Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 197

Search results for: circular economy

197 Managing the Baltic Sea Region Resilience: Prevention, Treatment Actions and Circular Economy

Authors: J. Burlakovs, Y. Jani, L. Grinberga, M. Kriipsalu, O. Anne, I. Grinfelde, W. Hogland

Abstract:

The worldwide future sustainable economies are oriented towards the sea: the maritime economy is becoming one of the strongest driving forces in many regions as population growth is the highest in coastal areas. For hundreds of years sea resources were depleted unsustainably by fishing, mining, transportation, tourism, and waste. European Sustainable Development Strategy is identifying and developing actions to enable the EU to achieve a continuous, long-term improvement of the quality of life through the creation of sustainable communities. The aim of this paper is to provide insight in Baltic Sea Region case studies on implemented actions on tourism industry waste and beach wrack management in coastal areas, hazardous contaminants and plastic flow treatment from waste, wastewaters and stormwaters. These projects mentioned in study promote successful prevention of contaminant flows to the sea environments and provide perspectives for creation of valuable new products from residuals for future circular economy are the step forward to green innovation winning streak.

Keywords: Resilience, hazardous waste, phytoremediation, water management, circular economy.

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196 A Review on the Outlook of the Circular Economy in the Automotive Industry

Authors: A. Buruzs, A. Torma

Abstract:

The relationship of the automotive industry with raw material supply is a major challenge and presents obstacles. Automobiles are ones of the most complex products using a large variety of materials. Safety, eco-friendliness and comfort requirements, physical, chemical and economic limitations set the framework in which this industry continuously optimizes the efficient and responsible use of resources. The concept of circular economy covers the issues of waste generation, resource scarcity and economic advantages. However, circularity is already known for the automobile industry – several efforts are done to foster material reuse, product remanufacturing and recycling. The aim of this study is to give an overview on how the producers comply with the growing demands on one hand, and gain efficiency and increase profitability on the other hand from circular economy.

Keywords: Automotive industry, circular economy, international requirements, natural resources.

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195 Perspectives on Sustainable Bioeconomy in the Baltic Sea Region

Authors: Susanna Vanhamäki, Gabor Schneider, Kati Manskinen

Abstract:

‘Bioeconomy’ is a complex concept that cuts across many sectors and covers several policy areas. To achieve an overall understanding and support a successful bioeconomy, a cross-sectorial approach is necessary. In practice, due to the concept’s wide scope and varying international approaches, fully understanding bioeconomy is challenging on policy level. This paper provides a background of the topic through an analysis of bioeconomy strategies in the Baltic Sea region. Expert interviews and a small survey were conducted to discover the current and intended focuses of these countries’ bioeconomy sectors. The research shows that supporting sustainability is one of the keys in developing the future bioeconomy. The results highlighted that the bioeconomy has to be sustainable and based on circular economy principles. Currently, traditional bioeconomy sectors like food, wood, fish & waters as well as fuel & energy, which are in the core of national bioeconomy strategies, are best known and are considered more relevant than other bioeconomy industries. However, there is increasing potential for novel sectors, such as textiles and pharmaceuticals. The present research indicates that the opportunities presented by these bioeconomy sectors should be recognised and promoted. Education, research and innovation can play key roles in developing transformative and sustainable improvements in primary production and renewable resources. Furthermore, cooperation between businesses and educators is important.

Keywords: Bioeconomy, circular economy, policy, strategy.

