Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59
59 Multiple Criteria Decision Making for Turkish Air Force Stealth Fighter Aircraft Selection

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

Neutrosophic logic decision analysis is proposed as a method of stealth fighter aircraft selection for Turkish Air Force. The opinion of experts is employed to rank the alternatives across a set of criteria. The analyst uses neutrosophic logic numbers to describe the experts' preferences. This approach can handle the situation in the case of unavailability of precise data, which is most commonly the case in stealth fighter aircraft selection. Neutrosophic logic numbers can consider the imprecision of the factors affecting decision making such as stealth analysis, survivability analysis, and performance analysis. Neutrosophic logic ranking is achieved using weighted arithmetic operator and weighted geometric operator and the alternatives are ranked from best to worst. An example is also presented to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method. 

Keywords: Neutrosophic set theory, stealth fighter aircraft selection, multiple criteria decision-making, neutrosophic logic decision making, Turkish Air Force, MCDM

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58 Improvement of Ground Truth Data for Eye Location on Infrared Driver Recordings

Authors: Sorin Valcan, Mihail Găianu

Abstract:

Labeling is a very costly and time consuming process which aims to generate datasets for training neural networks in several functionalities and projects. For driver monitoring system projects, the need of labeled images has a significant impact on the budget and distribution of effort. This paper presents the modifications done to a ground truth data generation algorithm for 2D eyes location on infrared images with drivers in order to improve the quality of the data and performance of the trained neural networks. The algorithm restrictions become tougher which makes it more accurate but also less constant. The resulting dataset becomes smaller and shall not be altered by any kind of manual labels adjustment before being used in the neural networks training process. These changes resulted in a much better performance of the trained neural networks.

Keywords: Labeling automation, infrared camera, driver monitoring, eye detection, Convolutional Neural Networks.

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57 Void-Free Bonding of Si/Ti/Ni Power Integrated Circuit Chips with Direct Bonding Copper Alumina Substrates through Ag3Sn Intermetallic Interlayer

Authors: Kuan-Yu Chiu, Yin-Hsuan Chen, Tung-Han Chuang

Abstract:

Ti/Ni/Ag/Sn-metallized Si chips were bonded to Ni/Pd/Au-surface finished DBC (Direct Bonding Copper) alumina substrate through the formation of an Ag3Sn intermetallic interlayer by solid–liquid interdiffusion bonding method. The results indicated that the holes and gaps at the bonding interface could be effectively prevented. The intermetallic phases at the bonding interface between the Si/Ti/Ni/Ag/Sn wafer and the DBC substrate were identified as Ag3Sn, Ni3Sn4, and Ni3Sn2. The average bonding strength was about 19.75 MPa, and the maximum bonding strength reached 35.24 MPa.

Keywords: BGBM, Backside Grinding and Backside Metallization, SLID bonding, Solid–liquid Interdiffusion Bonding, Si/Ti/Ni/Sn, Si/Ti/Ni/Ag/Sn, intermetallic compound.

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56 Forecasting the Fluctuation of Currency Exchange Rate Using Random Forest

Authors: L. Basha, E. Gjika

Abstract:

The exchange rate is one of the most important economic variables, especially for a small, open economy such as Albania. Its effect is noticeable on one country's competitiveness, trade and current account, inflation, wages, domestic economic activity and bank stability. This study investigates the fluctuation of Albania’s exchange rates using monthly average foreign currency, Euro (Eur) to Albanian Lek (ALL) exchange rate with a time span from January 2008 to June 2021 and the macroeconomic factors that have a significant effect on the exchange rate. Initially, the Random Forest Regression algorithm is constructed to understand the impact of economic variables in the behavior of monthly average foreign currencies exchange rates. Then the forecast of macro-economic indicators for 12 months was performed using time series models. The predicted values received are placed in the random forest model in order to obtain the average monthly forecast of Euro to Albanian Lek (ALL) exchange rate for the period July 2021 to June 2022.

Keywords: Exchange rate, Random Forest, time series, Machine Learning, forecasting.

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55 Time-Domain Analysis Approaches of Soil-Structure Interaction: A Comparative Study

Authors: Abdelrahman Taha, Niloofar Malekghaini, Hamed Ebrahimian, Ramin Motamed

Abstract:

This paper compares the substructure and direct approaches for soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis in the time domain. In the substructure approach, the soil domain is replaced by a set of springs and dashpots, also referred to as the impedance function, derived through the study of the behavior of a massless rigid foundation. The impedance function is inherently frequency dependent, i.e., it varies as a function of the frequency content of the structural response. To use the frequency-dependent impedance function for time-domain SSI analysis, the impedance function is approximated at the fundamental frequency of the coupled soil-structure system. To explore the potential limitations of the substructure modeling process, a two-dimensional (2D) reinforced concrete frame structure is modeled and analyzed using the direct and substructure approaches. The results show discrepancy between the simulated responses of the direct and substructure models. It is concluded that the main source of discrepancy is likely attributed to the way the impedance functions are calculated, i.e., assuming a massless rigid foundation without considering the presence of the superstructure. Hence, a refined impedance function, considering the presence of the superstructure, shall alternatively be developed. This refined impedance function is expected to improve the simulation accuracy of the substructure approach.

Keywords: Direct approach, impedance function, massless rigid foundation, soil-structure interaction, substructure approach.

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54 The AI Application and Talent Demand of Taiwan High-Tech Manufacturing Industry

Authors: Shi-Yu Lu, Chung-Han Yeh, Li-Ping Chen, Yu-Cheng Chang

Abstract:

This paper uses both quantitative and qualitative approaches to survey the current status of AI-related applications and the structure of key AI jobs in Taiwan's high-tech manufacturing industry, as well as the demand for professional AI talents, skills, and training. The result shows that AI applications and talent demand vary from different industries in many aspects, including technologies used, talent structure, and training methods. This paper serves as a reference for the government to establish appropriate talent training programs, and to reduce the demand gap for professional AI talents in Taiwan manufacturers.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, manufacturing, talent, training.

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53 Psychological Impact of Radiation Versus Its Physiological Effects: Radiation Workers’ Perspective in Medical Centers

Authors: Muhammad Waqar, Touqir Ahmad Afridi, Quratulain Soomro

Abstract:

Radiation is a ghost causing unimaginable physical damage, but its harm is not inevitable. The panic created by previously reported worst-case scenarios i.e., Three Mile Island, Fukushima, Chernobyl, has adversely affected the attitude of radiation workers towards the profession. The psychological effect of radiation-related catastrophes creates an invisible barrier that reduces the efficiency of radiation workers. Careful handling and proper monitoring of radiation decreases the hazards of radiation and proves that the psychological impairment of radiation is myriad fold adverse than its physiological damage. Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) badges with unique identity numbers were provided to 36 radiation workers for a period of one year (2021). TLDs were read quarterly, and doses were recorded for every radiation worker. Annual doses were recorded and compared with national and international standards. Moreover, the period for which an individual worker is expected to reach one year limit of 20 mSv was also calculated. The highest radiation dose for the radiation worker in 2021 was found at 3.2 mSv, which was 16% of the permissible annual dose limit. The average occupational radiation doses ranged from 1.0 mSv to 3.20 mSv. 64% of the employees did not exceed the 10% of the annual limit, receiving less than 2 mSv. The least time for 20 mSv completion was found 6.25 years for the hot-lab technician. As a whole, the 20 mSv completion period ranged from 6.25 to 20 years. We concluded that the annual professional radiation doses were well within the permissible limits of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The fear of radiation is unnecessary and it creates reluctance towards performing their assigned duties and it is also not favorable for the institute. It must be abolished through education and training sessions.

Keywords: TLD, thermoluminescent dosimeter, psychological impact, radiation dose, annual dose limit, PNRA, ICRP, IAEA.

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52 An Insurer’s Investment Model with Reinsurance Strategy under the Modified Constant Elasticity of Variance Process

Authors: K. N. C. Njoku, Chinwendu Best Eleje, Christian Chukwuemeka Nwandu

Abstract:

One of the problems facing most insurance companies is how best the burden of paying claims to its policy holders can be managed whenever need arises. Hence there is need for the insurer to buy a reinsurance contract in order to reduce risk which will enable the insurer to share the financial burden with the reinsurer. In this paper, the insurer’s and reinsurer’s strategy is investigated under the modified constant elasticity of variance (M-CEV) process and proportional administrative charges. The insurer considered investment in one risky asset and one risk free asset where the risky asset is modeled based on the M-CEV process which is an extension of constant elasticity of variance (CEV) process. Next, a nonlinear partial differential equation in the form of Hamilton Jacobi Bellman equation is obtained by dynamic programming approach. Using power transformation technique and variable change, the explicit solutions of the optimal investment strategy and optimal reinsurance strategy are obtained. Finally, some numerical simulations of some sensitive parameters were obtained and discussed in details where we observed that the modification factor only affects the optimal investment strategy and not the reinsurance strategy for an insurer with exponential utility function.

