Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Fathi Taibi

26 On Measuring the Reusability Proneness of Mobile Applications

Authors: Fathi Taibi

Abstract:

The abnormal increase in the number of applications available for download in Android markets is a good indication that they are being reused. However, little is known about their real reusability potential. A considerable amount of these applications is reported as having a poor quality or being malicious. Hence, in this paper, an approach to measure the reusability potential of classes in Android applications is proposed. The approach is not meant specifically for this particular type of applications. Rather, it is intended for Object-Oriented (OO) software systems in general and aims also to provide means to discard the classes of low quality and defect prone applications from being reused directly through inheritance and instantiation. An empirical investigation is conducted to measure and rank the reusability potential of the classes of randomly selected Android applications. The results obtained are thoroughly analyzed in order to understand the extent of this potential and the factors influencing it.

Keywords: Reusability, Software Quality Factors, Software Metrics, Empirical Investigation, Object-Oriented Software, Android Applications.

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25 Similarity Detection in Collaborative Development of Object-Oriented Formal Specifications

Authors: Fathi Taibi, Fouad Mohammed Abbou, Md. Jahangir Alam

Abstract:

The complexity of today-s software systems makes collaborative development necessary to accomplish tasks. Frameworks are necessary to allow developers perform their tasks independently yet collaboratively. Similarity detection is one of the major issues to consider when developing such frameworks. It allows developers to mine existing repositories when developing their own views of a software artifact, and it is necessary for identifying the correspondences between the views to allow merging them and checking their consistency. Due to the importance of the requirements specification stage in software development, this paper proposes a framework for collaborative development of Object- Oriented formal specifications along with a similarity detection approach to support the creation, merging and consistency checking of specifications. The paper also explores the impact of using additional concepts on improving the matching results. Finally, the proposed approach is empirically evaluated.

Keywords: Collaborative Development, Formal methods, Object-Oriented, Similarity detection

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24 Empirical Analysis of the Reusability of Object-Oriented Program Code in Open-Source Software

Authors: Fathi Taibi

Abstract:

Measuring the reusability of Object-Oriented (OO) program code is important to ensure a successful and timely adaptation and integration of the reused code in new software projects. It has become even more relevant with the availability of huge amounts of open-source projects. Reuse saves cost, increases the speed of development and improves software reliability. Measuring this reusability is not s straight forward process due to the variety of metrics and qualities linked to software reuse and the lack of comprehensive empirical studies to support the proposed metrics or models. In this paper, a conceptual model is proposed to measure the reusability of OO program code. A comprehensive set of metrics is used to compute the most significant factors of reusability and an empirical investigation is conducted to measure the reusability of the classes of randomly selected open-source Java projects. Additionally, the impact of using inner and anonymous classes on the reusability of their enclosing classes is assessed. The results obtained are thoroughly analyzed to identify the factors behind lack of reusability in open-source OO program code and the impact of nesting on it.

Keywords: Code reuse, Low Complexity, Empirical Analysis, Modularity, Software Metrics, Understandability.

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23 Sensor Monitoring of the Concentrations of Different Gases Present in Synthesis of Ammonia Based On Multi-Scale Entropy and Multivariate Statistics

Authors: S. Aouabdi, M. Taibi

Abstract:

This paper presents powerful techniques for the development of a new monitoring method based on multi-scale entropy (MSE) in order to characterize the behaviour of the concentrations of different gases present in the synthesis of Ammonia and soft-sensor based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA).

Keywords: Ammonia synthesis, concentrations of different gases, soft sensor, multi-scale entropy, multivariate statistics.

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22 Ferroelectric Relaxor Behaviour in Some Lead- Free Compositions and their Potential Applications as Photocatalyst to Hydrogen Production

Authors: A. Kerfah, K. Taïbi, S. Omeiri, M. Trari.