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194 Sustainability Assessment of a Deconstructed Residential House

Authors: Atiq U. Zaman, Juliet Arnott

Abstract:

This paper analyses the various benefits and barriers of residential deconstruction in the context of environmental performance and circular economy based on a case study project in Christchurch, New Zealand. The case study project “Whole House Deconstruction” which aimed, firstly, to harvest materials from a residential house, secondly, to produce new products using the recovered materials, and thirdly, to organize an exhibition for the local public to promote awareness on resource conservation and sustainable deconstruction practices. Through a systematic deconstruction process, the project recovered around 12 tonnes of various construction materials, most of which would otherwise be disposed of to landfill in the traditional demolition approach. It is estimated that the deconstruction of a similar residential house could potentially prevent around 27,029 kg of carbon emission to the atmosphere by recovering and reusing the building materials. In addition, the project involved local designers to produce 400 artefacts using the recovered materials and to exhibit them to accelerate public awareness. The findings from this study suggest that the deconstruction project has significant environmental benefits, as well as social benefits by involving the local community and unemployed youth as a part of their professional skills development opportunities. However, the project faced a number of economic and institutional challenges. The study concludes that with proper economic models and appropriate institutional support a significant amount of construction and demolition waste can be reduced through a systematic deconstruction process. Traditionally, the greatest benefits from such projects are often ignored and remain unreported to wider audiences as most of the external and environmental costs have not been considered in the traditional linear economy.

Keywords: Circular economy, construction and demolition waste, resource recovery, systematic deconstruction, sustainable waste management.

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193 Large Scale Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from Wastewater: A Study of Techno-Economics, Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Authors: Cora Fernandez Dacosta, John A. Posada, Andrea Ramirez

Abstract:

The biodegradable family of polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates is an interesting substitute for convectional fossil-based plastics. However, the manufacturing and environmental impacts associated with their production via intracellular bacterial fermentation are strongly dependent on the raw material used and on energy consumption during the extraction process, limiting their potential for commercialization. Industrial wastewater is studied in this paper as a promising alternative feedstock for waste valorization. Based on results from laboratory and pilot-scale experiments, a conceptual process design, techno-economic analysis and life cycle assessment are developed for the large-scale production of the most common type of polyhydroxyalkanoate, polyhydroxbutyrate. Intracellular polyhydroxybutyrate is obtained via fermentation of microbial community present in industrial wastewater and the downstream processing is based on chemical digestion with surfactant and hypochlorite. The economic potential and environmental performance results help identifying bottlenecks and best opportunities to scale-up the process prior to industrial implementation. The outcome of this research indicates that the fermentation of wastewater towards PHB presents advantages compared to traditional PHAs production from sugars because the null environmental burdens and financial costs of the raw material in the bioplastic production process. Nevertheless, process optimization is still required to compete with the petrochemicals counterparts.

Keywords: Circular economy, life cycle assessment, polyhydroxyalkanoates, waste valorization.

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192 Limit Analysis of FGM Circular Plates Subjected to Arbitrary Rotational Symmetric Loads

Authors: Kargarnovin M.H., Faghidian S. A, Arghavani J.

Abstract:

The limit load carrying capacity of functionally graded materials (FGM) circular plates subjected to an arbitrary rotationally symmetric loading has been computed. It is provided that the plate material behaves rigid perfectly plastic and obeys either the Square or the Tresca yield criterion. To this end the upper and lower bound principles of limit analysis are employed to determine the exact value for the limiting load. The correctness of the result are verified and finally limiting loads for two examples namely; through radius and through thickness FGM circular plates with simply supported edges are calculated, respectively and moreover, the values of critical loading factor are determined.

Keywords: Circular plate, FGM circular plate, Limit analysis, Lower and Upper bound theorems.

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191 Evaluation of a Remanufacturing for Lithium Ion Batteries from Electric Cars

Authors: Achim Kampker, Heiner H. Heimes, Mathias Ordung, Christoph Lienemann, Ansgar Hollah, Nemanja Sarovic

Abstract:

Electric cars with their fast innovation cycles and their disruptive character offer a high degree of freedom regarding innovative design for remanufacturing. Remanufacturing increases not only the resource but also the economic efficiency by a prolonged product life time. The reduced power train wear of electric cars combined with high manufacturing costs for batteries allow new business models and even second life applications. Modular and intermountable designed battery packs enable the replacement of defective or outdated battery cells, allow additional cost savings and a prolongation of life time. This paper discusses opportunities for future remanufacturing value chains of electric cars and their battery components and how to address their potentials with elaborate designs. Based on a brief overview of implemented remanufacturing structures in different industries, opportunities of transferability are evaluated. In addition to an analysis of current and upcoming challenges, promising perspectives for a sustainable electric car circular economy enabled by design for remanufacturing are deduced. Two mathematical models describe the feasibility of pursuing a circular economy of lithium ion batteries and evaluate remanufacturing in terms of sustainability and economic efficiency. Taking into consideration not only labor and material cost but also capital costs for equipment and factory facilities to support the remanufacturing process, cost benefit analysis prognosticate that a remanufacturing battery can be produced more cost-efficiently. The ecological benefits were calculated on a broad database from different research projects which focus on the recycling, the second use and the assembly of lithium ion batteries. The results of this calculations show a significant improvement by remanufacturing in all relevant factors especially in the consumption of resources and greenhouse warming potential. Exemplarily suitable design guidelines for future remanufacturing lithium ion batteries, which consider modularity, interfaces and disassembly, are used to illustrate the findings. For one guideline, potential cost improvements were calculated and upcoming challenges are pointed out.

Keywords: Circular economy, electric mobility, lithium ion batteries, remanufacturing.

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190 Incentive Pay System and Economy Condition

Authors: Viktorie Janečková, Petr Šnapka, Marie Mikušová

Abstract:

This paper aims to initiate an analytical account of the issues of compliance with economy condition for incentive pay system application in an enterprise. Economy is considered one of the conditions for effective incentive pay system application another condition being the achievement of desired efficiency level of the incentive pay system application. Bonus pay system is discussed as an example.

Keywords: Cost analysis, economy, incentive pay system.

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189 The Libyan Accounting Profession

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to trace the historical development of the accounting profession in Libya, in order to identify challenges facing the profession as the country moves from a closed to emerging economy. The study is based on a literature review and archival research. Accounting information has a vital role to play in the achievement of economic goals in developing and emerging economies, but a well qualified accounting profession is required. In the context of institutional instability and unique cultural factors, the accounting profession in Libya faces educational and legal challenges if it is to achieve its potential in assisting the country to reach its economic goals. This study focuses on one country, which does limit its generalisability. However, it also suggests fruitful research areas in considering the impact and challenge of historic factors on the accounting profession in emerging economies. Centrally planned economies require a body of well trained professional accountants if they are to emerge onto the global economic arena. Studies on the accounting profession have focused primarily on those in developed economies, where the need for meaningful accounting information for decision making is taken for granted and there is a well trained, professional workforce. This study of the profession in an emerging economy highlights the efforts that will be needed to ensure the contribution of the profession to the economic wellbeing of other emerging economies.

Keywords: Accounting profession, developing countries, culture, planned economy, emerging economy.

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188 Non-Circular Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Chainring Failure Analysis

Authors: A. Elmikaty, Z. Thanawarothon, L. Mezeix

Abstract:

This paper presents a finite element model to simulate the teeth failure of non-circular composite chainring. Model consists of the chainring and a part of the chain. To reduce the size of the model, only the first 11 rollers are simulated. In order to validate the model, it is firstly applied to a circular aluminum chainring and evolution of the stress in the teeth is compared with the literature. Then, effect of the non-circular shape is studied through three different loading positions. Strength of non-circular composite chainring and failure scenario is investigated. Moreover, two composite lay-ups are proposed to observe the influence of the stacking. Results show that composite material can be used but the lay-up has a large influence on the strength. Finally, loading position does not have influence on the first composite failure that always occurs in the first tooth.

Keywords: CFRP, composite failure, FEA, non-circular chainring.