Keywords: Reinsurance strategy, Hamilton Jacobi Bellman equation, power transformation, M-CEV process, exponential utility.

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51 On Musical Information Geometry with Applications to Sonified Image Analysis

Authors: Shannon Steinmetz, Ellen Gethner

Abstract:

In this paper a theoretical foundation is developed to segment, analyze and associate patterns within audio. We explore this on imagery via sonified audio applied to our segmentation framework. The approach involves a geodesic estimator within the statistical manifold, parameterized by musical centricity. We demonstrate viability by processing a database of random imagery to produce statistically significant clusters of similar imagery content.

Keywords: Sonification, musical information geometry, image content extraction, automated quantification, audio segmentation, pattern recognition.

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50 Improving the Compaction Properties and Shear Resistance of Sand Reinforced with COVID-19 Waste Mask Fibers

Authors: Samah Said, Muhsin Elie Rahhal

Abstract:

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, disposable plastic-based face-masks were excessively used worldwide. Therefore, the production and consumption rates of these masks were significantly brought up, which led to severe environmental problems. The main purpose of this research is to test the possibility of reinforcing soil deposits with mask fibers to reuse pandemic-generated waste materials. When testing the compaction properties, the sand was reinforced with a fiber content that increased from 0% to 0.5%, with successive small increments of 0.1%. The optimum content of 0.1% remarkably increased the maximum dry density of the soil and dropped its optimum moisture content. Added to that, it was noticed that 15 mm and rectangular chips were, respectively, the optimum fiber length and shape to maximize the improvement of the sand compaction properties. Regarding the shear strength, fiber contents of 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5% were adopted. The direct shear tests have shown that the highest enhancement was observed for the optimum fiber content of 0.25%. Similar to compaction tests, 15 mm and rectangular chips were respectively the optimum fiber length and shape to extremely enhance the shear resistance of the tested sand.

Keywords: COVID-19, mask fibers, compaction properties, soil reinforcement, shear resistance.

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49 Advancing the Hi-Tech Ecosystem in the Periphery: The Case of the Sea of Galilee Region

Authors: Yael Dubinsky, Orit Hazzan

Abstract:

There is a constant need for hi-tech innovation to be decentralized to peripheral regions. This work describes how we applied Design Science Research (DSR) principles to define what we refer to as the Sea of Galilee (SoG) method. The goal of the SoG method is to harness existing and new technological initiatives in peripheral regions to create a socio-technological network that can initiate and maintain hi-tech activities. The SoG method consists of a set of principles, a stakeholder network, and actual hi-tech business initiatives, including their infrastructure and practices. The three cycles of DSR, the Relevance, Design, and Rigor cycles, lay out a research framework to sharpen the requirements, collect data from case studies, and iteratively refine the SoG method based on the existing knowledge base. We propose that the SoG method can be deployed by regional authorities that wish to be considered as smart regions (an extension of the notion of smart cities).

Keywords: Design Science Research, socio-technological initiatives, Sea of Galilee method, periphery stakeholder network, hi-tech initiatives.

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48 Design and Implementation of Security Middleware for Data Warehouse Signature Framework

Authors: Mayada AlMeghari

Abstract:

Recently, grid middlewares have provided large integrated use of network resources as the shared data and the CPU to become a virtual supercomputer. In this work, we present the design and implementation of the middleware for Data Warehouse Signature (DWS) Framework. The aim of using the middleware in the proposed DWS framework is to achieve the high performance by the parallel computing. This middleware is developed on Alchemi.Net framework to increase the security among the network nodes through the authentication and group-key distribution model. This model achieves the key security and prevents any intermediate attacks in the middleware. This paper presents the flow process structures of the middleware design. In addition, the paper ensures the implementation of security for DWS middleware enhancement with the authentication and group-key distribution model. Finally, from the analysis of other middleware approaches, the developed middleware of DWS framework is the optimal solution of a complete covering of security issues.

Keywords: Middleware, parallel computing, data warehouse, security, group-key, high performance.

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47 Development and Analysis of a Machine to Equally Apply Mineral Fertilizer to Soil on Slopes

Authors: Qurbanov Huseyn Nuraddin

Abstract:

Reliable food supply of the population of a country is one of the main directions of the state's economic policy. Grain growing, which is the basis of agriculture, is important in this area. In the cultivation of cereals on slopes, the application of equal amounts of mineral fertilizers to under the soil before sowing is a very important technological process. The low level of technical equipment in this area prevents producers from providing the country with the necessary quality cereals. Experience in the operation of modern technical means has shown that at present, there is a need to provide an equal amount of fertilizer to under the soil on slopes, fully meeting the agro-technical requirements. No fundamental changes have been made to the industrial machines that fertilize under the soil, and unequal application of fertilizers to under the soil on slopes has been applied. This technological process leads to the destruction of new seedlings and reduced productivity due to intolerance to frost during the winter for the plant planted in the fall. In special climatic conditions, there is an optimal fertilization rate for each agricultural product. The application of fertilizers to the soil is one of the conditions that increase their efficiency in the field. As can be seen, the development of a new technical proposal for fertilizing and plowing the slopes in equal amounts on the slopes, improving the technological and design parameters, taking into account the physical and mechanical properties of fertilizers, is very important. Taking into account the above-mentioned issues, a combined plough was developed in our laboratory. Combined plough carries out pre-sowing technological operation in the cultivation of cereals, providing a smooth equal amount of mineral fertilizers to under the soil on the slopes. Mathematical models of a smooth spreader that evenly distributes fertilizers in the field have been developed. Thus, diagrams and graphs obtained without distribution on the eight partitions of the smooth spreader are constructed under the inclined angles of the slopes. Percentage and productivity of equal distribution in the field were noted by practical and theoretical analysis.

Keywords: Combined plough, mineral fertilizer, equal sowing, fertilizer norm, grain-crops, sowing fertilizer.

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46 Rapid Study on Feature Extraction and Classification Models in Healthcare Applications

Authors: S. Sowmyayani

Abstract:

The advancement of computer-aided design helps the medical force and security force. Some applications include biometric recognition, elderly fall detection, face recognition, cancer recognition, tumor recognition, etc. This paper deals with different machine learning algorithms that are more generically used for any health care system. The most focused problems are classification and regression. With the rise of big data, machine learning has become particularly important for solving problems. Machine learning uses two types of techniques: supervised learning and unsupervised learning. The former trains a model on known input and output data and predicts future outputs. Classification and regression are supervised learning techniques. Unsupervised learning finds hidden patterns in input data. Clustering is one such unsupervised learning technique. The above-mentioned models are discussed briefly in this paper.

Keywords: Supervised learning, unsupervised learning, regression, neural network.

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45 A Framework to Support Reuse in Object-Oriented Software Development

Authors: Fathi Taibi

Abstract:

Reusability is a quality desired attribute in software products. Generally, it could be achieved through adopting development methods that promote it and achieving software qualities that have been linked with high reusability proneness. With the exponential growth in mobile application development, software reuse became an integral part in a substantial number of projects. Similarly, software reuse has become widely practiced in start-up companies. However, this has led to new emerging problems. Firstly, the reused code does not meet the required quality and secondly, the reuse intentions are dubious. This work aims to propose a framework to support reuse in Object-Oriented (OO) software development. The framework comprises a process that uses a proposed reusability assessment metric and a formal foundation to specify the elements of the reused code and the relationships between them. The framework is empirically evaluated using a wide range of open-source projects and mobile applications. The results are analyzed to help understand the reusability proneness of OO software and the possible means to improve it.

Keywords: Software reusability, software metrics, object-oriented software, modularity, low complexity, understandability.

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44 Production of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Fucoxanthin in Cold-Tolerant Diatom Strains

Authors: Nga Phuong Dang, Terje Vasskog, Ashwiny Pandey, Rajnish Kaur Calay

Abstract:

Diatoms hold great potential for nutraceutical production as they are source of high value products such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and pigment fucoxanthin. EPA has proven human health benefits, and fucoxanthin can be used as both medicinal and nutritional ingredient to prevent and treat chronic diseases. The economic perspective of commercial production of a single product from microalgae is not attractive due to the high production cost. To improve the economic viability, we explore the concept of combining the production of both EPA and fucoxanthin in a single process. In our current study, we isolated twelve new microalgae isolates from Ofotfjord. Eight of them are diatoms and 4 of them are cyanobacteria and microalgae. Screening the new diatom isolates revealed that two strains are cold-tolerant diatom which can grow at 10 °C. They accumulated significant amount of lipid, which was up to 40-60% of the dried mass. The EPA contents from the two strains ranged from 15-19% of the total fatty acid, while fucoxanthin concentrations were between 1-1.4% of the dried biomass. Comparing with other studied diatom, this is promising result. The two strains hold promise as source for EPA and fucoxanthin production.

Keywords: Microalgae, fucoxanthin, eicosapentaenoic acid, diatom, fatty acid.

