Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 586

Search results for: Composite materials

586 An Overview of Corroded Pipe Repair Techniques Using Composite Materials

Authors: K. S. Lim, S. N. A. Azraai, N. M. Noor, N. Yahaya

Abstract:

Polymeric composites are being increasingly used as repair material for repairing critical infrastructures such as building, bridge, pressure vessel, piping and pipeline. Technique in repairing damaged pipes is one of the major concerns of pipeline owners. Considerable researches have been carried out on the repair of corroded pipes using composite materials. This article attempts a short review of the subject matter to provide insight into various techniques used in repairing corroded pipes, focusing on a wide range of composite repair systems. These systems including pre-cured layered, flexible wet lay-up, pre-impregnated, split composite sleeve and flexible tape systems. Both advantages and limitations of these repair systems were highlighted. Critical technical aspects have been discussed through the current standards and practices. Research gaps and future study scopes in achieving more effective design philosophy are also presented.

Keywords: Composite materials, pipeline, repair technique, polymers.

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585 Producing New Composite Materials by Using Tragacanth and Waste Ash

Authors: Yasar Bicer, Serif Yilmaz

Abstract:

In present study, two kinds of thermal power plant ashes; one the fly ash and the other waste ash are mixed with adhesive tragacanth and cement to produce new composite materials. 48 new samples are produced by varying the percentages of the fly ash, waste ash, cement and tragacanth. The new samples are subjected to some tests to find out their properties such as thermal conductivity, compressive strength, tensile strength and sucking capability of water. It is found that; the thermal conductivity decreases with increasing amount of tragacanth in the mixture. The compressive, tensile strength increases when the rate of tragacanth is up to 1%, whilst as the amount of tragacanth increases up to 1.5%, the compressive, tensile strength decreases slightly. The rate of water absorption of samples was more than 30%. From this result, it is concluded that these materials can not be used as external plaster or internal plaster material that faces to water. They can be used in internal plaster unless touching water and they can be used as cover plaster under roof and riprap material in sandwich panels. It is also found that, these materials can be cut with saw, drilled with screw and painted with any kind of paint.

Keywords: Fly ash, tragacanth, cement, composite material.

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584 Engineered Cement Composite Materials Characterization for Tunneling Applications

Authors: S. Boughanem, D. A. Jesson, M. J. Mulheron, P.A. Smith C. Eddie, S. Psomas, M. Rimes

Abstract:

Cements, which are intrinsically brittle materials, can exhibit a degree of pseudo-ductility when reinforced with a sufficient volume fraction of a fibrous phase. This class of materials, called Engineered Cement Composites (ECC) has the potential to be used in future tunneling applications where a level of pseudo-ductility is required to avoid brittle failures. However uncertainties remain regarding mechanical performance. Previous work has focused on comparatively thin specimens; however for future civil engineering applications, it is imperative that the behavior in tension of thicker specimens is understood. In the present work, specimens containing cement powder and admixtures have been manufactured following two different processes and tested in tension. Multiple matrix cracking has been observed during tensile testing, leading to a “strain-hardening" behavior, confirming the possible suitability of ECC material when used as thick sections (greater than 50mm) in tunneling applications.

Keywords: Cement composite, polymeric fibers, pseudoductility, test-geometry.

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583 Production and Mechanical Characterization of Ballistic Thermoplastic Composite Materials

Authors: D. Korsacilar, C. Atas

Abstract:

In this study, first thermoplastic composite materials /plates that have high ballistic impact resistance were produced. For this purpose, the thermoplastic prepreg and the vacuum bagging technique were used to produce a composite material. Thermoplastic prepregs (resin-impregnated fiber) that are supplied ready to be used, namely high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was chosen as matrix and unidirectional glass fiber was used as reinforcement. In order to compare the fiber configuration effect on mechanical properties, unidirectional and biaxial prepregs were used. Then the microstructural properties of the composites were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Impact properties of the composites were examined by Charpy impact test and tensile mechanical tests and then the effects of ultraviolet irradiation were investigated on mechanical performance.

Keywords: Ballistic, Composite, Thermoplastic.

