Search results for: Communication satellite
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1656

Search results for: Communication satellite

1656 Authorization of Commercial Communication Satellite Grounds for Promoting Turkish Data Relay System

Authors: Celal Dudak, Aslı Utku, Burak Yağlioğlu

Abstract:

Uninterrupted and continuous satellite communication through the whole orbit time is becoming more indispensable every day. Data relay systems are developed and built for various high/low data rate information exchanges like TDRSS of USA and EDRSS of Europe. In these missions, a couple of task-dedicated communication satellites exist. In this regard, for Turkey a data relay system is attempted to be defined exchanging low data rate information (i.e. TTC) for Earth-observing LEO satellites appointing commercial GEO communication satellites all over the world. First, justification of this attempt is given, demonstrating duration enhancements in the link. Discussion of preference of RF communication is, also, given instead of laser communication. Then, preferred communication GEOs – including TURKSAT4A already belonging to Turkey- are given, together with the coverage enhancements through STK simulations and the corresponding link budget. Also, a block diagram of the communication system is given on the LEO satellite.

Keywords: Communication, satellite, data relay system, coverage.

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1655 Optimization of Transmitter Aperture by Genetic Algorithm in Optical Satellite

Authors: Karim Kemih, Yacine Yaiche, Malek Benslama

Abstract:

To establish optical communication between any two satellites, the transmitter satellite must track the beacon of the receiver satellite and point the information optical beam in its direction. Optical tracking and pointing systems for free space suffer during tracking from high-amplitude vibration because of background radiation from interstellar objects such as the Sun, Moon, Earth, and stars in the tracking field of view or the mechanical impact from satellite internal and external sources. The vibrations of beam pointing increase the bit error rate and jam communication between the two satellites. One way to overcome this problem is the use of very small transmitter beam divergence angles of too narrow divergence angle is that the transmitter beam may sometimes miss the receiver satellite, due to pointing vibrations. In this paper we propose the use of genetic algorithm to optimize the BER as function of transmitter optics aperture.

Keywords: Optical Satellite Communication, Genetic Algorithm, Transmitter Optics Aperture

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1654 An Agent-Based Modelling Simulation Approach to Calculate Processing Delay of GEO Satellite Payload

Authors: V. Vicente E. Mujica, Gustavo Gonzalez

Abstract:

The global coverage of broadband multimedia and internet-based services in terrestrial-satellite networks demand particular interests for satellite providers in order to enhance services with low latencies and high signal quality to diverse users. In particular, the delay of on-board processing is an inherent source of latency in a satellite communication that sometimes is discarded for the end-to-end delay of the satellite link. The frame work for this paper includes modelling of an on-orbit satellite payload using an agent model that can reproduce the properties of processing delays. In essence, a comparison of different spatial interpolation methods is carried out to evaluate physical data obtained by an GEO satellite in order to define a discretization function for determining that delay. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed agent and the development of a delay discretization function are together validated by simulating an hybrid satellite and terrestrial network. Simulation results show high accuracy according to the characteristics of initial data points of processing delay for Ku bands.

Keywords: Terrestrial-satellite networks, latency, on-orbit satellite payload, simulation.

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1653 Satellite Beam Handoff Detection Algorithm Based On RCST Mobility Information

Authors: Ji Nyong Jang, Min Woo Lee, Eun Kyung Kim, Ki Keun Kim, Jae Sung Lim

Abstract:

Since DVB-RCS has been successively implemented, the mobile communication on the multi-beam satellite communication is attractive attention. And the DVB-RCS standard sets up to support mobility of a RCST. In the case of the spot-beam satellite system, the received signal strength does not differ largely between the center and the boundary of the beam. Thus, the RSS based handoff detection algorithm is not benefit to the satellite system as a terrestrial system. Therefore we propose an Adaptive handoff detection algorithm based on RCST mobility information. Our handoff detection algorithm not only can be used as centralized handoff detection algorithm but also removes uncertainties of handoff due to the variation of RSS. Performances were compared with RSS based handoff algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed handoff detection algorithm not only achieved better handoff and link degradation rate, but also achieved better forward link spectral efficiency.

Keywords: DVB-RCS, satellite multi-beam handoff, mobility information, handover.