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43 Smart and Connected Aircraft Cabin: A Balancing Act between Operational Cabin Management, Airline Business and Passenger Expectations

Authors: Ralf God, Lothar Kerschgens, Leonardo Goratti, Steven Lemaire

Abstract:

Ubiquitous connectivity is a reality and a basic need for users on ground. Air travel connectivity in the cabin is also becoming increasingly important for passengers during cabin use. Wireless sensor networks that provide information to cabin management systems are being used by airlines to optimize cabin crew workload. In networked cabin systems, communications and digitally transmitted data must be managed by airlines in every direction. Security and privacy, information processing and knowledge management are the current and future requirements for a smart and connected cabin.

Keywords: Smart and connected cabin management, Internet of Things, power management, airline business.

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42 Taiwan’s Democratic Institutions: The Electoral Rise and Recall of Kuomintang’s Han Kuo-yu Mayor

Authors: Ryan Brading

Abstract:

The results of Taiwan’s presidential election, which took place on 11 January 2020, were alarming for the Kuomintang (KMT). A party that was once the pillar of Taiwan’s institutional apparatus is now losing its direction. Since 2016, the inability of KMT to construct a winning presidential election campaign strategy has made its Chinese ancestry an obstacle in Taiwan’s vibrant and transparent democracy. The appearance of the little-known legislator Han Kuo-yu as the leadership alternative opened the possibility of reigniting the party. Han’s victory in the Kaohsiung mayoral election in November 2018 provided hope that Han could also win the presidency. Wrongly described as a populist, Han, however, was defeated in the January 2020 presidential race. This article analyses why Han is not a populist, his triumph in Kaohsiung, humiliation in running for the presidency and suffering a complete ‘loss of face’ when Kaohsiungers democratically ousted him from the mayoral post on 6 June 2020.

Keywords: Populism, ‘1992 Consensus’, Taiwan, youth vote, Han’s recall.

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41 Decomposition of the Customer-Server Interaction in Grocery Shops

Authors: Andreas Ahrens, Ojaras Purvinis Jelena Zāšcerinska

Abstract:

A successful shopping experience without overcrowded shops and long waiting times undoubtedly leads to the release of happiness hormones and is generally considered as the goal of any optimization. Factors influencing the shopping experience can be divided into internal and external ones. External factors are related e. g. to the arrival of the customers to the shop whereas internal factors are linked with the service process itself when checking out (waiting in the queue to the cash register and the scanning of the goods as well as the payment process itself) or any other non-expected delay when changing the status from a visitor to a buyer by choosing goods or items. This paper divides the customer-server interaction in five phases starting with the customer arrival at the shop, the selection of goods, the buyer waiting in the queue to the cash register, the payment process and ending with the customer or buyer departure. Our simulation results show how five phases are intertwined and influence the overall shopping experience. Parameters for measuring the shopping experience based on a burstiness level in each of the five phases of the customer-server interaction are estimated.

Keywords: Customers’ burstiness, cash register, customers’ waiting time, gap distribution function.

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40 Blockchain for IoT Security and Privacy in Healthcare Sector

Authors: Umair Shafique, Hafiz Usman Zia, Fiaz Majeed, Samina Naz, Javeria Ahmed, Maleeha Zainab

Abstract:

The Internet of Things (IoT) has become a hot topic for the last couple of years. This innovative technology has shown promising progress in various areas and the world has witnessed exponential growth in multiple application domains. Researchers are working to investigate its aptitudes to get the best from it by harnessing its true potential. But at the same time, IoT networks open up a new aspect of vulnerability and physical threats to data integrity, privacy, and confidentiality. It is due to centralized control, data silos approach for handling information, and a lack of standardization in the IoT networks. As we know, blockchain is a new technology that involves creating secure distributed ledgers to store and communicate data. Some of the benefits include resiliency, integrity, anonymity, decentralization, and autonomous control. The potential for blockchain technology to provide the key to managing and controlling IoT has created a new wave of excitement around the idea of putting that data back into the hands of the end-users. In this manuscript, we have proposed a model that combines blockchain and IoT networks to address potential security and privacy issues in the healthcare domain and how various stakeholders will interact with the system.

Keywords: Internet of Things, IoT, blockchain, data integrity, authentication, data privacy.

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39 Analyzing the Performance of Phase Change Material Insulation Layer on Food Packaging

Authors: Kasra Ghaemi, Syeda Tasnim, Shohel Mahmud

Abstract:

One of the main issues affecting the quality and shelf life of food products is temperature fluctuation during transportation and storage. Packaging plays an important role in protecting food from environmental conditions, especially thermal variations. In this study, the performance of using microencapsulated Phase Change Material (PCM) as a promising thermal buffer layer in smart food packaging is investigated. The considered insulation layer is evaluated for different thicknesses and the absorbed heat from the environment. The results are presented in terms of the melting time of PCM or provided thermal protection period.

Keywords: Food packaging, phase change material, thermal buffer, protection time.

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38 Developing a Research Culture in the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology at the Central University of Technology, Free State: Implications for Knowledge Management

Authors: Mpho A. Mbeo, Patient Rambe

Abstract:

The 13th year of the Central University of Technology, Free State’s (CUT) transition from a vocational and professional training orientation institution (i.e. a technikon) into a university with a strong research focus has neither been a smooth nor an easy one. At the heart of this transition was the need to transform the psychological faculties of academic and research staffs compliment who were accustomed to training graduates for industrial placement. The lack of a research culture that fully embraces the strong solid ethos of conducting cutting-edge research needs to be addressed. The induction and socialisation of academic staff into the development and execution of cutting-edge research also required the provision of research support and the creation of a conducive academic environment for research, both for emerging and non-research active academics. Drawing on ten cases, consisting of four heads of departments, three seasoned researchers, and three novice researchers, this study explores the challenges faced in establishing a strong research culture at the university. Furthermore, it gives an account of the extent to which the current research interventions have addressed the perceivably “missing research culture”, and the implications of these interventions for knowledge management. Evidence suggests that the capability of an ideal institutional research environment, consisting of mentorship of novice researchers by seasoned researchers, balanced effort into teaching and research responsibilities, should be supported by strong research-oriented leadership. Furthermore, recruitment of research passionate staff, adoption of a salary structure that encourages the retention of excellent scholars should be matched by a coherent research incentive culture to growth research publication outputs. This is critical for building new knowledge and entrenching knowledge management founded on communities of practice and scholarly networking through the documentation and communication of research findings. The study concludes that the multiple policy documents set for the different domains of research may be creating pressure on researchers to engage research activities and increase output at the expense of research quality.

Keywords: Central University of Technology, performance, publication, research culture, university.

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37 Pay Per Click Attribution: Effects on Direct Search Traffic and Purchases

Authors: Toni Raurich, Joan Llonch-Andreu

Abstract:

This research focused on the relationship between Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and traditional advertising. The dominant assumption is that SEM does not help brand awareness and only does it in session as if it were the cost of manufacturing the product being sold. The study is methodologically developed using an experiment where the effects were determined to analyze the billboard effect. The research allowed the cross-linking of theoretical and empirical knowledge on digital marketing. This paper has validated that, this marketing generates retention as traditional advertising would by measuring brand awareness and its improvements. This changes the way performance and brand campaigns are distributed within marketing departments, effectively rebalancing budgets moving forward.

Keywords: Search engine marketing, click-through ratios, pay-per-click, marketing attribution.

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36 A Soft Error Rates Evaluation Method of Combinational Logic Circuit Based on Linear Energy Transfers

Authors: Man Li, Wanting Zhou, Lei Li

Abstract:

Communication stability is the primary concern of communication satellites. Communication satellites are easily affected by particle radiation to generate single event effects (SEE), which leads to soft errors (SE) of combinational logic circuit. The existing research on soft error rates (SER) of combined logic circuit is mostly based on the assumption that the logic gates being bombarded have the same pulse width. However, in the actual radiation environment, the pulse widths of the logic gates being bombarded are different due to different linear energy transfers (LET). In order to improve the accuracy of SER evaluation model, this paper proposes a soft error rates evaluation method based on LET. In this paper, we analyze the influence of LET on the pulse width of combinational logic and establish the pulse width model based on LET. Based on this model, the error rate of test circuit ISCAS’85 is calculated. Experimental results show that this model can be used for SER evaluation.

Keywords: Communication satellite, pulse width, soft error rates, linear energy transfer, LET.

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35 Smart Airport: Application of Internet of Things for Confronting Airport Challenges

Authors: Ali Safaeianpour, Nima Shamandi

Abstract:

As air traffic expands, many airports have evolved into transit centers for people, information, and commerce, and technology implementation is an absolute part of airport development. Several challenges are in the way of implementing technology in an airport. Airport 4.0 proposes the "Smart Airport" concept, which focuses on using modern technologies such as Big Data, the Internet of Things (IoT), advanced biometric systems, blockchain, and cloud computing to alter and enhance passengers' journeys. Several common IoT concrete topics as partial keys to smart airports are discussed and introduced, ranging from automated check-in systems to exterior tracking processes, with the goal of enlightening more and more insightful ideas and proposals about smart airport solutions. IoT will dramatically alter people's lives by infusing intelligence, boosting the quality of life, and assembling it smarter. This paper reviews the approaches to transforming an airport into a smart airport and describes several enabling components of IoT and challenges that can hinder the implementation of a smart airport's function, which require to be addressed.