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582 Preparation of Fe3Si/Ferrite Micro- and Nano-Powder Composite

Authors: R. Bures, M. Streckova, M. Faberova, P. Kurek

Abstract:

Composite material based on Fe3Si micro-particles and Mn-Zn nano-ferrite was prepared using powder metallurgy technology. The sol-gel followed by autocombustion process was used for synthesis of Mn0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 ferrite. 3 wt.% of mechanically milled ferrite was mixed with Fe3Si powder alloy. Mixed micro-nano powder system was homogenized by the Resonant Acoustic Mixing using ResodynLabRAM Mixer. This non-invasive homogenization technique was used to preserve spherical morphology of Fe3Si powder particles. Uniaxial cold pressing in the closed die at pressure 600 MPa was applied to obtain a compact sample. Microwave sintering of green compact was realized at 800°C, 20 minutes, in air. Density of the powders and composite was measured by Hepycnometry. Impulse excitation method was used to measure elastic properties of sintered composite. Mechanical properties were evaluated by measurement of transverse rupture strength (TRS) and Vickers hardness (HV). Resistivity was measured by 4 point probe method. Ferrite phase distribution in volume of the composite was documented by metallographic analysis. It has been found that nano-ferrite particle distributed among micro- particles of Fe3Si powder alloy led to high relative density (~93%) and suitable mechanical properties (TRS >100 MPa, HV ~1GPa, E-modulus ~140 GPa) of the composite. High electric resistivity (R~6.7 ohm.cm) of prepared composite indicate their potential application as soft magnetic material at medium and high frequencies.

Keywords: Micro- and nano-composite, soft magnetic materials, microwave sintering, mechanical and electric properties.

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581 Development of a Sliding-tearing Mode Fracture Mechanical Tool for Laminated Composite Materials

Authors: Andras Szekrenyes

Abstract:

This work presents the mixed-mode II/III prestressed split-cantilever beam specimen for the fracture testing of composite materials. In accordance with the concept of prestressed composite beams one of the two fracture modes is provided by the prestressed state of the specimen, and the other one is increased up to fracture initiation by using a testing machine. The novel beam-like specimen is able to provide any combination of the mode-II and mode-III energy release rates. A simple closed-form solution is developed using beam theory as a data reduction scheme and for the calculation of the energy release rates in the new configuration. The applicability and the limitations of the novel fracture mechanical test are demonstrated using unidirectional glass/polyester composite specimens. If only crack propagation onset is involved then the mixed-mode beam specimen can be used to obtain the fracture criterion of transparent composite materials in the GII - GIII plane in a relatively simple way.

Keywords: Composite, fracture mechanics, toughness testing, mixed-mode II/III fracture.

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580 Field Trial of Resin-Based Composite Materials for the Treatment of Surface Collapses Associated with Former Shallow Coal Mining

Authors: Philip T. Broughton, Mark P. Bettney, Isla L. Smail

Abstract:

Effective treatment of ground instability is essential when managing the impacts associated with historic mining. A field trial was undertaken by the Coal Authority to investigate the geotechnical performance and potential use of composite materials comprising resin and fill or stone to safely treat surface collapses, such as crown-holes, associated with shallow mining. Test pits were loosely filled with various granular fill materials. The fill material was injected with commercially available silicate and polyurethane resin foam products. In situ and laboratory testing was undertaken to assess the geotechnical properties of the resultant composite materials. The test pits were subsequently excavated to assess resin permeation. Drilling and resin injection was easiest through clean limestone fill materials. Recycled building waste fill material proved difficult to inject with resin; this material is thus considered unsuitable for use in resin composites. Incomplete resin permeation in several of the test pits created irregular ‘blocks’ of composite. Injected resin foams significantly improve the stiffness and resistance (strength) of the un-compacted fill material. The stiffness of the treated fill material appears to be a function of the stone particle size, its associated compaction characteristics (under loose tipping) and the proportion of resin foam matrix. The type of fill material is more critical than the type of resin to the geotechnical properties of the composite materials. Resin composites can effectively support typical design imposed loads. Compared to other traditional treatment options, such as cement grouting, the use of resin composites is potentially less disruptive, particularly for sites with limited access, and thus likely to achieve significant reinstatement cost savings. The use of resin composites is considered a suitable option for the future treatment of shallow mining collapses.