Abstract:

New lead-free ferroelectric relaxor ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state synthesis in the BaTiO3-Bi2O3- Y2O3 systems. Some of these ceramics present a ferroelectric relaxor with transition temperature close to room temperature. These new materials are very interesting for applications and can replace leadbased ceramic to prevent the toxic pollutions during the preparation state. In the other hand, the energy band diagram shows the potentiality of these compounds for the solar energy conversion. Thus, some compositions have been tested successfully for H2 production upon visible light. The best activity occurs in alkaline media with a rate evolution of about 0.15 mL g-1 mn-1 and a quantum yield of 1% under polychromatic light.

Keywords: Ferroelectric, Hydrogen production, Lead-free, Photocatalysis.

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21 Signature Recognition Using Conjugate Gradient Neural Networks

Authors: Jamal Fathi Abu Hasna

Abstract:

There are two common methodologies to verify signatures: the functional approach and the parametric approach. This paper presents a new approach for dynamic handwritten signature verification (HSV) using the Neural Network with verification by the Conjugate Gradient Neural Network (NN). It is yet another avenue in the approach to HSV that is found to produce excellent results when compared with other methods of dynamic. Experimental results show the system is insensitive to the order of base-classifiers and gets a high verification ratio.

Keywords: Signature Verification, MATLAB Software, Conjugate Gradient, Segmentation, Skilled Forgery, and Genuine.

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20 Detecting Circles in Image Using Statistical Image Analysis

Authors: Fathi M. O. Hamed, Salma F. Elkofhaifee

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to detect geometrical shape objects in an image. In this paper, the object is considered to be as a circle shape. The identification requires find three characteristics, which are number, size, and location of the object. To achieve the goal of this work, this paper presents an algorithm that combines from some of statistical approaches and image analysis techniques. This algorithm has been implemented to arrive at the major objectives in this paper. The algorithm has been evaluated by using simulated data, and yields good results, and then it has been applied to real data.

Keywords: Image processing, median filter, projection, scalespace, segmentation, threshold.

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19 Hydro-Mechanical Behavior of a Tuff and Calcareous Sand Mixture for Use in Pavement in Arid Region

Authors: I. Goual, M. S. Goual, M. K. Gueddouda, Taïbi Saïd, Abou-Bekr Nabil, A. Ferhat

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to study the hydro-mechanical behavior of a tuff and calcareous sand mixture. A first experimental phase was carried out in order to find the optimal mixture. This showed that the material composed of 80% tuff and 20% calcareous sand provides the maximum mechanical strength. The second experimental phase concerns the study of the drying-wetting behavior of the optimal mixture was carried out on slurry samples and compacted samples at the MPO. Experimental results let to deduce the parameters necessary for the prediction of the hydro-mechanical behavior of pavement formulated from tuff and calcareous sand mixtures, related to moisture. This optimal mixture satisfies the regulation rules and hence constitutes a good local eco-material, abundantly available, for the conception of pavements.

Keywords: Tuff, sandy calcareous, road engineering, hydro mechanical behaviour, suction.

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18 Radiowave Propagation in Picocellular Environment Using 2.5D Ray Tracing Technique

Authors: Fathi Alwafie

Abstract:

This paper presents a ray tracing simulation technique for characterize the radiowave propagation inside building. The implementation of an algorithm capable of enumerating a large number of propagation paths in interactive time for the special case of 2.5D. The effective dielectric constants of the building structure in the simulations are indicated. The study describes an efficient 2.5D model of ray tracing algorithm were compared with 3D model. The result of the first investigations is that the environment of the indoor wave significantly changes as we change the electric parameters of material constructions. A detailed analysis of the dependence of the indoor wave on the wideband characteristics of the channel: root mean square (RMS) delay spread characteristics and Mean excess delay, is also investigated.