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1652 Design of Thermal Control Subsystem for TUSAT Telecommunication Satellite

Authors: N. Sozbir, M. Bulut, M.F.Oktem, A.Kahriman, A. Chaix

Abstract:

TUSAT is a prospective Turkish Communication Satellite designed for providing mainly data communication and broadcasting services through Ku-Band and C-Band channels. Thermal control is a vital issue in satellite design process. Therefore, all satellite subsystems and equipments should be maintained in the desired temperature range from launch to end of maneuvering life. The main function of the thermal control is to keep the equipments and the satellite structures in a given temperature range for various phases and operating modes of spacecraft during its lifetime. This paper describes the thermal control design which uses passive and active thermal control concepts. The active thermal control is based on heaters regulated by software via thermistors. Alternatively passive thermal control composes of heat pipes, multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets, radiators, paints and surface finishes maintaining temperature level of the overall carrier components within an acceptable value. Thermal control design is supported by thermal analysis using thermal mathematical models (TMM).

Keywords: Spacecraft thermal control, design of thermal control.

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1651 Research on the Strategy of Orbital Avoidance for Optical Remote Sensing Satellite

Authors: Zheng Dian Xun, Cheng Bo, Lin Hetong

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the orbit avoidance strategy of the optical remote sensing satellite. The optical remote sensing satellite, moving along the Sun-synchronous orbit, is equipped with laser warning equipment to alert CCD camera from laser attacks. This paper explores the strategy of satellite avoidance to protect the CCD camera and also the satellite. The satellite could evasive to several target points in the orbital coordinates of virtual satellite. The so-called virtual satellite is a passive vehicle which superposes the satellite at the initial stage of avoidance. The target points share the consistent cycle time and the same semi-major axis with the virtual satellite, which ensures the properties of the satellite’s Sun-synchronous orbit remain unchanged. Moreover, to further strengthen the avoidance capability of satellite, it can perform multi-target-points avoid maneuvers. On occasions of fulfilling the satellite orbit tasks, the orbit can be restored back to virtual satellite through orbit maneuvers. There into, the avoid maneuvers adopts pulse guidance. In addition, the fuel consumption is optimized. The avoidance strategy discussed in this article is applicable to optical remote sensing satellite when it is encountered with hostile attack of space-based laser anti-satellite.

Keywords: Optical remote sensing satellite, satellite avoidance, virtual satellite, avoid target-point, avoid maneuver.

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1650 Frame and Burst Acquisition in TDMA Satellite Communication Networks with Transponder Hopping

Authors: Vitalice K. Oduol, C. Ardil

Abstract:

The paper presents frame and burst acquisition in a satellite communication network based on time division multiple access (TDMA) in which the transmissions may be carried on different transponders. A unique word pattern is used for the acquisition process. The search for the frame is aided by soft-decision of QPSK modulated signals in an additive white Gaussian channel. Results show that when the false alarm rate is low the probability of detection is also low, and the acquisition time is long. Conversely when the false alarm rate is high, the probability of detection is also high and the acquisition time is short. Thus the system operators can trade high false alarm rates for high detection probabilities and shorter acquisition times.

Keywords: burst acquisition, burst time plan, frame acquisition, satellite access, satellite TDMA, unique word detection

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1649 Design of Communication Primitives for Satellite Networks Management

Authors: Zhang Wenbo, Tian Ye, Sun Peigen, Xu Haifeng

Abstract:

According to the mobility of the satellite network nodes and the characteristic of management domain dynamic partition in the satellite network, the login and logout mechanism of the satellite network dynamic management domain partition was proposed in the paper. In the mechanism, a ground branch-station sends the packets of login broadcasting to satellites in view. After received the packets, the SNMP agents on the satellites adopt link-delay test to respond. According to the mechanism, the SNMP primitives were extended, and the new added primitives were as follows: broadcasting, login, login confirmation,delay_testing, test responses, and logout. The definition of primitives, which followed RFC1157 criterion, could be encoded by the BER coding. The policy of the dynamic management domain partition on the basis of the login and logout mechanism, which was supported by the SNMP protocol, was realized by the design of the extended primitives.