Keywords: Composite material, ground improvement, mining legacy, resin.

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579 Dynamic Analysis of Composite Doubly Curved Panels with Variable Thickness

Authors: I. Algul, G. Akgun, H. Kurtaran

Abstract:

Dynamic analysis of composite doubly curved panels with variable thickness subjected to different pulse types using Generalized Differential Quadrature method (GDQ) is presented in this study. Panels with variable thickness are used in the construction of aerospace and marine industry. Giving variable thickness to panels can allow the designer to get optimum structural efficiency. For this reason, estimating the response of variable thickness panels is very important to design more reliable structures under dynamic loads. Dynamic equations for composite panels with variable thickness are obtained using virtual work principle. Partial derivatives in the equation of motion are expressed with GDQ and Newmark average acceleration scheme is used for temporal discretization. Several examples are used to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results are compared with finite element method. Effects of taper ratios, boundary conditions and loading type on the response of composite panel are investigated.

Keywords: Generalized differential quadrature method, doubly curved panels, laminated composite materials, small displacement.

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578 Effects of Different Fiber Orientations on the Shear Strength Performance of Composite Adhesive Joints

Authors: Ferhat Kadioglu, Hasan Puskul

Abstract:

A composite material with carbon fiber and polymer matrix has been used as adherent for manufacturing adhesive joints. In order to evaluate different fiber orientations on joint performance, the adherents with the 0°, ±15°, ±30°, ±45° fiber orientations were used in the single lap joint configuration. The joints with an overlap length of 25 mm were prepared according to the ASTM 1002 specifications and subjected to tensile loadings. The structural adhesive used was a two-part epoxy to be cured at 70°C for an hour. First, mechanical behaviors of the adherents were measured using three point bending test. In the test, considerations were given to stress to failure and elastic modulus. The results were compared with theoretical ones using rule of mixture. Then, the joints were manufactured in a specially prepared jig, after a proper surface preparation. Experimental results showed that the fiber orientations of the adherents affected the joint performance considerably; the joints with ±45° adherents experienced the worst shear strength, half of those with 0° adherents, and in general, there was a great relationship between the fiber orientations and failure mechanisms. Delamination problems were observed for many joints, which were thought to be due to peel effects at the ends of the overlap. It was proved that the surface preparation applied to the adherent surface was adequate. For further explanation of the results, a numerical work should be carried out using a possible non-linear analysis.

Keywords: Composite materials, adhesive bonding, bonding strength, lap joint, tensile strength.

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577 Mechanical Testing of Composite Materials for Monocoque Design in Formula Student Car

Authors: Erik Vassøy Olsen, Hirpa G. Lemu

Abstract:

Inspired by the Formula-1 competition, IMechE (Institute of Mechanical Engineers) and Formula SAE (Society of Mechanical Engineers) organize annual competitions for University and College students worldwide to compete with a single-seat racecar they have designed and built. Design of the chassis or the frame is a key component of the competition because the weight and stiffness properties are directly related with the performance of the car and the safety of the driver. In addition, a reduced weight of the chassis has direct influence on the design of other components in the car. Among others, it improves the power to weight ratio and the aerodynamic performance. As the power output of the engine or the battery installed in the car is limited to 80 kW, increasing the power to weight ratio demands reduction of the weight of the chassis, which represents the major part of the weight of the car. In order to reduce the weight of the car, ION Racing team from University of Stavanger, Norway, opted for a monocoque design. To ensure fulfilment of the competition requirements of the chassis, the monocoque design should provide sufficient torsional stiffness and absorb the impact energy in case of possible collision. The study reported in this article is based on the requirements for Formula Student competition. As part of this study, diverse mechanical tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties and performances of the monocoque design. Upon a comprehensive theoretical study of the mechanical properties of sandwich composite materials and the requirements of monocoque design in the competition rules, diverse tests were conducted including 3-point bending test, perimeter shear test and test for absorbed energy. The test panels were homemade and prepared with equivalent size of the side impact zone of the monocoque, i.e. 275 mm x 500 mm, so that the obtained results from the tests can be representative. Different layups of the test panels with identical core material and the same number of layers of carbon fibre were tested and compared. Influence of the core material thickness was also studied. Furthermore, analytical calculations and numerical analysis were conducted to check compliance to the stated rules for Structural Equivalency with steel grade SAE/AISI 1010. The test results were also compared with calculated results with respect to bending and torsional stiffness, energy absorption, buckling, etc. The obtained results demonstrate that the material composition and strength of the composite material selected for the monocoque design has equivalent structural properties as a welded frame and thus comply with the competition requirements. The developed analytical calculation algorithms and relations will be useful for future monocoque designs with different lay-ups and compositions.

