Psychological Impact of Radiation Versus Its Physiological Effects: Radiation Workers’ Perspective in Medical Centers
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32799
Psychological Impact of Radiation Versus Its Physiological Effects: Radiation Workers’ Perspective in Medical Centers

Authors: Muhammad Waqar, Touqir Ahmad Afridi, Quratulain Soomro


Radiation is a ghost causing unimaginable physical damage, but its harm is not inevitable. The panic created by previously reported worst-case scenarios i.e., Three Mile Island, Fukushima, Chernobyl, has adversely affected the attitude of radiation workers towards the profession. The psychological effect of radiation-related catastrophes creates an invisible barrier that reduces the efficiency of radiation workers. Careful handling and proper monitoring of radiation decreases the hazards of radiation and proves that the psychological impairment of radiation is myriad fold adverse than its physiological damage. Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) badges with unique identity numbers were provided to 36 radiation workers for a period of one year (2021). TLDs were read quarterly, and doses were recorded for every radiation worker. Annual doses were recorded and compared with national and international standards. Moreover, the period for which an individual worker is expected to reach one year limit of 20 mSv was also calculated. The highest radiation dose for the radiation worker in 2021 was found at 3.2 mSv, which was 16% of the permissible annual dose limit. The average occupational radiation doses ranged from 1.0 mSv to 3.20 mSv. 64% of the employees did not exceed the 10% of the annual limit, receiving less than 2 mSv. The least time for 20 mSv completion was found 6.25 years for the hot-lab technician. As a whole, the 20 mSv completion period ranged from 6.25 to 20 years. We concluded that the annual professional radiation doses were well within the permissible limits of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The fear of radiation is unnecessary and it creates reluctance towards performing their assigned duties and it is also not favorable for the institute. It must be abolished through education and training sessions.

Keywords: TLD, thermoluminescent dosimeter, psychological impact, radiation dose, annual dose limit, PNRA, ICRP, IAEA.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 361


[1] S. A. Memon, N. A. Laghari, and A. A. Cheema, “Evaluation of radiation workers’ occupational doses working at NIMRA Jamshoro,” JLUMHS, vol. 11, no. 03, p. 190, 2012.
[2] M. Waqar, T. A. Afridi, Q. Soomro, and A. S. Abbasi, “Measurement of Ambient Ionizing Radiation Exposure in Operating Consoles of Radiation Modalities in Cancer Hospital,” J. Eng. Res. Sci., vol. 1, no. May, pp. 7–12, 2022, (Online). Available:
[3] R. Ward et al., “Radiation dose from common radiological investigations and cumulative exposure in children with cystic fibrosis: an observational study from a single UK centre,” BMJ Open, vol. 7, no. 8, p. e017548, 2017.
[4] E. Atlı, S. A. Uyanık, U. Öğüşlü, H. Çevik Cenkeri, B. Yılmaz, and B. Gümüş, “Radiation doses from head, neck, chest and abdominal CT examinations: an institutional dose report.,” Diagn. Interv. Radiol., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 147–151, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.5152/dir.2020.19560.
[5] C. R. Wilson, “The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging, 2nd Edition,” Shock, vol. 19, no. 4, 2003, (Online). Available:,_2nd.22.aspx
[6] A. Martin and S. A. Harbison, “The external radiation hazard BT - An Introduction to Radiation Protection,” A. Martin and S. A. Harbison, Eds. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1996, pp. 76–96. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4899-4543-3_8
[7] N. E. Bolus, “Review of common occupational hazards and safety concerns for nuclear medicine technologists.,” J. Nucl. Med. Technol., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 11–17, Mar. 2008, doi: 10.2967/jnmt.107.043869.
[8] “DBCP-Radiation and Nuclear Safety-General Knowledge of Radiation.” (accessed Jul. 30, 2022).
[9] M. Waqar, M. Shahban, Q. Soomro, and M. N. Abro, “Institution-based assessment of cancer patients treated by external beam radiotherapy in the rural area of Sindh, Pakistan: Five years of data analysis,” Middle East J. Cancer, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 217–222, 2018.
[10] T. A. Afridi, M. Waqar, A. Khawar, N. Marwat, and Z. A. Soomro, “Comparison of Maximum Permissible Activity of I-131 Determined by Benua and Leeper Method and Blood Absorbed Dose Method in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Patients,” J. Radiat. Nucl. Appl. An Int. J., no. I–2022, pp. 45–49, 2022, doi:
[11] P. N. R. Authority, “PNRA Regulations on radiation protection (PAK/904),” Islam. Pakistan Nucl. Regul. Athority, 2004.
[12] ICRP, ICRP publication 60: 1990 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, no. 60. Elsevier Health Sciences, 1991.
[13] M. Waqar, A. U. L. Haque, M. Shahban, and M. Qasim, “Linearity and Reproducibility of TLD-100 Response for 6 MV X-rays in Clinical Dose Range for Radiotherapy,” Int. J. Sci. Eng. Investig., vol. 10, no. 117, pp. 1–6, 2021.
[14] “Occupational Radiation Protection | IAEA.” (Online). Available:
[15] S. A. Memon and N. A. Laghari, “Time Period in Which Radiation Workers Completed the 20 mSv Annual Limit”.
[16] G. K. Korir, J. S. Wambani, and I. K. Korir, “Estimation of annual occupational effective doses from external ionising radiation at medical institutions in Kenya,” SA J. Radiol., vol. 15, no. 4, 2011.
[17] W. Weizhang, Z. Wenyi, C. Ronglin, and Z. Liang’an, “Occupational exposures of Chinese medical radiation workers in 1986–2000,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry, vol. 117, no. 4, pp. 440–443, 2005.
[18] J. V Carreiro and R. Avelar, “Occupational exposure in medical and paramedical professions in Portugal,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry, vol. 36, no. 2–4, pp. 233–236, 1991.
[19] A. Jabeen, M. Munir, A. Khalil, M. Masood, and P. Akhter, “Occupational exposure from external radiation used in medical practices in Pakistan by film badge dosimetry,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry, vol. 140, no. 4, pp. 396–401, 2010.
[20] S. A. Memon, S. T. Qureshi, N. A. Laghari, and N. M. Khuhro, “Radiation Workers’ Occupational Doses: Are We Really Careful or Overconscious,” Radiology, vol. 1, no. 1.73, pp. 7–8, 2013.
[21] A. S. Shah and I. Rahim, “Trends in Occupational Radiation Exposures at IRNUM (2000-2008),” PJR, vol. 21, no. 2, 2016.
[22] M. M. Haq, M. H. Baba, A. A. Khan, M. R. Khan, and S. A. Rather, “Occupational radiation dose for medical workers in a tertiary care hospital-A ten year evaluation”.
[23] “Radiation doses - Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission.” (accessed Jul. 21, 2022).
[24] Radiation Protection and Safety in Medical Uses of Ionizing Radiation, no. SSG-46. Vienna: INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, 2018. (Online). Available:
[25] K. P. Adhikari, L. N. Jha, and P. G. Montenegro, “Study and analysis of radiation level at different hospitals in Nepal,” in World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7-12, 2009, Munich, Germany, 2009, pp. 110–113.