Keywords: Satellites Network, network management, communication primitive, SNMP

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1648 Reliability and Cost Focused Optimization Approach for a Communication Satellite Payload Redundancy Allocation Problem

Authors: Mehmet Nefes, Selman Demirel, Hasan H. Ertok, Cenk Sen

Abstract:

A typical reliability engineering problem regarding communication satellites has been considered to determine redundancy allocation scheme of power amplifiers within payload transponder module, whose dominant function is to amplify power levels of the received signals from the Earth, through maximizing reliability against mass, power, and other technical limitations. Adding each redundant power amplifier component increases not only reliability but also hardware, testing, and launch cost of a satellite. This study investigates a multi-objective approach used in order to solve Redundancy Allocation Problem (RAP) for a communication satellite payload transponder, focusing on design cost due to redundancy and reliability factors. The main purpose is to find the optimum power amplifier redundancy configuration satisfying reliability and capacity thresholds simultaneously instead of analyzing respectively or independently. A mathematical model and calculation approach are instituted including objective function definitions, and then, the problem is solved analytically with different input parameters in MATLAB environment. Example results showed that payload capacity and failure rate of power amplifiers have remarkable effects on the solution and also processing time.

Keywords: Communication satellite payload, multi-objective optimization, redundancy allocation problem, reliability, transponder.

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1647 Project Management in Student Satellite Projects: A University – Industry Collaboration View

Authors: Muhammad Fiaz, Naqvi Najam Abbas, Baseerat Rizwan, Yang Naiding

Abstract:

This research contribution propels the idea of collaborating environment for the execution of student satellite projects in the backdrop of project management principles. The recent past has witnessed a technological shift in the aerospace industry from the big satellite projects to the small spacecrafts especially for the earth observation and communication purposes. This vibrant shift has vitalized the academia and industry to share their resources and to create a win-win paradigm of mutual success and technological development along with the human resource development in the field of aerospace. Small student satellites are the latest jargon of academia and more than 100 CUBESAT projects have been executed successfully all over the globe and many new student satellite projects are in the development phase. The small satellite project management requires the application of specific knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to achieve the defined mission requirements. The Authors have presented the detailed outline for the project management of student satellites and presented the role of industry to collaborate with the academia to get the optimized results in academic environment.

Keywords: Project Management, Academia-Industry Collaboration, Satellite, Aerospace

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1646 Detection of Actuator Faults for an Attitude Control System using Neural Network

Authors: S. Montenegro, W. Hu

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to develop a neural network-based residual generator to detect the fault in the actuators for a specific communication satellite in its attitude control system (ACS). First, a dynamic multilayer perceptron network with dynamic neurons is used, those neurons correspond a second order linear Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter and a nonlinear activation function with adjustable parameters. Second, the parameters from the network are adjusted to minimize a performance index specified by the output estimated error, with the given input-output data collected from the specific ACS. Then, the proposed dynamic neural network is trained and applied for detecting the faults injected to the wheel, which is the main actuator in the normal mode for the communication satellite. Then the performance and capabilities of the proposed network were tested and compared with a conventional model-based observer residual, showing the differences between these two methods, and indicating the benefit of the proposed algorithm to know the real status of the momentum wheel. Finally, the application of the methods in a satellite ground station is discussed.

Keywords: Satellite, Attitude Control, Momentum Wheel, Neural Network, Fault Detection.

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1645 XML Integration of Data from CloudSat Satellite and GMS-6 Water Vapor Satellite

Authors: W. Srisang, K. Jaroensutasinee, M. Jaroensutasinee

Abstract:

This study aimed at developing visualization tools for integrating CloudSat images and Water Vapor Satellite images. KML was used for integrating data from CloudSat Satellite and GMS-6 Water Vapor Satellite. CloudSat 2D images were transformed into 3D polygons in order to achieve 3D images. Before overlaying the images on Google Earth, GMS-6 water vapor satellite images had to be rescaled into linear images. Web service was developed using webMathematica. Shoreline from GMS-6 images was compared with shoreline from LandSat images on Google Earth for evaluation. The results showed that shoreline from GMS-6 images was highly matched with the shoreline in LandSat images from Google Earth. For CloudSat images, the visualizations were compared with GMS-6 images on Google Earth. The results showed that CloudSat and GMS-6 images were highly correlated.

Keywords: CloudSat, Water vapor, Satellite images, GoogleEarth™.