Keywords: Composite material, formula student, ion racing, monocoque design, structural equivalence.

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576 Energy Systems and Crushing Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials

Authors: Hakim S. Sultan Aljibori

Abstract:

Effect of geometry on crushing behavior, energy absorption and failure mode of woven roving jute fiber/epoxy laminated composite tubes were experimentally studied. Investigations were carried out on three different geometrical types of composite tubes (circular, square and radial corrugated) subjected to axial compressive loading. It was observed in axial crushing study that the load bearing capability is significantly influenced by corrugation geometry. The influence of geometries of specimens was supported by the plotted load – displacement curves of the tests.

Keywords: Crushing behavior, jute fiber, composite tubes andSpecific energy absorption

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575 Thermal and Flammability Properties of Paraffin/Nanoclay Composite Phase Change Materials Incorporated in Building Materials for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Awni H. Alkhazaleh, Baljinder K. Kandola

Abstract:

In this study, a form-stable composite Paraffin/Nanoclay (PA-NC) has been prepared by absorbing PA into porous particles of NC to be used for low-temperature latent heat thermal energy storage. The leakage test shows that the maximum mass fraction of PA that can be incorporated in NC without leakage is 60 wt.%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to measure the thermal properties of the PA and PA-NC both before and after incorporation in plasterboard (PL). The mechanical performance of the samples has been evaluated in flexural mode. The thermal energy storage performance has been studied using a small test chamber (100 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm) made from 10 mm thick PL and measuring the temperatures using thermocouples. The flammability of the PL+PL-NC has been discussed using a cone calorimeter. The results indicate that the form composite PA has good potential for use as thermal energy storage materials in building applications.

Keywords: Flammability, paraffin, plasterboard, thermal energy storage.

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574 Laser-Ultrasonic Method for Measuring the Local Elastic Moduli of Porous Isotropic Composite Materials

Authors: Alexander A. Karabutov, Natalia B. Podymova, Elena B. Cherepetskaya, Vladimir A. Makarov, Yulia G. Sokolovskaya

Abstract:

The laser-ultrasonic method is realized for quantifying the influence of porosity on the local Young’s modulus of isotropic composite materials. The method is based on a laser thermooptical method of ultrasound generation combined with measurement of the phase velocity of longitudinal and shear acoustic waves in samples. The main advantage of this method compared with traditional ultrasonic research methods is the efficient generation of short and powerful probing acoustic pulses required for reliable testing of ultrasound absorbing and scattering heterogeneous materials. Using as an example samples of a metal matrix composite with reinforcing microparticles of silicon carbide in various concentrations, it is shown that to provide an effective increase in Young’s modulus with increasing concentration of microparticles, the porosity of the final sample should not exceed 2%.

Keywords: Laser ultrasonic, longitudinal and shear ultrasonic waves, porosity, composite, local elastic moduli.

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573 Production of Composite Materials by Mixing Chromium-Rich Ash and Soda-Lime Glass Powder: Mechanical Properties and Microstructure

Authors: Savvas Varitis, Panagiotis Kavouras, George Vourlias, Eleni Pavlidou, Theodoros Karakostas, Philomela Komninou

Abstract:

A chromium-loaded ash originating from incineration of tannery sludge under anoxic conditions was mixed with low grade soda-lime glass powder coming from commercial glass bottles. The relative weight proportions of ash over glass powder tested were 30/70, 40/60 and 50/50. The solid mixtures, formed in green state compacts, were sintered at the temperature range of 800o C up to 1200o C. The resulting products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) and micro-indentation. The above methods were employed to characterize the various phases, microstructure and hardness of the produced materials. Thermal treatment at 800o C and 1000o C produced opaque ceramic products composed of a variety of chromium-containing and chromium-free crystalline phases. Thermal treatment at 1200o C gave rise to composite products, where only chromium-containing crystalline phases were detected. Hardness results suggest that specific products are serious candidates for structural applications.

