the son in Mesopotamian texts to find out the relationship with the Mesopotamian languages. First, we introduced the morphological derivation of ‘Grandchild’ from the Indo-European to the New Persian language; second, we searched for the same in the Mesopotamian languages from Sumerian to the Neo-Babylonian Period. Thus, we conclude that it is logical to assume puhre(ī)puhr’s (son’s son) morphology at the Haji-Abad inscription may be affected by that of the Mesopotamian languages.

Keywords: Indo-European, Mesopotamia, puhre(ī)puhr, son’s son.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 232

References:


[1] K. Farrok. Shadows in the Desert, Ancient Persia War. Osprey Publishing in Great Britain. 2007
[2] M. Witzel. Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts. Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies 7-3, 9 (EJVS). Harvard University. 2001
[3] H. S. Nyberg. A Manual of Pahlavi. Tehran. Asatir publishing. 2003
[4] R. Beekes. Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. Philadelphia. John Benjamins Publishing. 2011
[5] M. d. Vaan. Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the Other Italic Language. Leiden. Boston. Brill Publisher. 2008
[6] P. Horn. Grundriss der Neupersische Etymologie. Strassburg. Verlag von Karl j.Trubner.1883
[7] G. Windfuhr. The Iranian Languages. London and New York. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. 2009
[8] William. Jackson. An Avesta Grammar in Comparison with Sanskrit. Stuttgart. W. Kohlhammer. 1893
[9] K. Hoffmann and B. Forssman. Avestische Laut und Flexionslehre. Berlin. Innsbruk Verlag. 2004
[10] P.O. Skjærvo. An Introduction to Young Avesta. USA. Harvard University Press. 2007
[11] E. R. P. Karanji. Teach Yourself Avesta Language. Bombay. 2005
[12] J. Duchesne-Guillemin. Les Composes de l’Avesta. Paris. Libraire E. Droz.1936
[13] M. Mayrhofer. Kurzgefasstes etymologisches wörterbuch des Altindischen. Vol II. Heidelberg. Carl Winter Universitatverlag.1953
[14] H. Reichelt. Awestisches Elementarbuch. Heidelberg. Carl Winter Universität verlag.1967
[15] P. O. Skjærvo. An Introduction to Pahlavi. USA. Harvard University Press. 2005
[16] J.P. Mallory, & D.Q Adams. The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. New York. Oxford university press. Published in the United State. 2006
[17] Ch. Bartholomae. Christian & C. H Ethe. & K.Geldner. F. Grundriss der Iranischen Philologie. Srassburg. Verlag von Karl J. Trübner. 1901
[18] R. Schmitt. Wörterbuch der altpersischen Königs inschriften. Wiesbaden. Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag. 2014
[19] D. A. Foxvog. Elementary Sumerian Glossary. California USA. Guerneville. 2014
[20] W. V. Soden. Akkadischen Handwörterbuch. Vol III. Wiesbaden. Otto Harrassowitz.1974
[21] B. Comrie. The World’s Major Languages. London and New York. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. 2009
[22] J. A. Sawyer and J.M.Y Simpson. Concise Encyclopedia of Language and Religion. Amsterdam. New York. Elsevier. 2001
[23] J. Shimron. Language Processing and Acquisition in Languages of Semitic, Root-based, Morphology. Amsterdam. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 2002
[24] L. H. Gray. Introduction to Semitic Comparative Linguistics. Amsterdam. Philo Press.1971
[25] E. Leichty. The Royals Inscriptions of Esarhaddon, King of Assyria (680-669 BC). Indiana. Eisenbrauns. Wonona Lake. 2011
[26] L.W King. First Step in Assyrian. London. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & co. Ltd.1898
[27] C. Mass. The Akkadian Grammar. New York. Harvard University Press. 1996
[28] M.L. Thomsen. An Introduction to its History and Grammatical Structure. Copenhagen Akademisk Forlag. 1984.
[29] R. Wallenfels. The Ancient Near East, an Encyclopedia for Student. New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-publication data: 2000
[30] K. Brown & S, Ogilvie. Concise Encyclopedia Languages of the World. New York. Oxford. Elsevier. 2009
[31] J. Naveh. Early History of the Alphabet. An Introduction to the Semitic Epigraphy and Palaeography. London. Varda Books. 2005
[32] H. Rogers. Writing System, a Linguistic Approach. Australia. Blackwell Publishing. 2005
[33] S. T. Fischer. A History of Writing. Great Britain. St Edmundsbury Press. 2001
[34] P O Skjarvo. An Introduction to Zoroastrianism. USA. Harvard University Press. 2005