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1644 Performance Assessment of GSO Satellite before and after Enhancing Pointing Effect

Authors: A. E. Emam, Joseph Victor, M. Abd Elghany

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of the orbit inclination on the pointing error of the satellite antenna and consequently on its footprint on earth for a typical Ku- band payload system. The performance assessment is examined using both analytical simulations and practical measurements, taking into account all the additional sources of the pointing errors, such as East-West station keeping, orbit eccentricity, and actual attitude control performance. An implementation and computation of the sinusoidal biases in satellite roll and pitch used to compensate the pointing error of the satellite antenna coverage is studied and evaluated before and after the pointing corrections performed. A method for evaluation of the performance of the implemented biases has been introduced through measuring satellite received level from a mono-pulse tracking 11.1m transmitting antenna before and after the implementation of the pointing corrections.

Keywords: Satellite, inclined orbit, pointing errors, coverage optimization.

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1643 Improving Image Quality in Remote Sensing Satellites using Channel Coding

Authors: H. M. Behairy, M. S. Khorsheed

Abstract:

Among other factors that characterize satellite communication channels is their high bit error rate. We present a system for still image transmission over noisy satellite channels. The system couples image compression together with error control codes to improve the received image quality while maintaining its bandwidth requirements. The proposed system is tested using a high resolution satellite imagery simulated over the Rician fading channel. Evaluation results show improvement in overall system including image quality and bandwidth requirements compared to similar systems with different coding schemes.

Keywords: Image Transmission, Image Compression, Channel Coding, Error-Control Coding, DCT, Convolution Codes, Viterbi Algorithm, PCGC.

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1642 Compatibility of Integrated Satellite Systems with Another Satellite System Operating in Adjacent Beam

Authors: Hyemi Gam, Dae-Sub Oh, Bon-Jun Ku

Abstract:

This paper addresses the analysis of the interference between complementary ground component (CGC) base station and mobile earth station (MES). In the frequency sharing scenario between CGC base station and MES, the interference from the adjacent beams must be considered. In this paper, we estimated the interference to MES of an integrated satellite system and the result is presented as the carrier to interference ratio(C/I) with respect to the number of CGC base station in the adjacent beam and the ratio of satellite beam center radius to the total beam radius (R1/R). By using these results, we can determine the minimum separation distance between the CGC base stations of adjacent beam and MES for compatibility. This result can be applied to the CGC base station of an integrated satellite system for the effective frequency sharing.

Keywords: Integrated satellite system, interference, frequency reuse pattern, CGC base station, MES, frequency sharing.

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1641 Miniature Fast Steering Mirrors for Space Optical Communication on NanoSats and CubeSats

Authors: Sylvain Chardon, Timotéo Payre, Hugo Grardel, Yann Quentel, Mathieu Thomachot, Gérald Aigouy, Frank Claeyssen

Abstract:

With the increasing digitalization of society, access to data has become vital and strategic for individuals and nations. In this context, the number of satellite constellation projects is growing drastically worldwide and is a next-generation challenge of the New Space industry. So far, existing satellite constellations have been using radio frequencies (RF) for satellite-to-ground communications, inter-satellite communications, and feeder link communication. However, RF has several limitations, such as limited bandwidth and low protection level. To address these limitations, space optical communication will be the new trend, addressing both very high-speed and secured encrypted communication. Fast Steering Mirrors (FSM) are key components used in optical communication as well as space imagery and for a large field of functions such as Point Ahead Mechanisms (PAM), Raster Scanning, Beam Steering Mirrors (BSM), Fine Pointing Mechanisms (FPM) and Line of Sight stabilization (LOS). The main challenges of space FSM development for optical communication are to propose both a technology and a supply chain relevant for high quantities New Space approach, which requires secured connectivity for high-speed internet, Earth planet observation and monitoring, and mobility applications. CTEC proposes a mini-FSM technology offering a stroke of +/-6 mrad and a resonant frequency of 1700 Hz, with a mass of 50 g. This FSM mechanism is a good candidate for giant constellations and all applications on board NanoSats and CubeSats, featuring a very high level of miniaturization and optimized for New Space high quantities cost efficiency. The use of piezo actuators offers a high resonance frequency for optimal control, with almost zero power consumption in step and stay pointing, and with very high-reliability figures > 0,995 demonstrated over years of recurrent manufacturing for Optronics applications at CTEC.