Keywords: Chromium-rich tannery residues, glass-ceramic materials, mechanical properties, microstructure

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572 Advantages of Composite Materials in Aircraft Structures

Authors: Muniyasamy Kalanchiam, Moorthy Chinnasamy

Abstract:

In the competitive environment of aircraft industries it becomes absolutely necessary to improve the efficiency, performance of the aircrafts to reduce the development and operating costs considerably, in order to capitalize the market. An important contribution to improve the efficiency and performance can be achieved by decreasing the aircraft weight through considerable usage of composite materials in primary aircraft structures. In this study, a type of composite material called Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) is explored for the usage is aircraft skin panels. Even though there were plenty of studies and research has been already carried out, here a practical example of an aircraft skin panel is taken and substantiated the benefits of composites material usage over the metallic skin panel. A crown skin panel of a commercial aircraft is designed using both metal and composite materials. Stress analysis has been carried out for both and margin of safety is estimated for the critical load cases. The skin panels are compared for manufacturing, tooling, assembly and cost parameters. Detail step by step comparison between metal and composite constructions are studied and results are tabulated for better understanding.

Keywords: Composites, CFRP, Aircraft Structure, Skin panel.

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571 Preparation and Conductivity Measurements of LSM/YSZ Composite Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell Anode Materials

Authors: Christian C. Vaso, Rinlee Butch M. Cervera

Abstract:

One of the most promising anode materials for solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) application is the Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM) which is known to have a high electronic conductivity but low ionic conductivity. To increase the ionic conductivity or diffusion of ions through the anode, Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), which has good ionic conductivity, is proposed to be combined with LSM to create a composite electrode and to obtain a high mixed ionic and electronic conducting anode. In this study, composite of lanthanum strontium manganite and YSZ oxide, La0.8Sr0.2MnO3/Zr0.92Y0.08O2 (LSM/YSZ), with different wt.% compositions of LSM and YSZ were synthesized using solid-state reaction. The obtained prepared composite samples of 60, 50, and 40 wt.% LSM with remaining wt.% of 40, 50, and 60, respectively for YSZ were fully characterized for its microstructure by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Scanning electron microscope/Energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analyses. Surface morphology of the samples via SEM analysis revealed a well-sintered and densified pure LSM, while a more porous composite sample of LSM/YSZ was obtained. Electrochemical impedance measurements at intermediate temperature range (500-700 °C) of the synthesized samples were also performed which revealed that the 50 wt.% LSM with 50 wt.% YSZ (L50Y50) sample showed the highest total conductivity of 8.27x10-1 S/cm at 600 oC with 0.22 eV activation energy.

Keywords: Ceramics, microstructure, fuel cells, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

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570 Recovery of Post-Consumer PET Bottles in a Composite Material Preparation

Authors: Rafenomananjara Tsinjo Nirina, Tomoo Sekito, Andrianaivoravelona Jaconnet Oliva

Abstract:

Manufacturing a composite material from post-consumer bottles is an interesting outlet since Madagascar is still facing the challenges of managing plastic waste on the one hand and appropriate waste treatment facilities are not yet developed on the other hand. New waste management options are needed to divert End-Of-Life (EOL) soft plastic wastes from landfills and incineration. Waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles might be considered as a valuable resource and recovered into polymer concrete. The methodology is easy to implement and appropriate to the local context in Madagascar. This approach will contribute to the production of ecological building materials that might be profitable for the environment and the construction sector. This work aims to study the feasibility of using the post-consumer PET bottles as an alternative binding agent instead of the conventional Portland cement and water. Then, the mechanical and physical properties of the materials were evaluated.