Keywords: Airport 4.0, Digital Airport, Smart airport, IoT.

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34 Safe, Effective, and Cost-Efficient Air Cleaning for Populated Rooms and Entire Buildings Based on the Disinfecting Power of Vaporized Hypochlorous Acid

Authors: D. Boecker, R. Breves, F. Herth, Z. Zhang, C. Bulitta

Abstract:

Pathogen-carrying aerosol particles are recognized as important infection carriers like those in the current Corona pandemic. This infection route is often underestimated yet represents the infection route that has been least systematically countered to date. Particularly, the transmission indoors is of the highest concern but current indoor safety measures (e.g.: distancing, masks, filters) provide only limited protection. Inhalation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) containing aerosols may become an alternate route to attack the incubating microbes in-situ and so potentially lead to a reduction of symptoms of already infected individuals. We investigated a facility-wide air-disinfection concept utilizing the potential of vaporized HOCl to become a disinfecting agent for populated indoor atmospheres. Aerosolized bacterial microbes were used as surrogates for a viral contamination, particularly the enveloped coronavirus. For the room air purification tests we aerosolized bacterial suspensions into lab chambers preloaded with vaporized HOCl solutions. Concentration of ‘free active chlorine’ in the test chamber atmosphere was determined with a special gas sensor system (Draeger AG, Lübeck, Germany) controlling the amount of vaporized HOCl via an aerosolis® device (oji Europe GmbH, Nauen, Germany). We could confirm the disinfecting power of HOCl in suspensions and determined the high efficacy of vaporized HOCl to disinfect atmospheres of populated indoor places at safe and non-irritant levels.

Keywords: Hypochlorous acid, HOCl, indoor air cleaning, infection control, microbial air burden, protective atmosphere.

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33 Machine Learning Techniques for COVID-19 Detection: A Comparative Analysis

Authors: Abeer Aljohani

Abstract:

The COVID-19 virus spread has been one of the extreme pandemics across the globe. It is also referred as corona virus which is a contagious disease that continuously mutates into numerous variants. Currently, the B.1.1.529 variant labeled as Omicron is detected in South Africa. The huge spread of COVID-19 disease has affected several lives and has surged exceptional pressure on the healthcare systems worldwide. Also, everyday life and the global economy have been at stake. Numerous COVID-19 cases have produced a huge burden on hospitals as well as health workers. To reduce this burden, this paper predicts COVID-19 disease based on the symptoms and medical history of the patient. As machine learning is a widely accepted area and gives promising results for healthcare, this research presents an architecture for COVID-19 detection using ML techniques integrated with feature dimensionality reduction. This paper uses a standard University of California Irvine (UCI) dataset for predicting COVID-19 disease. This dataset comprises symptoms of 5434 patients. This paper also compares several supervised ML techniques on the presented architecture. The architecture has also utilized 10-fold cross validation process for generalization and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique for feature reduction. Standard parameters are used to evaluate the proposed architecture including F1-Score, precision, accuracy, recall, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Area under Curve (AUC). The results depict that Decision tree, Random Forest and neural networks outperform all other state-of-the-art ML techniques. This result can be used to effectively identify COVID-19 infection cases.

Keywords: Supervised machine learning, COVID-19 prediction, healthcare analytics, Random Forest, Neural Network.

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32 Fast Prototyping for Atmospheric Plasma Sources Integration into Air Hand Dryers

Authors: Abdel Majid Kassir, Joël Sonnard, Ludovic Roulin, Martine Baudin, Gilles Courret, Wolfram Manuel Brück

Abstract:

Motivated by the current COVID-19 pandemic and the need to find alternative methods to contain and battle it, the purpose of this innovative project is to conceive a disinfection module equipped with a cold atmospheric plasma source. Such a plasma source was developed for a potential integration into pulsed air hand dryers. This type of plasma is known for its ability to generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that initiate bio-molecular reactions involved in bacterial and viral deactivation mechanisms. This study shows how additive manufacturing helped accelerate the prototyping of a nozzle allowing the preservation of the plasma flow from circulation cells and external interferences in the discharge’s surrounding.

Keywords: Cold atmospheric plasma, hand disinfection, hand sanitization, bacterial and viral deactivation, plasma chemistry.

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31 The Role of the Studs Configuration in the Structural Response of Composite Bridges

Authors: M. M. Mohammadi Dehnavi, A. De Angelis, M. R. Pecce

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This paper deals with the role of studs in structural response for steel-concrete composite beams. A tri-linear slip-shear strength law is assumed according to literature and codes provisions for developing a finite element (FE) model of a case study of a composite deck. The variation of the strength and ductility of the connection is implemented in the numerical model carrying out nonlinear analyses. The results confirm the utility of the model to evaluate the importance of the studs capacity, ductility and strength, on the global response (ductility and strength) of the structures but also to analyse the trend of slip and shear at interface along the beams.

Keywords: Shear Load, slip, steel-concrete composite bridge, stud connectors.

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30 Climate Related Financial Risk for Automobile Industry and Impact to Financial Institutions

Authors: S. Mahalakshmi, B. Senthil Arasu

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As per the recent changes happening in the global policies, climate related changes and the impact it causes across every sector are viewed as green swan events – in essence, climate related changes can happen often and lead to risk and lot of uncertainty, but need to be mitigated instead of considering them as black swan events. This brings about a question on how this risk can be computed, so that the financial institutions can plan to mitigate it. Climate related changes impact all risk types – credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk, reputational risk and others. And the models required to compute this have to consider the different industrial needs of the counterparty, as well as the factors that are contributing to this – be it in the form of different risk drivers, or the different transmission channels or the different approaches and the granular form of data availability. This brings out to the suggestion that the climate related changes, though it affects Pillar I risks, will be a Pillar II risk. This has to be modeled specifically based on the financial institution’s actual exposure to different industries, instead of generalizing the risk charge. And this will have to be considered as the additional capital to be met by the financial institution in addition to their Pillar I risks, as well as the existing Pillar II risks. In this paper, we present a risk assessment framework to model and assess climate change risks - for both credit and market risks. This framework helps in assessing the different scenarios, and how the different transition risks affect the risk associated with the different parties. This research paper delves on the topic of increase in concentration of greenhouse gases, that in turn causing global warming. It then considers the various scenarios of having the different risk drivers impacting credit and market risk of an institution, by understanding the transmission channels, and also considering the transition risk. The paper then focuses on the industry that’s fast seeing a disruption: automobile industry. The paper uses the framework to show how the climate changes and the change to the relevant policies have impacted the entire financial institution. Appropriate statistical models for forecasting, anomaly detection and scenario modeling are built to demonstrate how the framework can be used by the relevant agencies to understand their financial risks. The paper also focuses on the climate risk calculation for the Pillar II capital calculations, and how it will make sense for the bank to maintain this in addition to their regular Pillar I and Pillar II capital.

Keywords: Capital calculation, climate risk, credit risk, pillar II risk, scenario modeling.

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29 Hybrid Project Management Model Based on Lean and Agile Approach

Authors: F. Z. Eddoug, J. Benhra, R. Benabbou

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Excellence and Success are the ultimate goal for any project and in order to achieve it, every project manager looks for the convenient tools and methods. This work proposes a framework that seeks an efficient management of general project through a lean and agile approach. In order to get this objective, the article was divided in two stages, the first one was emphasized on exploring and analyzing the existing project management models and then in the second one the desired framework was created, beginning by focusing on seven existing models and then proposing for each phase of the framework the convenient lean and agile tools.

Keywords: Agility, hybrid project management, lean, scrum.

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28 Outage Capacity Analysis for Next Generation Wireless Communication Using Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access

Authors: Md. Sohidul Islam, Ahmad Fartheen Khan

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In recent times, Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) has received significant attention as an upcoming candidate in the world of 5G systems. The main reason for getting NOMA in 5G is because of its capacity to provide services to many users who have the same time and frequency resources. It is best used as "multiple-input, multiple-output" (MIMO) technology. In this paper, we are going to investigate outage probability as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and target rate user. These methods will be implemented using cooperative communication and fair power allocation, respectively.

Keywords: Non-orthogonal Multiple Access, Fair Power Allocation, Outage Probability, Target Rate User, Cooperative Communication, massive multiple input multiple output, MIMO, Successive Interference Cancellation.