Keywords: Fast steering mirror, feeder link, line of sight stabilization, optical communication, pointing ahead mechanism, raster scan.

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1640 QoS Improvement Using Intelligent Algorithm under Dynamic Tropical Weather for Earth-Space Satellite Applications

Authors: Joseph S. Ojo, Vincent A. Akpan, Oladayo G. Ajileye, Olalekan L, Ojo

Abstract:

In this paper, the intelligent algorithm (IA) that is capable of adapting to dynamical tropical weather conditions is proposed based on fuzzy logic techniques. The IA effectively interacts with the quality of service (QoS) criteria irrespective of the dynamic tropical weather to achieve improvement in the satellite links. To achieve this, an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) has been adopted. The algorithm is capable of interacting with the weather fluctuation to generate appropriate improvement to the satellite QoS for efficient services to the customers. 5-year (2012-2016) rainfall rate of one-minute integration time series data has been used to derive fading based on ITU-R P. 618-12 propagation models. The data are obtained from the measurement undertaken by the Communication Research Group (CRG), Physics Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. The rain attenuation and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were derived for frequency between Ku and V-band and propagation angle with respect to different transmitting power. The simulated results show a substantial reduction in SNR especially for application in the area of digital video broadcast-second generation coding modulation satellite networks.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, intelligent algorithm, Nigeria, QoS, satellite applications, tropical weather.

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1639 A Watermarking System Using the Wavelet Technique for Satellite Images

Authors: I. R. Farah, I. B. Ismail, M. B. Ahmed

Abstract:

The huge development of new technologies and the apparition of open communication system more and more sophisticated create a new challenge to protect digital content from piracy. Digital watermarking is a recent research axis and a new technique suggested as a solution to these problems. This technique consists in inserting identification information (watermark) into digital data (audio, video, image, databases...) in an invisible and indelible manner and in such a way not to degrade original medium-s quality. Moreover, we must be able to correctly extract the watermark despite the deterioration of the watermarked medium (i.e attacks). In this paper we propose a system for watermarking satellite images. We chose to embed the watermark into frequency domain, precisely the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). We applied our algorithm on satellite images of Tunisian center. The experiments show satisfying results. In addition, our algorithm showed an important resistance facing different attacks, notably the compression (JEPG, JPEG2000), the filtering, the histogram-s manipulation and geometric distortions such as rotation, cropping, scaling.

Keywords: Digital data watermarking, Spatial Database, Satellite images, Discrete Wavelets Transform (DWT).

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1638 Predictive Fuzzy Logic Controller for Agile Micro-Satellite

Authors: A. Bellar, M.K. Fellah, A.M. Si Mohammed, M. Bensaada, L. Boukhris

Abstract:

This paper presents the use of the predictive fuzzy logic controller (PFLC) applied to attitude control system for agile micro-satellite. In order to reduce the effect of unpredictable time delays and large uncertainties, the algorithm employs predictive control to predict the attitude of the satellite. Comparison of the PFLC and conventional fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is presented to evaluate the performance of the control system during attitude maneuver. The two proposed models have been analyzed with the same level of noise and external disturbances. Simulation results demonstrated the feasibility and advantages of the PFLC on the attitude determination and control system (ADCS) of agile satellite.

Keywords: Agile micro-satellite, Attitude control, fuzzy logic, predictive control

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1637 The Performance of Genetic Algorithm for Synchronized Chaotic Chen System in CDMA Satellite Channel

Authors: Salah Salmi, Karim Kemih, Malek Benslama

Abstract:

Synchronization is a difficult problem in CDMA satellite communications. Due to the influence of additive noise and fading in the mobile channel, it is not easy to keep up with the attenuation and offset. This paper considers a recently proposed approach to solve the problem of synchronization chaotic Chen system in CDMA satellite communication in the presence of constant attenuation and offset. An analytic algorithm that provides closed form channel and carrier offset estimates is presented. The principle of this approach is based on adding a compensation block before the receiver to compensate the distortion of the imperfect channel by using genetic algorithm. The resultants presented, show that the receiver is able to recover rapidly the synchronization with the transmitter.