Keywords: PET recycling, polymer concrete, ecological building materials, pollution mitigation.

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569 Performance of Bio-Composite Carbonized Materials in Probiotic Applications

Authors: Irina S. Savitskaya, Aida S. Kistaubayeva, Nuraly S. Akimbekov, Ilya E. Digel, Azhar A. Zhubanova

Abstract:

A new composite sorbent based on carbonized rice husk (CRH) and immobilized on it living cells and inactivated cultural liquid containing antimicrobials metabolites of Bacillus subtilis CK-245 is developed. The sorption and antimicrobic activity of CRH concerning five species of Enterobacteriaceae is studied. Prospects of use of developed sorbent in medicine and veterinary science is shown.

Keywords: CRH, probiotic, concentrated fugate, sorption and antimicrobial activity.

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568 Development of Thermal Insulation Materials Based On Silicate Using Non-Traditional Binders and Fillers

Authors: J. Hroudova, J. Zach, L. Vodova

Abstract:

When insulation and rehabilitation of structures is important to use quality building materials with high utility value. One potentially interesting and promising groups of construction materials in this area are advanced, thermally insulating plaster silicate based. With the present trend reduction of energy consumption of building structures and reducing CO2 emissions to be developed capillary-active materials that are characterized by their low density, low thermal conductivity while maintaining good mechanical properties.

The paper describes the results of research activities aimed at the development of thermal insulating and rehabilitation material ongoing at the Technical University in Brno, Faculty of Civil Engineering. The achieved results of this development will be the basis for subsequent experimental analysis of the influence of thermal and moisture loads developed on these materials.

Keywords: Insulation materials, rehabilitation materials, lightweight aggregate, fly ash, slag, hemp fibers, glass fibers, metakaolin.

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567 Testing of Materials for Rapid Prototyping Fused Deposition Modelling Technology

Authors: L. Novakova-Marcincinova, J. Novak-Marcincin

Abstract:

Paper presents knowledge about types of test in area of materials properties of selected methods of rapid prototyping technologies. In today used rapid prototyping technologies for production of models and final parts are used materials in initial state as solid, liquid or powder material structure. In solid state are used various forms such as pellets, wire or laminates. Basic range materials include paper, nylon, wax, resins, metals and ceramics. In Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) rapid prototyping technology are mainly used as basic materials ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene), polyamide, polycarbonate, polyethylene and polypropylene. For advanced FDM applications are used special materials as silicon nitrate, PZT (Piezoceramic Material - Lead Zirconate Titanate), aluminium oxide, hydroxypatite and stainless steel.

Keywords: Rapid prototyping, materials, testing of materials.

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566 Design and Analysis of an Automobile Bumper with the Capacity of Energy Release Using GMT Materials

Authors: A.R. Mortazavi Moghaddam, M. T. Ahmadian

Abstract:

Bumpers play an important role in preventing the impact energy from being transferred to the automobile and passengers. Saving the impact energy in the bumper to be released in the environment reduces the damages of the automobile and passengers. The goal of this paper is to design a bumper with minimum weight by employing the Glass Material Thermoplastic (GMT) materials. This bumper either absorbs the impact energy with its deformation or transfers it perpendicular to the impact direction. To reach this aim, a mechanism is designed to convert about 80% of the kinetic impact energy to the spring potential energy and release it to the environment in the low impact velocity according to American standard1. In addition, since the residual kinetic energy will be damped with the infinitesimal elastic deformation of the bumper elements, the passengers will not sense any impact. It should be noted that in this paper, modeling, solving and result-s analysis are done in CATIA, LS-DYNA and ANSYS V8.0 software respectively.

Keywords: Bumper, Composite material, Energy Release, GMT, Impact

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565 Design of Composite Risers for Minimum Weight

Authors: Chunguang Wang, Krishna Shankar, Evgeny V. Morozov

Abstract:

The use of composite materials in offshore engineering for deep sea oil production riser systems has drawn considerable interest due to the potential weight savings and improvement in durability. The design of composite risers consists of two stages: (1) local design based on critical local load cases, and (2) global analysis of the full length composite riser under global loads and assessment of critical locations. In the first stage, eight different material combinations were selected and their laminate configurations optimised under local load considerations. Stage two includes a final local stress analysis of the critical sections of the riser under the combined loads determined in the global analysis. This paper describes two design methodologies of the composite riser to provide minimum structural weight and shows that the use of off angle fibre orientations in addition to axial and hoop reinforcements offer substantial weight savings and ensure the structural capacity.