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187 Experimental and Numerical Studies of Drag Reduction on a Circular Cylinder

Authors: A.O. Ladjedel, B.T.Yahiaoui, C.L.Adjlout, D.O.Imine

Abstract:

In the present paper; an experimental and numerical investigations of drag reduction on a grooved circular cylinder have been performed. The experiments were carried out in closed circuit subsonic wind tunnel (TE44); the pressure distribution on the cylinder was conducted using a TE44DPS differential pressure scanner and the drag forces were measured using the TE81 balance. The display unit is linked to a computer, loaded with DATASLIM software for data analysis and logging of result. The numerical study was performed using the code ANSYS FLUENT solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The k-ε and k- ω SST models were tested. The results obtained from the experimental and numerical investigations have showed a reduction in the drag when using longitudinal grooves namely 2 and 6 on the cylinder.

Keywords: Circular cylinder, Drag, grooves, pressure distribution

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186 Statistical Description in the Turbulent Near Wake of a Rotating Circular Cylinder

Authors: Sharul S. Dol, U. Azimov, Robert J. Martinuzzi

Abstract:

Turbulence studies were made in the wake of a rotating circular cylinder in a uniform free stream. The interest was to examine the turbulence properties at the suppression of periodicity in vortex formation process. An experimental study of the turbulent near wake of a rotating circular cylinder was made at a Reynolds number of 9000 for velocity ratios, λ between 0 and 2.7. Hot-wire anemometry and particle image velocimetry results indicate that the rotation of the cylinder causes significant changes in the vortical activities. The turbulence quantities are getting smaller as λ increases due to suppression of coherent vortex structures.

Keywords: Rotating circular cylinder, Reynolds stress, vortex.

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185 Sufficiency Economy: A Contribution to Economic Development

Authors: Prasopchoke Mongsawad

Abstract:

The Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy, bestowed by His Majesty the King Bhumibol Adulyadej to the people of Thailand, highlights a balanced way of living. Three principles of moderation reasonableness, and immunity, along with the conditions for morality and knowledge, can be applied to any level of the society–from an individual to the nation. The Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy helps address the current development challenges, which are issues on institutions, environmental sustainability, human well-being, and the role of the government.

Keywords: Sufficiency Economy, Development Theory, Sustainable Development, Environmental Sustainability, Social Capital, Human Well-Being,

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184 On Innovation and Knowledge Economy in Russia

Authors: Zhanna Mingaleva, Irina Mirskikh

Abstract:

Innovational development of regions in Russia is generally faced with the essential influence from federal and local authorities. The organization of effective mechanism of innovation development (and self-development) is impossible without establishment of defined institutional conditions in the analyzed field. Creative utilization of scientific concepts and information should merge, giving rise to continuing innovation and advanced production. The paper presents an analysis of institutional conditions in the field of creation and development of innovation activity infrastructure and transferring of knowledge and skills between different economic agents in Russia. Knowledge is mainly privately owned, developed through R&D investments and incorporated into technology or a product. Innovation infrastructure is a strong concentration mechanism of advanced facilities, which are mainly located inside large agglomerations or city-regions in order to benefit from scale effects in both input markets (human capital, private financial capital) and output markets (higher education services, research services). The empirical results of the paper show that in the presence of more efficient innovation and knowledge transfer and transcoding system and of a more open attitude of economic agents towards innovation, the innovation and knowledge capacity of regional economy is much higher.

Keywords: knowledge economy, innovational development, transfer of knowledge, institutional preconditions, innovation andknowledge capacity.

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183 An Analysis of Collapse Mechanism of Thin- Walled Circular Tubes Subjected to Bending

Authors: Somya Poonaya, Chawalit Thinvongpituk, Umphisak Teeboonma

Abstract:

Circular tubes have been widely used as structural members in engineering application. Therefore, its collapse behavior has been studied for many decades, focusing on its energy absorption characteristics. In order to predict the collapse behavior of members, one could rely on the use of finite element codes or experiments. These tools are helpful and high accuracy but costly and require extensive running time. Therefore, an approximating model of tubes collapse mechanism is an alternative for early step of design. This paper is also aimed to develop a closed-form solution of thin-walled circular tube subjected to bending. It has extended the Elchalakani et al.-s model (Int. J. Mech. Sci.2002; 44:1117-1143) to include the rate of energy dissipation of rolling hinge in the circumferential direction. The 3-D geometrical collapse mechanism was analyzed by adding the oblique hinge lines along the longitudinal tube within the length of plastically deforming zone. The model was based on the principal of energy rate conservation. Therefore, the rates of internal energy dissipation were calculated for each hinge lines which are defined in term of velocity field. Inextensional deformation and perfect plastic material behavior was assumed in the derivation of deformation energy rate. The analytical result was compared with experimental result. The experiment was conducted with a number of tubes having various D/t ratios. Good agreement between analytical and experiment was achieved.

Keywords: Bending, Circular tube, Energy, Mechanism.

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182 On the Numerical Simulation of Flow Past an Oscillating Circular Cylinder in a Circular Path: Oscillation Amplitude Effect

Authors: Qasem M. Al-Mdallal

Abstract:

This paper presents results obtained from the numerical solution for the flow past an oscillating circular cylinder at Reynolds number of 200. The frequency of oscillation was fixed to the vortex shedding frequency from a fixed cylinder, f0, while the amplitudes of oscillations were varied from to 1.1a, where a represents the radius of the cylinder. The response of the flow through the fluid forces acting on the surface of the cylinder are investigated. The lock-on phenomenon is captured at low oscillation amplitudes.

Keywords: Lock-on; streamwise oscillation; transverse oscillation; fluid forces, combined motion

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181 Out-of-Plane Free Vibrations of Circular Rods

Authors: Faruk Fırat Çalım, Nurullah Karaca, Hakan Tacettin Türker

Abstract:

In this study, out-of-plane free vibrations of a circular rods is investigated theoretically. The governing equations for naturally twisted and curved spatial rods are obtained using Timoshenko beam theory and rewritten for circular rods. Effects of the axial and shear deformations are considered in the formulations. Ordinary differential equations in scalar form are solved analytically by using transfer matrix method. The circular rods of the mass matrix are obtained by using straight rod of consistent mass matrix. Free vibrations frequencies obtained by solving eigenvalue problem. A computer program coded in MATHEMATICA language is prepared. Circular beams are analyzed through various examples for free vibrations analysis. Results are compared with ANSYS results based on finite element method and available in the literature.

Keywords: Circular rod, Out-of-plane free vibration analysis, Transfer Matrix Method.

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180 Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Static Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, B. Mohammadi-Haji

Abstract:

Stone columns have been widely employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of stone columns under static loading compares with unimproved ground.

Keywords: Circular raft footing, numerical analysis, validation, vertically encased stone column.

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179 How Do Politicians Recover Their Costs? The Political Economy of Representative Democracy in India

Authors: Subramaniam Chandran

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This paper explores the features of political economy in the dynamics of representative politics in India. Politics is seen as enhancing economic benefits through acquiring and maintenance of power in the realm of democratic set up. The system of representation is riddled with competitive populism. Emerging leaders and parties are forced to accommodate their ideologies in coping with competitive politics. Electoral politics and voting behaviour reflect series of influences mooted by the politicians. Voters are accustomed to expect benefits outs of state exchequer. The electoral competitors show a changing phase of investment and return policy. Every elector has to spend and realize his costs in his tenure. In the case of defeated electors, even the cost recovery is not possible directly; there are indirect means to recover their costs. The series of case studies show the method of party funding, campaign financing, electoral expenditure, and cost recovery. Regulations could not restrict the level of spending. Several cases of disproportionate accumulation of wealth by the politicians reveal that money played a major part in electoral process. The political economy of representative politics hitherto ignores how a politician spends and recovers his cost and multiples his wealth. To be sure, the acquiring and maintenance of power is to enhance the wealth of the electors.