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27 Modelling an Investment Portfolio with Mandatory and Voluntary Contributions under M-CEV Model

Authors: Amadi Ugwulo Chinyere, Lewis D. Gbarayorks, Emem N. H. Inamete

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In this paper, the mandatory contribution, additional voluntary contribution (AVC) and administrative charges are merged together to determine the optimal investment strategy (OIS) for a pension plan member (PPM) in a defined contribution (DC) pension scheme under the modified constant elasticity of variance (M-CEV) model. We assume that the voluntary contribution is a stochastic process and a portfolio consisting of one risk free asset and one risky asset modeled by the M-CEV model is considered. Also, a stochastic differential equation consisting of PPM’s monthly contributions, voluntary contributions and administrative charges is obtained. More so, an optimization problem in the form of Hamilton Jacobi Bellman equation which is a nonlinear partial differential equation is obtained. Using power transformation and change of variables method, an explicit solution of the OIS and the value function are obtained under constant absolute risk averse (CARA). Furthermore, numerical simulations on the impact of some sensitive parameters on OIS were discussed extensively. Finally, our result generalizes some existing result in the literature.

Keywords: DC pension fund, modified constant elasticity of variance, optimal investment strategies, voluntary contribution, administrative charges.

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26 Comparison and Characterization of Dyneema™ HB-210 and HB-212 for Accelerated UV Aging

Authors: Jonmichael A. Weaver, David A. Miller

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Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) presents several distinct advantages as a material with a high strength to weight ratio, durability, and neutron stability. Understanding the change in the mechanical performance of UHMWPE due to environmental exposure is key to safety for future applications. Dyneema® HB-210, a 15 µm diameter UHMWPE multi-filament fiber laid up in a polyurethane matrix in [0/ 90]2, with a thickness of 0.17 mm is compared to the same fiber and orientation system, HB-212, with a rubber-based matrix under UV aging conditions. UV aging tests according to ASTM-G154 were performed on both HB-210 and HB-212 to interrogate the change in mechanical properties, as measured through dynamic mechanical analysis and imaged using a scanning electron microscope. These results showed a decrease in both the storage modulus and loss modulus of the aged material compared to the unaged, even though the tan δ slightly increased. Material degradation occurred at a higher rate in Dyneema® HB-212 compared to HB-210. The HB-210 was characterized for the effects of 100 hours of UV aging via dynamic mechanical analysis. Scanning electron microscope images were taken of the HB-210 and HB-212 to identify the primary damage mechanisms in the matrix. Embrittlement and matrix spall were the products of prolonged UV exposure and erosion, resulting in decreased mechanical properties.

Keywords: Composite materials, material characterization, UV aging, UHMWPE.

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25 On a Theoretical Framework for Language Learning Apps Evaluation

Authors: Juan Manuel Real-Espinosa

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This paper addresses the first step to evaluate language learning apps: what theoretical framework to adopt when designing the app evaluation framework. The answer is not just one, since there are several options that could be proposed. However, the question to be clarified is to what extent the learning design of apps is based on a specific learning approach, or on the contrary, on a fusion of elements from several theoretical proposals and paradigms, such as m-learning, Mobile Assisted Language Learning and a number of theories about language acquisition. The present study suggests that the reality is closer to the second assumption. This implies that the theoretical framework against which the learning design of the apps should be evaluated, must also be a hybrid theoretical framework, which integrates evaluation criteria from the different theories involved in language learning through mobile applications.

Keywords: Action-oriented approach, apps evaluation, mobile-assisted language learning, post-method pedagogy.

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24 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment in Language Teaching

Authors: Hana Maresova, Daniel Ecler, Miroslava Mensikova

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This article focuses on the use of 3D multi-user virtual environment in language teaching and presents the results of a four-year research at the Palacky University Olomouc Faculty of Education (Czech Republic). Language teaching was conducted in an experimental form in the 3D virtual worlds of Second Life and Kitely (experimental group) and, in parallel to this, there was also traditional teaching conducted on identical topics in the form of lectures using a textbook (control group). The didactic test, which was presented to both of the groups in an identical form before the start of teaching and after its implementation, verified the effect of teaching in the experimental group by comparing the achieved results of both groups. Out of the three components of mother tongue teaching (grammar, literature, composition and communication education) students achieved partial better results (in the case of points focused on the visualization of the subject matter, these were statistically significant) in literature. Students from the control group performed better in grammar and composition. Based on the achieved results, we can state that the most appropriate use of multi-user virtual environment (MUVE) can be seen in teaching those topics that have the possibility of dramatization, experiential learning and group cooperation.

Keywords: 3D virtual reality, multiuser environments, online education, language education.

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23 Digital Homeostasis: Tangible Computing as a Multi-Sensory Installation

Authors: Andrea Macruz

Abstract:

This paper explores computation as a process for design by examining how computers can become more than an operative strategy in a designer's toolkit. It documents this, building upon concepts of neuroscience and Antonio Damasio's Homeostasis Theory, which is the control of bodily states through feedback intended to keep conditions favorable for life. To do this, it follows a methodology through algorithmic drawing and discusses the outcomes of three multi-sensory design installations, which culminated from a course in an academic setting. It explains both the studio process that took place to create the installations and the computational process that was developed, related to the fields of algorithmic design and tangible computing. It discusses how designers can use computational range to achieve homeostasis related to sensory data in a multi-sensory installation. The outcomes show clearly how people and computers interact with different sensory modalities and affordances. They propose using computers as meta-physical stabilizers rather than tools.

Keywords: Antonio Damasio, emotional feedback, algorithmic drawing, homeostasis, multi-sensory installation, neuroscience.

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22 Developing a Practice Guideline for Enhancing Communication in Hearing Families with Deaf Children

Authors: Nomataru P. Gontse, Lavanithum Joseph

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Deafness coupled with a lack of support and resources in developing countries poses a serious threat to the well- being of children. The mismatch between the needs of persons with disabilities and the resources available to them is a key factor in service provision in resource constrained contexts. Furthermore, deafness in children is the most common childhood sensory disorder in developing countries, and as such seriously affected with regard to resource constraints. This paper discusses the issues and research protocol for a Ph.D. study that aims to develop a practice guideline that is contextually sensitive and includes an interdisciplinary approach that will improve the outcomes of learners and the relationships in hearing households with deaf learners in rural areas of the Eastern Cape, one of the poorest provinces in South Africa. The guideline developed will consider the lived experiences of deaf children and their hearing families on the impact deafness has on their relationships and communication at home. Ethical clearance for the study has been obtained. The methodology is a mixed-methods approach in the form of a survey using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with deaf learners in primary and high school and their hearing parents to get their perspective on the impact deafness has on their relationships and communication at home. The study is conducted using adolescent learners from Grades 7 to 12 (excluding learners younger than 12 years and older than 21 years). An audiologist, teachers, and support staff will also give their views on how the intervention is currently done and possible suggestions on how management can be done differently. Data collection will be conducted in isiXhosa by the researcher, as isiXhosa is dominant in this region. The interviews will be conducted in South African Sign Language by the sign language interpreter for deaf learners and educational professionals. An expected outcome for this study is the development of recommendations and a practice guideline for deaf children diagnosed late from rural or under-resourced environments. To ensure the implementation of the findings, in the end, professionals will be given feedback on the outcomes of the study so that they can identify areas within their practices that require updated knowledge. The developed guideline is expected to have an impact on the Department of Education policies both regionally and nationally, providing recommendations for a strategic management plan and practice guidelines for this vulnerable and marginalized population. The IsiXhosa specific context could be generalized to other similar contexts.

Keywords: Deafness, family-centred approach, early identification, rural communities.

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21 The Power of Indigenous Peoples in Decision-Making Processes of Mining Projects: The Pilbara Region

Authors: K. N. Penna, J. P. English

Abstract:

The destruction of the Juukan Gorge rock shelters in 2020 has catalysed impetus within Australian society for a significant change in engagement with Indigenous Peoples, and the approach to Indigenous cultural heritage, both within the Pilbara region and more broadly across Australia. Culture-based and people-centred approaches are inherent to inclusive sustainable development and Free, Prior, Informed Consent, outcomes encouraged by international and local recommendations on the human rights and cultural heritage preservation of Indigenous peoples. In this paper, we present an interpretive model of an evolved process for mining project development, incorporating culture-based and people-centred approaches, based on the Theory U system change method. The evolved process advocates a change in organisational mindset and culture, and a comprehensive understanding of Indigenous Peoples’ culture and values, as the foundations for increasing their influence and achieving mutually beneficial developments.

Keywords: Indigenous Engagement, mining industry, culture-based approach, people-centred approach, Theory U.

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20 Intellectual Property Implications in the Context of Space Exploration with a Focus on European Space Agency Rules and Regulations

Authors: Linda Ana Maria Ungureanu

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This article details the manner in which European law establishes the protection and ownership rights over works created in off-world environments or in relation to space exploration. In this sense, the analysis is focused on identifying the legal treatment applicable to creative works based on the provisions regulated under the International Space Treaties, on one side, and the International Intellectual Property (IP) Treaties and subsequent EU legislation, on the other side, with a special interest on European Space Agency (ESA) Rules and Regulations. Furthermore, the article analyses the manner in which ESA regulates the ownership regime applicable for creative works, taking into account the relationship existing between the inventor/creator and ESA and the environment in which the creative work was developed. Moreover, the article sets a series of de lege ferenda proposals for the regulation of IP matters in the context of space exploration, the main purpose being to identify legal measures and steps that need to be taken in order to ensure that creative activities are fostered and understood as a significant catalyst for encouraging space exploration.