[35] S. Langdon. A Sumerian Grammar and Chrestomathy with a Vocabulary of the Principal roots in Sumerian. Paris. Libraire Paul Geuthner.1911
[36] B. Jagersma. A Descriptive Grammar of Sumerian. Leiden. Leiden Universität Verlag. 2010
[37] J. A. Halloran. Sumerian Lexicon. www. Sumerian.org. 1990
[38] K. Volk. A Sumerian Reader. Roma. Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico. 1999
[39] L. Vacin. Šulgi of Ur: Life, Deeds, Ideology, and Legacy of a Mesopotamian Rulers as Reflected Primarily in Literary Texts. London. 2011
[40] O. D. Edzard. Sumerian Grammar. Leiden and Boston. Brill Publisher. 2003
[41] D. Frayne. Pre-Sargonic Period (2700-2350). Toronto. London. Univ ersity of Toronto Press. 1998
[42] F. Thureau-dangin. Les Inscriptions de Sumer et D’Akkad. Paris. Ernest Leroux, Editeur.1905
[43] F. Delitzsch. Sumerischen Glossar. Leipzig. J.C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung. 1914
[44] W. Sallaberger. Die Akkadishe Sprache. Berlin. Wolf Peiser Verlag. 2011
[45] G. Bertin. Abridged Grammars of the Languages of the Cuneiform Inscriptions, Containing, Sumero-Akkadian Grammar, Assyro-Babylon Grammar, Vanic Grammar, Medic Grammar, Old Persian Grammar. Published by Forgotten Books. 2005
[46] F. Thureau-dangin. Die Sumerischen und Akkadischen Königsinchriften. Berlin. Vorderasiatische Bibliothek. 1907
[47] I. J. Gelb. Glossary of Old Akkadian. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.1957
[48] J. Huehnergard. A Grammar of Akkadian.Winona Lake, Indiana. Eisenbrauns. 2011
[49] M. Worthington. Principles of Akkadian Textual Criticism. Boston. Berlin.Walter de Gruyter. 2012
[50] H. Radau. Early Babylonian History Down to the End of the Fourth Dynasty of Ur. London. Oxford University Press American Branch. 1990
[51] F. Delitzsch. Assyrisches Handwörterbuch. Leipzig. J.C.Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung. 1896
[52] K. A. Grayson. Assyrian Rulers of the Third and Second Millennium BC. II (to 1115BC). London and Toronto. University of Toronto Press.1987
[53] I. Starr. State Archives of Assyria. Finland. Helsinki University Press.1990
[54] S. Mercer. Assyrian Grammar with chrestomathy and Glossary. Published by Forgotten Books.1921
[55] J. Black & A. George. A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian. Wiesbaden. Harrassowitz Verlag. 2000
[56] I. J. Gelb & B. Landsberger. The Assyrian Dictionary. Vol 2. USA. Published by the Oriental Institute Chicago, Illinois.1965
[57] G. Smith. History of Assurbanipal. Published by Forgotten Books.1871
[58] R. Borger. Mesopoamisches Zeichelexicon. Ugarit – Verlag. Münster. 2004
[59] E. R. Makki. Decomposition of Hamito-Semitic Roots into their Ultimate Primeval Components. Beirut – Lebanon. Bissan Publisher and distribution. 2013
[60] E. Schrader. Sammlung on Assyrischen und babylonischen Texten in Umschrift und Ubersetzung. Berlin. H. Reuther’s Verlagsbuchhandlung. 1892
[61] E. A. W. Budge. and L.W King. Annals of the Kings of Assyria. Vol I. London. Harrison and His Son Publishing. 1902
[62] S. Schiffer. Keilinschriftliche Spuren der in dre Zwieten Hälfte des 8. Jahrhunderts von den Assyrern nach Mesopotamian deportierten Samarier. Berlin. Wolf Peiser Verlag. 1902
[63] H. Hunger. Babylonische und Assyrische Kolophone. Berlin. Verlag Butzon and Berker Kevelaer.1968
[64] J. Hoftijzer & K. Jongeling. Dictionary of the Northwest Semitic Inscriptions. Leiden and New York. E.J. Brill Publighing.1995
[65] A. Ungnad. Babylonisch-Assyrische Grammatik mit ubungsbuch. Munchen. C.H. Beck’sche Verlagsbuch handlung.1906
[66] D.B Weisberg. Neo-Babylonian Texts in the Oriental Institute Collection. Chicago. University of Chicago Press. 2003
[67] F.H. Wiessbach. Die Keilinschriften der Achämeniden. Leipzig. J.C.Hinrischs’ sche Buchhandlung. 1911
[68] G. Khan. A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic, the Dialect of the Jew Arbel. Leiden and Boston. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Brill. 1999
[69] A. F. John. A Short Grammar of Biblical Aramaic. Berrien Springs, Michigan. Andrews University Press. 1972
[70] F. Buhl. Wilhem Gesenius’ Hebräisches und Aramäisches Handwörterbuch über Alte Testament. Leipzig. Verlag von F.C.W. Vogel.1915
[71] J. Strong. Greek and Hebrew Dictionary of the Bible. Albany. 2000