Keywords: Composite Riser, Composite Tubular, Finite Element Modelling, Global Design, Local Design, Offshore Engineering.

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564 Pioneer Synthesis and Characterization of Boron Containing Hard Materials

Authors: G. Çelik Gül, F. Kurtuluş

Abstract:

The first laboratory synthesis of hard materials such as diamond proceeded to attack of developing materials with high hardness to compete diamond. Boron rich solids are good candidates owing to their short interatomic bond lengths and strong covalent character. Boron containing hard material was synthesized by modifiedmicrowave method under nitrogen atmosphere by using a fuel (glycine or urea), amorphous boron and/or boric acid in appropriate molar ratio. Characterizations were done by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analyze (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA).

Keywords: Boron containing materials, hard materials, microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction.

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563 Development of Light-Weight Fibre-Based Materials for Building Envelopes

Authors: René Čechmánek, Vladan Prachař, Ludvík Lederer, Jiří Loskot

Abstract:

Thin-walled elements with a matrix set on a base of high-valuable Portland cement with dispersed reinforcement from alkali-resistant glass fibres are used in a range of applications as claddings of buildings and infrastructure constructions as well as various architectural elements of residential buildings. Even though their elementary thickness and therefore total weight is quite low, architects and building companies demand on even further decreasing of the bulk density of these fibre-cement elements for the reason of loading elimination of connected superstructures and easier assembling in demand conditions. By the means of various kinds of light-weight aggregates it is possible to achieve light-weighing of these composite elements. From the range of possible fillers with different material properties granulated expanded glass worked the best. By the means of laboratory testing an effect of two fillers based on expanded glass on the fibre reinforced cement composite was verified. Practical applicability was tested in the production of commonly manufactured glass fibre reinforced concrete elements, such as channels for electrical cable deposition, products for urban equipment and especially various cladding elements. Even though these are not structural elements, it is necessary to evaluate also strength characteristics and resistance to environment for their durability in certain applications.

Keywords: Fibre-cement composite, granulated expanded glass, light-weighing.

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562 Shielding Effectiveness of Rice Husk and CNT Composites in X-Band Frequency

Authors: Y. S. Lee, F. Malek, E. M. Cheng, W. W. Liu, F. H. Wee, M. N. Iqbal, Z. Liyana, B. S. Yew, F. S. Abdullah

Abstract:

This paper presents the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness of rice husk and carbon nanotubes (RHCNTs) composites in the X-band region (8.2-12.4 GHz). The difference weight ratio of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were mix with the rice husk. The rectangular waveguide technique was used to measure the complex permittivity of the RHCNTs composites materials. The complex permittivity is represented in terms of both the real and imaginary parts of permittivity in X-band frequency. The conductivity of RHCNTs shows increasing when the ratio of CNTs mixture increases. The composites materials were simulated using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio simulation software. The shielding effectiveness of RHCNTs and pure rice husk was compared. The highest EMI SE of 30 dB is obtained for RHCNTs composites of 10 wt % CNTs with 10mm thickness.

Keywords: EMI Shielding effectiveness, Carbon nanotube, Composite materials, Waveguide, X-band.