Keywords: ESA guidelines, EU legislation, intellectual property law, international IP treaties.

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19 Low Sulfur Diesel Like Fuel Oil from Quick Remediation Process of Waste Oil Sludge

Authors: Isam A. H. Al Zubaidi

Abstract:

Low sulfur diesel like fuel oil was produced from a quick remediation process of waste oil sludge (WOS). This quick process will reduce the volume of the WOS in petroleum refineries as well as oil fields by transferring the waste to more beneficial product. The practice includes mixing process of WOS with commercial diesel fuel. Different ratios of WOS to diesel fuel were prepared ranging 1:1 to 20:1 by mass. The mixture was continuously mixed for 10 minutes using a bench-type overhead stirrer, and followed by the filtration process to separate the soil waste from filtrate oil product. The quantity and the physical properties of the oil filtrate were measured. It was found that the addition of up to 15% WOS to diesel fuel was accepted without dramatic changes to the properties of diesel fuel. The amount of WOS was decreased by about 60% by mass. This means that about 60% of the mass of sludge was recovered as light fuel oil. The physical properties of the resulting fuel from 10% sludge mixing ratio showed that the specific gravity, ash content, carbon residue, asphaltene content, viscosity, diesel index, cetane number, and calorific value were affected slightly. The color was changed to light black. The sulfur content was increased also. This requires another process to reduce the sulfur content of resulting light fuel. A desulfurization process was achieved using adsorption techniques with activated biomaterial to reduce the sulfur content to acceptable limits. Adsorption process by ZnCl2 activated date palm kernel powder was effective for improvement of the physical properties of diesel like fuel. The final sulfur content was increased to 0.185 wt%. This diesel like fuel can be used in all tractors, buses, tracks inside and outside the refineries. The solid remaining seems to be smooth and can be mixed with asphalt mixture for asphalting the roads or can be used with other materials as asphalt coating material for constructed buildings. Through this process, valuable fuel has been recovered, and the amount of waste material had decreased.

Keywords: Oil sludge, diesel fuel, blending process, filtration process.

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18 Adopting Artificial Intelligence and Deep Learning Techniques in Cloud Computing for Operational Efficiency

Authors: Sandesh Achar

Abstract:

Artificial intelligence (AI) is being increasingly incorporated into many applications across various sectors such as health, education, security, and agriculture. Recently, there has been rapid development in cloud computing technology, resulting in AI’s implementation into cloud computing to enhance and optimize the technology service rendered. The deployment of AI in cloud-based applications has brought about autonomous computing, whereby systems achieve stated results without human intervention. Despite the amount of research into autonomous computing, work incorporating AI/ML into cloud computing to enhance its performance and resource allocation remains a fundamental challenge. This paper highlights different manifestations, roles, trends, and challenges related to AI-based cloud computing models. This work reviews and highlights investigations and progress in the domain. Future directions are suggested for leveraging AI/ML in next-generation computing for emerging computing paradigms such as cloud environments. Adopting AI-based algorithms and techniques to increase operational efficiency, cost savings, automation, reducing energy consumption and solving complex cloud computing issues are the major findings outlined in this paper.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, AI, cloud computing, deep learning, machine learning, ML, internet of things, IoT.

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17 Restored CO2 from Flue Gas and Utilization by Converting to Methanol by 3 Step Processes: Steam Reforming, Reverse Water Gas Shift, and Hydrogenation

Authors: R. Jitrwung, K. Krekkeitsakul, C. Kumpidet, J. Tepkeaw, K. Jaikengdee, A. Wannajampa, W. Pathaveekongka

Abstract:

Flue gas discharging from coal fired or gas combustion power plant is containing partially carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 is a greenhouse gas which has been concerned to the global warming. Carbon Capture Storage and Utilization (CCSU) is a topic which is a tool to deal with this CO2 realization. In this paper, the Flue gas is drawn down from the chimney and filtered then it is compressed to build up the pressure until 8 barg. This compressed flue gas is sent to three stages Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) which is filled with activated carbon. The experiment showed the optimum adsorption pressure at 7 barg at which CO2 can be adsorbed step by step in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd stages obtaining CO2 concentration 29.8, 66.4, and 96.7% respectively. The mixed gas concentration from the last step composed of 96.7% CO2, 2.7% N2 and 0.6% O2. This mixed CO2 product gas obtained from 3 stages PSA contained high concentration of CO2 which is ready to be used for methanol synthesis. The mixed CO2 was experimented in 5-liter methanol synthesis reactor skid by 3 step processes: steam reforming, reverse water gas shift then hydrogenation. The result showed that the ratio of mixed CO2 and CH4 70/30, 50/50, 30/70 and 10/90 yielded methanol 2.4, 4.3, 5.6 and 5.3 L/day and saved 40, 30, 15, and 7% CO2 respectively. The optimum condition (positive in both methanol and CO2 consumption) was mixed CO2/CH4 ratio 47/53% by volume which yielded 4.2 L/day methanol and saved 32% CO2 compared with traditional methanol production from methane steam reforming (5 L/day) but no CO2 consumption.

Keywords: Carbon capture storage and utilization, pressure swing adsorption, reforming, methanol.

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16 Enhancing Warehousing Operations in Cold Supply Chain through the Use of IoT and LiFi Technologies

Authors: S. El-Gamal, P. Hossam, A. Abd El Aziz, R. Mahmoud, A. Hassan, D. Hilal, E. Ayman, H. Haytham, O. Khamis

Abstract:

Several concerns fall upon the supply chain especially in cold supply chains. These concerns are mainly in the distribution and storage phases. This research focuses on the storage area, which contains several activities such as the picking activity that faces a lot of obstacles and challenges. The implementation of IoT solutions enables businesses to monitor the temperature of food items, which is perhaps the most critical parameter in cold chains. Therefore, the research at hand proposes a practical solution that would help in eliminating the problems related to ineffective picking for products especially fish and seafood products by using IoT technology, most notably LiFi technology; thus, guaranteeing sufficient picking, reducing waste, and consequently lowering costs. A prototype was specially designed and examined. This research is a single case study research. Two methods of data collection were used; observation and semi-structured interviews. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers and a decision maker at one of the biggest retail stores Carrefour, Alexandria, Egypt to validate the problem and the proposed practical solution using IoT and LiFi technology. A total of three interviews were conducted. As a result, a SWOT analysis was achieved in order to highlight all the strengths and weaknesses of using the recommended LiFi solution in the picking process. According to the investigations, it was found that, the use of IoT and LiFi technology is cost effective, efficient, and reduces human errors, minimizes the percentage of product waste and thus saves money and cost. Therefore, increasing customer satisfaction and profits could be achieved.

Keywords: Cold supply chain, IoT, LiFi, warehousing operation, picking process.

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15 Smart Technology for Hygrothermal Performance of Low Carbon Material Using an Artificial Neural Network Model

Authors: Manal Bouasria, Mohammed-Hichem Benzaama, Valérie Pralong, Yassine El Mendili

Abstract:

Reducing the quantity of cement in cementitious composites can help to reduce the environmental effect of construction materials. Byproducts such as ferronickel slags (FNS), fly ash (FA), and waste as Crepidula fornicata shells (CR) are promising options for cement replacement. In this work, we investigated the relevance of substituting cement with FNS-CR and FA-CR on the mechanical properties of mortar and on the thermal properties of concrete. Foraging intervals ranging from 2 days to 28 days, the mechanical properties are obtained by 3-point bending and compression tests. The chosen mix is used to construct a prototype in order to study the material’s hygrothermal performance. The data collected by the sensors placed on the prototype were utilized to build an artificial neural network.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, cement, circular economy, concrete, byproducts.

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14 Adaptation Measures for Sustainable Development of the Agricultural Potential of the Flood-Risk Zones of Ghareb Lowland, Morocco

Authors: R. Bourziza, W. El Khoumsi, I. Mghabbar, I. Rahou

Abstract:

The flood-risk zones called Merjas are lowlands that are flooded during the rainy season. Indeed, these depressed areas were reclaimed to dry them out in order to exploit their agricultural potential. Thus, farmers were able to start exploiting these drained lands. As the development of modern agriculture in Morocco progressed, farmers began to practice irrigated agriculture. In a context of vulnerability to floods and the need for optimal exploitation of the agricultural potential of the flood-risk zones, the question of how farmers are adapting to this context and the degree of exploitation of this potential arises. It is in these circumstances that this work was initiated, aiming at the characterization of irrigation practices in the flood-risk zones of the Ghareb lowland (Morocco). This characterization is based on two main axes: the characterization of irrigation techniques used, as well as the management of irrigation in these areas. In order to achieve our objective, two complementary approaches have been adopted; the first one is based on interviews with administrative agents and on farmer surveys, and the second one is based on field measurements of a few parameters, such as flow rate, pressure, uniformity coefficient of drippers and salinity. The results of this work led to conclude that the choice of the practiced crop (crop resistant to excess water in winter and vegetable crops during other seasons) and the availability and nature of water resources are the main criteria that determine the choice of the irrigation system. Even if irrigation management is imprecise, farmers are able to achieve agricultural yields that are comparable to those recorded in the entire irrigated perimeter. However, agricultural yields in these areas are still threatened by climate change, since these areas play the role of water retaining basins during floods by protecting the downstream areas, which can also damage the crops there instilled during the autumn. This work has also noted that the predominance of private pumping in flood-risk zones in the coastal zone creates a risk of marine intrusion, which risks endangering the groundwater table. Thus, this work enabled us to understand the functioning and the adaptation measures of these vulnerable zones for the sustainability of the Merjas and a better valorization of these marginalized lowlands.