Keywords: Political economy, representative politics, costrecovery, electoral politics

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178 The Effects of Logistical Centers Realization on Society and Economy

Authors: Anna Dolinayova, Juraj Camaj, Martin Loch

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Presently, it is necessary to ensure the sustainable development of passenger and freight transport. Increasing performance of road freight has had a negative impact to environment and society. It is therefore necessary to increase the competitiveness of intermodal transport, which is more environmentally friendly. The study describes the effectiveness of logistical centers realization for companies and society and research how the partial internalization of external costs reflected in the efficient use of these centers and increase the competitiveness of intermodal transport to road freight. In our research, we use the method of comparative analysis and market research to describe the advantages of logistic centers for their users as well as for society as a whole. Method normal costing is used for calculation infrastructure and total costs, method of conversion costing for determine the external costs. We modelled total society costs for road freight transport and inter modal transport chain (we assumed that most of the traffic is carried by rail) with different loading schemes for condition in the Slovak Republic. Our research has shown that higher utilization of inter modal transport chain do good not only for society, but for companies providing freight services too. Increase in use of inter modal transport chain can bring many benefits to society that do not bring direct immediate financial return. They often bring the multiplier effects, such as greater use of environmentally friendly transport mode and reduce the total society costs.

Keywords: Delivery time, economy effectiveness, logistical centers, ecological efficiency, optimization, society.

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177 Economy-Based Computing with WebCom

Authors: Adarsh Patil, David A. Power, John P. Morrison

Abstract:

Grid environments consist of the volatile integration of discrete heterogeneous resources. The notion of the Grid is to unite different users and organisations and pool their resources into one large computing platform where they can harness, inter-operate, collaborate and interact. If the Grid Community is to achieve this objective, then participants (Users and Organisations) need to be willing to donate or share their resources and permit other participants to use their resources. Resources do not have to be shared at all times, since it may result in users not having access to their own resource. The idea of reward-based computing was developed to address the sharing problem in a pragmatic manner. Participants are offered a reward to donate their resources to the Grid. A reward may include monetary recompense or a pro rata share of available resources when constrained. This latter point may imply a quality of service, which in turn may require some globally agreed reservation mechanism. This paper presents a platform for economybased computing using the WebCom Grid middleware. Using this middleware, participants can configure their resources at times and priority levels to suit their local usage policy. The WebCom system accounts for processing done on individual participants- resources and rewards them accordingly.

Keywords: WebCom, Economy-based computing, WebComGrid Bank Reward, Condensed Graph, Distributor, Accounting, GridPoint.

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176 Elaboration Development Strategy and the Analysis of Trends Shaping the Information Economy in Azerbaijan on the Basis of the Experience of Foreign Countries

Authors: Rasim M. Alguliyev, Alovsat G. Aliyev

Abstract:

In the paper, information on economic development trends in developed countries are analyzed. The current status of information society and economy of the country is reviewed and some recommendations are given for future development. The problems of Information Society and establishment of its innovative economy are studied. In this turn, development trends information economy in developed countries are analyzed.

Keywords: Information economy, ICT sector, ICT infrastructure, innovation, innovation system hi-tech products, antimonopoly policy.

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175 Public Art and Public Space in an Emerging Knowledge Economy: The Case of Doha

Authors: Anna Grichting, Sara Al Sada, Angelica Caccam, Urshi Khan

Abstract:

Qatar, a Gulf country highly dependent on its oil and gas revenues – is looking to innovate, diversify, and ultimately reach its aim of creating a knowledge economy to prepare for its post-oil era. One area that the country is investing in is Contemporary Art, and world renowned artists such as Damien Hirst and Richard Serra – have been commissioned to design site-specific art for the public spaces of the city of Doha as well as in more remote desert locations. This research discusses the changing presence, role and context of public art in Doha, both from a historical and cultural overview, and the different forms and media as well as the typologies of urban and public spaces in which the art is installed. It examines the process of implementing site-specific artworks, looking at questions of scale, history, social meaning and formal aesthetics. The methodologies combine theoretical research on the understanding of public art and its role and placement in public space, as well as empirical research on contemporary public art projects in Doha, based on documentation and interviews and as well as site and context analysis of the urban or architectural spaces within which the art is situated. Surveys and interviews – using social media - in different segments of the contemporary Qatari society, including all nationalities and social groups, are used to measure and qualify the impacts and effects on the population.