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561 Influence of Laminated Textile Structures on Mechanical Performance of NF-Epoxy Composites

Authors: A. R. Azrin Hani, R. Ahmad, M. Mariatti

Abstract:

Textile structures are engineered and fabricated to meet worldwide structural applications. Nevertheless, research varying textile structure on natural fibre as composite reinforcement was found to be very limited. Most of the research is focusing on short fibre and random discontinuous orientation of the reinforcement structure. Realizing that natural fibre (NF) composite had been widely developed to be used as synthetic fibre composite replacement, this research attempted to examine the influence of woven and cross-ply laminated structure towards its mechanical performances. Laminated natural fibre composites were developed using hand lay-up and vacuum bagging technique. Impact and flexural strength were investigated as a function of fibre type (coir and kenaf) and reinforcement structure (imbalanced plain woven, 0°/90° cross-ply and +45°/-45° cross-ply). Multi-level full factorial design of experiment (DOE) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to impart data as to how fibre type and reinforcement structure parameters affect the mechanical properties of the composites. This systematic experimentation has led to determination of significant factors that predominant influences the impact and flexural properties of the textile composites. It was proven that both fibre type and reinforcement structure demonstrated significant difference results. Overall results indicated that coir composite and woven structure exhibited better impact and flexural strength. Yet, cross-ply composite structure demonstrated better fracture resistance.

Keywords: Cross-ply composite, Flexural strength, Impact strength, Textile natural fibre composite, Woven composite.

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560 Investigation of Stability of Functionally Graded Material when Encountering Periodic Loading

Authors: M. Amiri

Abstract:

In this work, functionally graded materials (FGMs), subjected to loading, which varies with time has been studied. The material properties of FGM are changing through the thickness of material as power law distribution. The conical shells have been chosen for this study so in the first step capability equations for FGM have been obtained. With Galerkin method, these equations have been replaced with time dependant differential equations with variable coefficient. These equations have solved for different initial conditions with variation methods. Important parameters in loading conditions are semi-vertex angle, external pressure and material properties. Results validation has been done by comparison between with those in previous studies of other researchers.

Keywords: Impulsive semi-vertex angle, loading, functionally graded materials, composite material.

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559 Structural Behaviour of Partially Filled Steel Grid Composite Deck

Authors: Hyun-Seop Shin, Chin-Hyung Lee, Ki-Tae Park

Abstract:

In order to apply partially filled steel grid composite deck as the horizontal supporting structure of various kinds of infrastructures, the variation of its flexural strength according to design parameters such as cross and longitudinal bars constituting the steel grid and the type of shear connection is evaluated and compared experimentally. The result shows that the design sensitivity of the deck to the spacing of the cross bars is insignificant in the case of structure with low risk of punching failure or without load distribution problem. By means of shear connection composed by transverse rebar and longitudinal bar without additional shear stud bolts, the complete interaction between steel grid and concrete slab is able to be achieved and the composite deck can develop its bending resistance capacity.

Keywords: bending strength, composite action, shear connection, steel grid composite deck

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558 On the Coupled Electromechanical Behavior of Artificial Materials with Chiral-Shell Elements

Authors: Anna Girchenko, Victor A. Eremeyev, Holm Altenbach

Abstract:

In the present work we investigate both the elastic and electric properties of a chiral material. We consider a composite structure made from a polymer matrix and anisotropic inclusions of GaAs taking into account piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composite material. The principal task of the work is the estimation of the functional properties of the composite material.

Keywords: Coupled electromechanical behavior, Composite structure, Chiral metamaterial.

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557 Rehabilitation of Reinforced Concrete Columns

Authors: Madi Rafik, Guenfoud Mohamed

Abstract:

In recent years, rehabilitation has been the subject of extensive research due to increased spending on building work and repair of built works. In all cases, it is absolutely essential to carry out methods of strengthening or repair of structural elements, and that following an inspection analysis and methodology of a correct diagnosis. The reinforced concrete columns are important elements in building structures. They support the vertical loads and provide bracing against the horizontal loads. This research about the behavior of reinforced concrete rectangular columns, rehabilitated by concrete liner, confinement FRP fabric, steel liner or cage formed by metal corners. It allows comparing the contributions of different processes used perspective section resistance elements rehabilitated compared to that is not reinforced or repaired. The different results obtained revealed a considerable gain in bearing capacity failure of reinforced sections cladding concrete, metal bracket, steel plates and a slight improvement to the section reinforced with fabric FRP. The use of FRP does not affect the weight of the structures, but the use of different techniques cladding increases the weight of elements rehabilitated and therefore the weight of the building which requires resizing foundations.

Keywords: cladding, Rehabilitation, reinforced concrete columns, confinement, composite materials.

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