Keywords: Chaotic Chen system, genetic algorithm, Synchronization, CDMA

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1636 Best Timing for Capturing Satellite Thermal Images, Asphalt, and Concrete Objects

Authors: Toufic Abd El-Latif Sadek

Abstract:

The asphalt object represents the asphalted areas like roads, and the concrete object represents the concrete areas like concrete buildings. The efficient extraction of asphalt and concrete objects from one satellite thermal image occurred at a specific time, by preventing the gaps in times which give the close and same brightness values between asphalt and concrete, and among other objects. So that to achieve efficient extraction and then better analysis. Seven sample objects were used un this study, asphalt, concrete, metal, rock, dry soil, vegetation, and water. It has been found that, the best timing for capturing satellite thermal images to extract the two objects asphalt and concrete from one satellite thermal image, saving time and money, occurred at a specific time in different months. A table is deduced shows the optimal timing for capturing satellite thermal images to extract effectively these two objects.

Keywords: Asphalt, concrete, satellite thermal images, timing.

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1635 Stabilization and Observation of Attitude Control Systems for Micro Satellites

Authors: A. Elakkary, A. Echchatbi, N. Elalami

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested in attitude control of a satellite, which using wheels of reaction, by state feedback. First, we develop a method allowing us to put the control and its integral in the state-feedback form. Then, by using the theorem of Gronwall- Bellman, we put the sufficient conditions so that the nonlinear system modeling the satellite is stabilisable and observed by state feedback.

Keywords: Satellite, attitude control, state feedback, attitude stabilization.

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1634 Scalable Cloud-Based LEO Satellite Constellation Simulator

Authors: Karim Sobh, Khaled El-Ayat, Fady Morcos, Amr El-Kadi

Abstract:

Distributed applications deployed on LEO satellites and ground stations require substantial communication between different members in a constellation to overcome the earth coverage barriers imposed by GEOs. Applications running on LEO constellations suffer the earth line-of-sight blockage effect. They need adequate lab testing before launching to space. We propose a scalable cloud-based network simulation framework to simulate problems created by the earth line-of-sight blockage. The framework utilized cloud IaaS virtual machines to simulate LEO satellites and ground stations distributed software. A factorial ANOVA statistical analysis is conducted to measure simulator overhead on overall communication performance. The results showed a very low simulator communication overhead. Consequently, the simulation framework is proposed as a candidate for testing LEO constellations with distributed software in the lab before space launch.

Keywords: LEO, Cloud Computing, Constellation, Satellite, Network Simulation, Netfilter.

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1633 Satellite Thermal Control: Cooling by a Diphasic Loop

Authors: L. Boukhris, A. Boudjemai, A. Bellar, R. Roubache, M. Bensaada

Abstract:

In space during functioning, a satellite will be heated up due to the behavior of its components such as power electronics. In order to prevent problems in the satellite, this heat has to be released in space thanks to the cooling system. This system consists of a loop heat pipe (LHP), in which a fluid streams through an evaporator and a condenser. In the evaporator, the fluid captures the heat from the satellite and evaporates. Then it flows to the condenser where it releases the heat and it condenses. In this project, the two mains parts of a cooling system are studied: the evaporator and the condenser. The study of the diphasic loop was done starting from digital simulations carried out under Matlab and Femlab.

Keywords: capillarity, condenser, evaporator, phase change, transfer of heat.

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1632 A Novel Method For evaluating Parameters Of Ongoing Calls In Low Earth Orbit Mobile Satellite System

Authors: Wassila Kiamouche, Malek Benslama

Abstract:

In order to derive important parameters concerning mobile subscriber MS with ongoing calls in Low Earth Orbit Mobile Satellite Systems LEO MSSs, a positioning system had to be integrated into MSS in order to localize mobile subscribers MSs and track them during the connection. Such integration is regarded as a complex implementation. We propose in this paper a novel method based on advantages of mobility model of Low Earth Orbit Mobile Satellite System LEO MSS called Evaluation Parameters Method EPM which allows for such systems the evaluation of different information concerning a MS with a call in progress even if its location is unknown.

Keywords: Cellular layout, LEO mobile satellite system, mobilitymodel, positioning system.