Keywords: Contemporary Public Art, Knowledge Economy, Public Realm, Site Specific Art Works.

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174 Experimental Measurements of Mean and Turbulence Quantities behind the Circular Cylinder by Attaching Different Number of Tripping Wires

Authors: Amir Bak Khoshnevis, Mahdieh Khodadadi, Aghil Lotfi

Abstract:

For a bluff body, roughness elements in simulating a turbulent boundary layer, leading to delayed flow separation, a smaller wake, and lower form drag. In the present work, flow past a circular cylinder with using tripping wires is studied experimentally. The wind tunnel used for modeling free stream is open blow circuit (maximum speed = 30m/s and maximum turbulence of free stream = 0.1%). The selected Reynolds number for all tests was constant (Re = 25000). The circular cylinder selected for this experiment is 20 and 400mm in diameter and length, respectively. The aim of this research is to find the optimal operation mode. In this study installed some tripping wires 1mm in diameter, with a different number of wires on the circular cylinder and the wake characteristics of the circular cylinder is studied. Results showed that by increasing number of tripping wires attached to the circular cylinder (6, 8, and 10, respectively), The optimal angle for the tripping wires with 1mm in diameter to be installed on the cylinder is 60̊ (or 6 wires required at angle difference of 60̊). Strouhal number for the cylinder with tripping wires 1mm in diameter at angular position 60̊ showed the maximum value.

Keywords: Wake of a circular cylinder, trip wire, velocity defect, Strouhal number.

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173 Comparative Study of Dynamic Effect on Analysis Approaches for Circular Tanks Using Codal Provisions

Authors: P. Deepak Kumar, Aishwarya Alok, P. R. Maiti

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Liquid storage tanks have become widespread during the recent decades due to their extensive usage. Analysis of liquid containing tanks is known to be complex due to hydrodynamic force exerted on tank which makes the analysis a complex one. The objective of this research is to carry out analysis of liquid domain along with structural interaction for various geometries of circular tanks considering seismic effects. An attempt has been made to determine hydrodynamic pressure distribution on the tank wall considering impulsive and convective components of liquid mass. To get a better picture, a comparative study of Draft IS 1893 Part 2, ACI 350.3 and Eurocode 8 for Circular Shaped Tank has been performed. Further, the differences in the magnitude of shear and moment at base as obtained from static (IS 3370 IV) and dynamic (Draft IS 1892 Part 2) analysis of ground supported circular tank highlight the need for us to mature from the old code to a newer code, which is more accurate and reliable.

Keywords: Liquid filled containers, Circular Tanks, IS 1893 (Part 2), Seismic analysis, Sloshing.

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172 Regional Economy under the Prism of National Security

Authors: Raziya Ashimova

Abstract:

This article is devoted to the problems of the disproportional development of regions in the Republic Kazakhstan. The threats proceeding from problem regions, make strong impact on the country-s sustainable development, therefore they are necessary to be considered at the level of national security.

Keywords: Economic development, Kazakhstan, National security regional economy.

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171 The Evaluation of Low-Carbon Economy Jiangsu, China

Authors: Qiu Dong-Fang, Li Bao-bao, Min Xing

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Low-carbon economy means the energy conservation and emission reduction. How to measure and evaluate the regional low-carbon economy is an important problem which should be solved immediately. This paper proposed the eco-efficiency ratio based on the ecological efficiency to evaluate the current situation of the low-carbon economy in Jiangsu province and to analyze the efficiency of the low-carbon economy in Jiangsu and other provinces, compared both advantages and disadvantages. And then this paper put forward some advices for the government to formulate the correct development policy of low-carbon economy, to improve the technology innovation capacity and the efficiency of resource allocation.

Keywords: Eco-efficiency ratio, Jiangsu, China, low-carbon economy.