Keywords: Flood-risk zones, irrigation practices, climate change, adaptation measures.

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13 Learning Difficulties of Children with Disabilities

Authors: Chalise Kiran

Abstract:

The learning difficulties of children with disabilities are always a matter of concern when we talk about educational needs and quality education of children with disabilities. This paper is the outcome of the review of the literature focused on the educational needs and learning difficulties of children with disabilities. For the paper, different studies written on children with disabilities and their education were collected through search engines. The literature put together were analyzed from the angle of learning difficulties faced by children with disabilities and the same were used as a precursor to arrive at the findings on the learning of the children. The analysis showed that children with disabilities face learning difficulties. The reasons for these difficulties could be attributed to factors in terms of authority, structure, school environment and behaviors of teachers and parents and the society as a whole.

Keywords: Children with disabilities, learning difficulties, education of children with disabilities, disabled children.

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12 Observations of Conformity in the Health Professions

Authors: Tanya N. Beran, Michelle A. Drefs, Ghazwan Altabbaa, Nouf Al Harbi, Noof Al Baz, Elizabeth Oddone Paolucci

Abstract:

Although interprofessional practice is a collaborative approach for problem solving among health professionals, its implementation can present challenges to its team members. In particular, they may feel pressured to agree with or conform to other members who share information that is contrary to their own understanding. Obtaining evidence of this phenomenon is challenging, as team members may underreport their conformity behaviors due to reasons such as social desirability. In this paper, a series of studies are reviewed in which several approaches to assessing conformity in the health care professions are tested. Simulations, questionnaires, and behavior checklists can be used to measure conformity behaviors. Insights from these studies show that a significant proportion of people conform either in the presence or absence of others, express a variety of verbal and nonverbal behaviors when considering whether to conform to others, may shift between conforming and moments later not conforming (and vice versa), and may not accurately report whether they conformed. A method of measuring conformity using the implicit bias test is also discussed. People at all levels in the healthcare system are encouraged to develop both formal and informal strategies to manage the conformity pressures that people face.

Keywords: Conformity, decision-making, interprofessional teams, medical simulation.

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11 Supervisory Control for Induction Machine with a Modified Star/Delta Switch in Fluid Transportation

Authors: O. S. Ebrahim, K. O. Shawky, M. A. Badr, P. K. Jain

Abstract:

This paper proposes an intelligent, supervisory, hysteresis liquid-level control with three-state energy saving mode (ESM) for induction motor (IM) in fluid transportation system (FTS) including storage tank. The IM pump drive comprises a modified star/delta switch and hydromantic coupler. Three-state ESM is defined, along with the normal running, and named analog to the computer’s ESMs as follows: Sleeping mode in which the motor runs at no load with delta stator connection, hibernate mode in which the motor runs at no load with a star connection, and motor shutdown is the third energy saver mode. Considering the motor’s thermal capacity used (TCU) and grid-compatible tariff structure, a logic flow-chart is synthesized to select the motor state at no-load for best energetic cost reduction. Fuzzy-logic (FL) based availability assessment is designed and deployed on cloud, in order to provide mobilized service for the star/delta switch and highly reliable contactors. Moreover, an artificial neural network (ANN) state estimator, based on the recurrent architecture, is constructed and learned in order to provide fault-tolerant capability for the supervisory controller. Sequential test of Wald is used for sensor fault detection. Theoretical analysis, preliminary experimental testing and computer simulations are performed to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control system in terms of reliability, power quality and operational cost reduction with a motivation of power factor correction.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, ANN, Contactor Health Assessment, Energy Saving Mode, Induction Machine, IM, Supervisory Control, Fluid Transportation, Fuzzy Logic, FL, cloud computing, pumped storage.

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10 Verifying the Supremacy of Volume Modulated Arc Therapy Over Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Pelvis Malignancies’ Perspective

Authors: M. Umar Farooq, T. Ahmad Afridi, M. Zia-Ul-Islam Arsalan, U. Hussain Haider, S. Ullah

Abstract:

Cancer, a leading fatal disease worldwide, can be treated with various techniques including radiation therapy. It involves the use of ionizing radiation to target cancer cells. On basis of source placement, radiation therapy is of two types i.e., Brachytherapy and External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT). EBRT has evolved from 2-D conventional therapy to 3-D Conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and then Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT). IMRT improves dose conformity and sparing of organs at risk. Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) is a modern technique that uses treatment delivery in arcs with rotation of the gantry. In this report, a dosimetry comparison was performed between IMRT and VMAT. This study was conducted in the Radiotherapy Department of the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology Lahore (INMOL). Ten patients with Prostate Carcinoma were selected for this study to compare the methods. Simulation of these patients was done with help of a CT Simulator. All target volumes and organs were delineated by the oncologists. Then suitable fields/arcs were applied which cover volumes effectively. This was followed by the optimization of plans for both techniques for every patient. Finally, a comparison of evaluating parameters e.g., Conformity Index (CI), Volume Coverage, Homogeneity Index (HI), Organ Doses, and MUs (Monitor Units) was performed. We obtained better results of target conformity indices from VMAT (CI = 1.16) than IMRT (CI = 1.24). VMAT was better in organ sparing too. Also, VMAT shows fewer MUs (733 MUs) as compared to IMRT (2149 MUs). From this study, it is concluded that VMAT is a better treatment technique than IMRT. This technique will enhance treatment efficiency as it takes less time in obtaining the required results. Also, a very less scatter dose will be delivered to the patient.

Keywords: 2-D Conventional Radiotherapy, 3-D Conformal Radiotherapy, Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy, Prostate Carcinoma, Radiotherapy, Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy.

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9 Preliminary Study of the Phonological Development in Three- and Four-Year-Old Bulgarian Children

Authors: Tsvetomira Braynova, Miglena Simonska

Abstract:

The article presents the results of a research of phonological processes in three- and four-year-old children. A test, created for the purpose of the study, was developed and conducted among 120 children. The study included three areas of research - at the level of words (96 words), at the level of sentence repetition (10 sentences) and at the level of generating own speech from a picture (15 pictures). The test also gives us additional information about the articulation errors of the assessed children. The main purpose of the research is to analyze all phonological processes that occur at this age in Bulgarian children and to identify which are typical and atypical for this age. The results show that the most common phonology errors that children make are: sound substitution, elision of sound, metathesis of sound, elision of syllable, elision of consonants clustered in a syllable. Measuring the correlation between average length of repeated speech and average length of generated speech, the analysis does not prove that the more words a child can repeat in part “repeated speech”, the more words they can be expected to generate in part “generating sentence”. The results of this study show that the task of naming a word provides sufficient and representative information to assess the child's phonology.

Keywords: Articulation, phonology, speech, language development.

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8 Scale Effects on the Wake Airflow of a Heavy Truck

Authors: A. Pérard Lecomte, G. Fokoua, A. Mehel, A. Tanière

Abstract:

Automotive experimental measurements in wind tunnel are often conducted on reduced scale. Depending on the study, different similitude parameters are used by researchers to best reproduce the flow at full scale. In this paper, two parameters are investigated, which are Reynolds number and upstream velocity when dealing with airflow of typical urban speed range, below 15 m.s-1. Their impact on flow structures and aerodynamic drag in the wake of a heavy truck model are explored. To achieve this, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been conducted with the aim of modeling the wake airflow of full- and reduced-scaled heavy trucks (1/4 and 1/28). The Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach combined to the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) as the turbulence model closure was used. Both drag coefficients and upstream velocity profiles (flow topology) were found to be close one another for the three investigated scales, when the dynamical similitude Reynolds is achieved. Moreover, the difference is weak for the simulations based on the same inlet air velocity. Hence, for the relative low velocity range investigated here, the impact of the scale factor is limited.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, CFD, heavy truck, recirculation area, scale effects, similitude parameters.