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1631 Selection of Appropriate Classification Technique for Lithological Mapping of Gali Jagir Area, Pakistan

Authors: Khunsa Fatima, Umar K. Khattak, Allah Bakhsh Kausar

Abstract:

Satellite images interpretation and analysis assist geologists by providing valuable information about geology and minerals of an area to be surveyed. A test site in Fatejang of district Attock has been studied using Landsat ETM+ and ASTER satellite images for lithological mapping. Five different supervised image classification techniques namely maximum likelihood, parallelepiped, minimum distance to mean, mahalanobis distance and spectral angle mapper have been performed upon both satellite data images to find out the suitable classification technique for lithological mapping in the study area. Results of these five image classification techniques were compared with the geological map produced by Geological Survey of Pakistan. Result of maximum likelihood classification technique applied on ASTER satellite image has highest correlation of 0.66 with the geological map. Field observations and XRD spectra of field samples also verified the results. A lithological map was then prepared based on the maximum likelihood classification of ASTER satellite image.

Keywords: ASTER, Landsat-ETM+, Satellite, Image classification.

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1630 Advanced Deployable/Retractable Solar Panel System for Satellite Applications

Authors: Zane Brough, Claudio Paoloni

Abstract:

Modern low earth orbit (LEO) satellites that require multi-mission flexibility are highly likely to be repositioned between different operational orbits. While executing this process the satellite may experience high levels of vibration and environmental hazards, exposing the deployed solar panel to dangerous stress levels, fatigue and space debris, hence it is desirable to retract the solar array before satellite repositioning to avoid damage or failure.

A novel concept of deployable/retractable hybrid solar array systemcomposed of both rigid and flexible solar panels arranged within a petal formation, aimed to provide a greater power to volume ratio while dramatically reducing mass and cost is proposed.

Keywords: Deployable Solar Panel, Satellite, Retractable Solar Panel, Hybrid Solar Panel.

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1629 Edge Segmentation of Satellite Image using Phase Congruency Model

Authors: Ahmed Zaafouri, Mounir Sayadi, Farhat Fnaiech

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a method for edge segmentation of satellite images based on 2-D Phase Congruency (PC) model. The proposed approach is composed by two steps: The contextual non linear smoothing algorithm (CNLS) is used to smooth the input images. Then, the 2D stretched Gabor filter (S-G filter) based on proposed angular variation is developed in order to avoid the multiple responses in the previous work. An assessment of our proposed method performance is provided in terms of accuracy of satellite image edge segmentation. The proposed method is compared with others known approaches.

Keywords: Edge segmentation, Phase congruency model, Satellite images, Stretched Gabor filter

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1628 Development of Algorithms for the Study of the Image in Digital Form for Satellite Applications: Extraction of a Road Network and Its Nodes

Authors: Z. Nougrara

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a novel methodology for extracting a road network and its nodes from satellite images of Algeria country. This developed technique is a progress of our previous research works. It is founded on the information theory and the mathematical morphology; the information theory and the mathematical morphology are combined together to extract and link the road segments to form a road network and its nodes. We therefore have to define objects as sets of pixels and to study the shape of these objects and the relations that exist between them. In this approach, geometric and radiometric features of roads are integrated by a cost function and a set of selected points of a crossing road. Its performances were tested on satellite images of Algeria country.

Keywords: Satellite image, road network, nodes.

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1627 Using Satellite Images Datasets for Road Intersection Detection in Route Planning

Authors: Fatma El-zahraa El-taher, Ayman Taha, Jane Courtney, Susan Mckeever

Abstract:

Understanding road networks plays an important role in navigation applications such as self-driving vehicles and route planning for individual journeys. Intersections of roads are essential components of road networks. Understanding the features of an intersection, from a simple T-junction to larger multi-road junctions is critical to decisions such as crossing roads or selecting safest routes. The identification and profiling of intersections from satellite images is a challenging task. While deep learning approaches offer state-of-the-art in image classification and detection, the availability of training datasets is a bottleneck in this approach. In this paper, a labelled satellite image dataset for the intersection recognition  problem is presented. It consists of 14,692 satellite images of Washington DC, USA. To support other users of the dataset, an automated download and labelling script is provided for dataset replication. The challenges of construction and fine-grained feature labelling of a satellite image dataset are examined, including the issue of how to address features that are spread across multiple images. Finally, the accuracy of detection of intersections in satellite images is evaluated.

Keywords: Satellite images, remote sensing images, data acquisition, autonomous vehicles, robot navigation, route planning, road intersections.

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