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170 Analytical Evaluation on Hysteresis Performance of Circular Shear Panel Damper

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi

Abstract:

The idea of adding metallic energy dissipaters to a structure to absorb a large part of the seismic energy began four decades ago. There are several types of metal-based devices conceived as dampers for the seismic energy absorber whereby damages to the major structural components could be minimized for both new and existing structures. This paper aimed to develop and evaluate structural performance of both stiffened and non stiffened circular shear panel damper for passive seismic energy protection by inelastic deformation. Structural evaluation was done using commercially available nonlinear FE simulation program. Diameter-to-thickness ratio is employed as main parameter to investigate the hysteresis performance of stiffened and unstiffened circular shear panel. Depending on these parameters three different buckling mode and hysteretic behavior was found: yielding prior to buckling without strength degradation, yielding prior to buckling with strength degradation and yielding with buckling and strength degradation which forms pinching at initial displacement. Hence, the hysteresis behavior is identified, specimens which deform without strength degradation so it will be used as passive energy dissipating device in civil engineering structures.

Keywords: Circular shear panel damper, FE analysis, Hysteretic behavior, Large deformation.

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169 International Financial Crises and the Political Economy of Financial Reforms in Turkey: 1994-2009

Authors: Birgül Şakar

Abstract:

This study1 holds for the formation of international financial crisis and political factors for economic crisis in Turkey, are evaluated in chronological order. The international arena and relevant studies conducted in Turkey work in the literature are assessed. The main purpose of the study is to hold the linkage between the crises and political stability in Turkey in details, and to examine the position of Turkey in this regard. The introduction part follows the literature survey on the models explaining causes and results of the crises, the second part of the study. In the third part, the formations of the world financial crises are studied. The fourth part, financial crisis in Turkey in 1994, 2000, 2001 and 2008 are reviewed and their political reasons are analyzed. In the last part of the study the results and recommendations are held. Political administrations have laid the grounds for an economic crisis in Turkey. In this study, the emergence of an economic crisis in Turkey and the developments after the crisis are chronologically examined and an explanation is offered as to the cause and effect relationship between the political administration and economic equilibrium in the country. Economic crises can be characterized as follows: high prices of consumables, high interest rates, current account deficits, budget deficits, structural defects in government finance, rising inflation and fixed currency applications, rising government debt, declining savings rates and increased dependency on foreign capital stock. Entering into the conditions of crisis during a time when the exchange value of the country-s national currency was rising, speculative finance movements and shrinking of foreign currency reserves happened due to expectations for devaluation and because of foreign investors- resistance to financing national debt, and a financial risk occurs. During the February 2001 crisis and immediately following, devaluation and reduction of value occurred in Turkey-s stock market. While changing over to the system of floating exchange rates in the midst of this crisis, the effects of the crisis on the real economy are discussed in this study. Administered politics include financial reforms, such as the rearrangement of banking systems. These reforms followed with the provision of foreign financial support. There have been winners and losers in the imbalance of income distribution, which has recently become more evident in Turkey-s fragile economy.

Keywords: Economics, marketing crisis, financial reforms, political economy

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168 Structural Transformation after 2000 in Turkey Economy Evaluation as Theoretical in the Context of Inflation and Foreign Trade

Authors: Sadife Güngör, Sevilay Konya, Zeynep Karaçor

Abstract:

Inflation and foreign trade are the most important economic indicator of a country. In this study, Turkey's economy with the policies adopted after 2000, given how performs an economic transformation. This transformation of the economy is discussed with inflation and foreign trade. In this context, attention is drawn to 2001 Strong Economy and Transition Program and 2006 Inflation Targeting Regime. The evaluation was performed of after the year 2000 inflation and foreign trade figures in Turkey economy. When we looked the progress, after 2000 in Turkey economy, we can say a new process was built up.

Keywords: Inflation, foreign trade, 2001 strong economy program, 2006 ınflation targeting regime.

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