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7 Artificial Intelligence in Penetration Testing of a Connected and Autonomous Vehicle Network

Authors: Phillip Garrad, Saritha Unnikrishnan

Abstract:

The increase in connected and autonomous vehicles (CAV) creates more opportunities for cyber-attacks. Cyber-attacks can be performed with malicious intent or for research and testing purposes. As connected vehicles approach full autonomy, the possible impact of these cyber-attacks also grows. This review analyses the challenges faced in CAV cybersecurity testing. This includes access and cost of the representative test setup and lack of experts in the field A review of potential solutions to overcome these challenges is presented. Studies have demonstrated Artificial Intelligence (AI) as a promising technique to reduce runtime, enhance effectiveness and comprehensively cover all the standard test aspects in penetration testing in other industries. However, this review has identified a significant gap in the systematic implementation of AI for penetration testing in the CAV cybersecurity domain. The expectation from this review is to investigate potential AI algorithms, which can demonstrate similar improvements in runtime and efficiency for a CAV model. If proven to be an effective means of penetration test for CAV, this methodology may be used on a full CAV test network.

Keywords: Cybersecurity, connected vehicles, software simulation, artificial intelligence, penetration testing.

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6 Producing Outdoor Design Conditions Based on the Dependency between Meteorological Elements: Copula Approach

Authors: Zhichao Jiao, Craig Farnham, Jihui Yuan, Kazuo Emura

Abstract:

It is common to use the outdoor design weather data to select the air-conditioning capacity in the building design stage. The meteorological elements of outdoor design weather data are usually selected based on their excess frequency separately while the dependency between the elements is not well considered. It means that the simultaneous occurrence probability of these elements is smaller than the original excess frequency which may cause an overestimation of selecting air-conditioning capacity. Therefore, the copula approach which can capture the dependency between multivariate data was used to model the joint distributions of the meteorological elements, like air temperature and global solar radiation. We suggest a method based on the specific simultaneous occurrence probability of these two elements of selecting more credible outdoor design conditions. The hourly weather data at 12 noon from 2001 to 2010 in Tokyo, Japan are used to analyze the dependency structure and joint distribution, the Gaussian copula represents the dependence of data best. According to calculating the air temperature and global solar radiation in specific simultaneous occurrence probability and the common exceeding, the results show that both the air temperature and global solar radiation based on simultaneous occurrence probability are lower than these based on the conventional method in the same probability.

Keywords: Copula approach, Design weather database, energy conservation, HVAC.

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5 AI-Based Techniques for Online Social Media Network Sentiment Analysis: A Methodical Review

Authors: A. M. John-Otumu, M. M. Rahman, O. C. Nwokonkwo, M. C. Onuoha

Abstract:

Online social media networks have long served as a primary arena for group conversations, gossip, text-based information sharing and distribution. The use of natural language processing techniques for text classification and unbiased decision making has not been far-fetched. Proper classification of these textual information in a given context has also been very difficult. As a result, a systematic review was conducted from previous literature on sentiment classification and AI-based techniques. The study was done in order to gain a better understanding of the process of designing and developing a robust and more accurate sentiment classifier that could correctly classify social media textual information of a given context between hate speech and inverted compliments with a high level of accuracy using the knowledge gain from the evaluation of different artificial intelligence techniques reviewed. The study evaluated over 250 articles from digital sources like ACM digital library, Google Scholar, and IEEE Xplore; and whittled down the number of research to 52 articles. Findings revealed that deep learning approaches such as Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformer (BERT), and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) outperformed various machine learning techniques in terms of performance accuracy. A large dataset is also required to develop a robust sentiment classifier. Results also revealed that data can be obtained from places like Twitter, movie reviews, Kaggle, Stanford Sentiment Treebank (SST), and SemEval Task4 based on the required domain. The hybrid deep learning techniques like CNN+LSTM, CNN+ Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU), CNN+BERT outperformed single deep learning techniques and machine learning techniques. Python programming language outperformed Java programming language in terms of development simplicity and AI-based library functionalities. Finally, the study recommended the findings obtained for building robust sentiment classifier in the future.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Natural Language Processing, Sentiment Analysis, Social Network, Text.

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4 Main Control Factors of Fluid Loss in Drilling and Completion in Shunbei Oilfield by Unmanned Intervention Algorithm

Authors: Peng Zhang, Lihui Zheng, Xiangchun Wang, Xiaopan Kou

Abstract:

Quantitative research on the main control factors of lost circulation has few considerations and single data source. Using Unmanned Intervention Algorithm to find the main control factors of lost circulation adopts all measurable parameters. The degree of lost circulation is characterized by the loss rate as the objective function. Geological, engineering and fluid data are used as layers, and 27 factors such as wellhead coordinates and Weight on Bit (WOB) used as dimensions. Data classification is implemented to determine function independent variables. The mathematical equation of loss rate and 27 influencing factors is established by multiple regression method, and the undetermined coefficient method is used to solve the undetermined coefficient of the equation. Only three factors in t-test are greater than the test value 40, and the F-test value is 96.557%, indicating that the correlation of the model is good. The funnel viscosity, final shear force and drilling time were selected as the main control factors by elimination method, contribution rate method and functional method. The calculated values of the two wells used for verification differ from the actual values by -3.036 m3/h and -2.374 m3/h, with errors of 7.21% and 6.35%. The influence of engineering factors on the loss rate is greater than that of funnel viscosity and final shear force, and the influence of the three factors is less than that of geological factors. The best combination of funnel viscosity, final shear force and drilling time is obtained through quantitative calculation. The minimum loss rate of lost circulation wells in Shunbei area is 10 m3/h. It can be seen that man-made main control factors can only slow down the leakage, but cannot fundamentally eliminate it. This is more in line with the characteristics of karst caves and fractures in Shunbei fault solution oil and gas reservoir.

Keywords: Drilling fluid, loss rate, main controlling factors, Unmanned Intervention Algorithm.

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3 Evaluating Portfolio Performance by Highlighting Network Property and the Sharpe Ratio in the Stock Market

Authors: Zahra Hatami, Hesham Ali, David Volkman

Abstract:

Selecting a portfolio for investing is a crucial decision for individuals and legal entities. In the last two decades, with economic globalization, a stream of financial innovations has rushed to the aid of financial institutions. The importance of selecting stocks for the portfolio is always a challenging task for investors. This study aims to create a financial network to identify optimal portfolios using network centralities metrics. This research presents a community detection technique of superior stocks that can be described as an optimal stock portfolio to be used by investors. By using the advantages of a network and its property in extracted communities, a group of stocks was selected for each of the various time periods. The performance of the optimal portfolios was compared to the famous index. Their Sharpe ratio was calculated in a timely manner to evaluate their profit for making decisions. The analysis shows that the selected potential portfolio from stocks with low centrality measurement can outperform the market; however, they have a lower Sharpe ratio than stocks with high centrality scores. In other words, stocks with low centralities could outperform the S&P500 yet have a lower Sharpe ratio than high central stocks.

Keywords: Portfolio management performance, network analysis, centrality measurements, Sharpe ratio.

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2 Participation and Strategic Communication of Saudi Food Banks through Twitter to Enhance Food Waste Awareness among Saudi Arabian Citizens

Authors: Nasser Alkorbi, Manuel Hernández-Pérez, Seamus Simpson

Abstract:

Twitter is a platform service that has quickly risen to prominence as the social media platform most preferred for strategic communication campaigns. It is used by most of the Non-Profit Organizations (NPO) in Saudi Arabia, making it the most popular social media platform in the country. Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs) use Twitter to raise awareness of social issues and to communicate with stakeholders. Despite the features Twitter has recently introduced, this paper investigates how NPOs (Foodbanks) in Saudi Arabia use Twitter to raise awareness of food waste, as well as their posting behaviour over a two-year period. By the end of the research, we were able to provide a framework for using Twitter which new or existing NPOs can adopt, as well as helping NPOs (Foodbanks) to recognize and become aware of the impact of Twitter.

Keywords: Awareness, food banks, food waste, Saudi Arabia, social media, Twitter.

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1 The Effect of Different Pre-Treatment Methods on the Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Tubes: An in vitro Study

Authors: A. C. B. C. J. Fernandes, V. C. de Jesus, S. Noruziaan, O. F. G. G. Vilela, K. K. Somarin, R. França, F. H. S. L. Pinheiro

Abstract:

Objective: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic tubes after different enamel pre-treatments. Materials and Methods: A total of 39 crown halves were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 13). Group I (control group) was exposed to prophy paste (PP), 37% phosphoric acid (PA), and a self-etching primer (SEP). Group II received no prophylaxis, but only PA and SEP. Group III was exposed to PP and SEP. The SBS was used to evaluate the bond strength of the orthodontic tubes one year after bonding. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to compare SBS values between the three groups. The statistical significance was set to 5%. Results: The difference in SBS values of groups I (36.672 ± 9.315 Mpa), II (34.242 ± 9.986 Mpa), and III (39.055 ± 5.565 Mpa) were not statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggests that chairside time can be significantly reduced with the use of PP and a SEP without compromising adhesion. Further evidence is needed by means of a split-mouth design trial.

Keywords: Shear bond strength, orthodontic tubes, self-etching primer, pumice, prophy.

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