Keywords: Picrocellular, Propagation, Ray tracing

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17 Intrusion Detection System Based On The Integrity of TCP Packet

Authors: Moad Alhamaty , Ali Yazdian , Fathi Al-qadasi

Abstract:

A common way to elude the signature-based Network Intrusion Detection System is based upon changing a recognizable attack to an unrecognizable one via the IDS. For example, in order to evade sign accommodation with intrusion detection system markers, a hacker spilt the payload packet into many small pieces or hides them within messages. In this paper we try to model the main fragmentation attack and create a new module in the intrusion detection architecture system which recognizes the main fragmentation attacks through verification of integrity checking of TCP packet in order to prevent elusion of the system and also to announce the necessary alert to the system administrator.

Keywords: Intrusion detection system, Evasion techniques, Fragmentation attacks, TCP Packet integrity.

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16 Some Application of Random Fuzzy Queueing System Based On Fuzzy Simulation

Authors: Behrouz Fathi-Vajargah, Sara Ghasemalipour

Abstract:

This paper studies a random fuzzy queueing system that the interarrival times of customers arriving at the server and the service times are independent and identically distributed random fuzzy variables. We match the random fuzzy queueing system with the random fuzzy alternating renewal process and we do not use from α-pessimistic and α-optimistic values to estimate the average chance of the event ”random fuzzy queueing system is busy at time t”, we employ the fuzzy simulation method in practical applications. Some theorem is proved and finally we solve a numerical example with fuzzy simulation method.

Keywords: Random fuzzy variables, Fuzzy simulation, Queueing system, Interarrival times.

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15 The Effect of the Crystal Field Interaction on the Critical Temperatures and the Sublattice Magnetizations of a Mixed Spin-3/2 and Spin-5/2 Ferrimagnetic System

Authors: Fathi Abubrig, Mohamed Delfag, Suad M. Abuzariba

Abstract:

The influence of the crystal field interactions on the mixed spin-3/2 and spin-5/2 ferrimagnetic Ising system is considered by using the mean field theory based on Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy. The ground-state phase diagram is constructed, the phase diagrams of the second-order critical temperatures are obtained, and the thermal variation of the sublattice magnetizations is investigated in detail. We find some interesting phenomena for the sublattice magnetizations at particular values of the crystal field interactions.

Keywords: Crystal field, Ising system, Ferrimagnetic, magnetization, phase diagrams.

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14 Beating Phenomenon of Multi-Harmonics Defect Frequencies in a Rolling Element Bearing: Case Study from Water Pumping Station

Authors: Fathi N. Mayoof

Abstract:

Rolling element bearings are widely used in industry, especially where high load capacity is required. The diagnosis of their conditions is essential matter for downtime reduction and saving cost of maintenance. Therefore, an intensive analysis of frequency spectrum of their faults must be carried out in order to determine the main reason of the fault. This paper focus on a beating phenomena observed in the waveform (time domain) of a cylindrical rolling element bearing. The beating frequencies were not related to any sources nearby the machine nor any other malfunctions (unbalance, misalignment ...etc). More investigation on the spike energy and the frequency spectrum indicated a problem with races of the bearing. Multi-harmonics of the fundamental defects frequencies were observed. Two of them were close to each other in magnitude those were the source of the beating phenomena.

Keywords: Bearing, beating, spike energy, vibration.

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13 Microwave Pretreatment of Seeds to Extract High Quality Vegetable Oil

Authors: S. Azadmard-Damirchi, K. Alirezalu, B. Fathi Achachlouei

Abstract:

Microwave energy is a superior alternative to several other thermal treatments. Extraction techniques are widely employed for the isolation of bioactive compounds and vegetable oils from oil seeds. Among the different and new available techniques, microwave pretreatment of seeds is a simple and desirable method for production of high quality vegetable oils. Microwave pretreatment for oil extraction has many advantages as follow: improving oil extraction yield and quality, direct extraction capability, lower energy consumption, faster processing time and reduced solvent levels compared with conventional methods. It allows also for better retention and availability of desirable nutraceuticals, such as phytosterols and tocopherols, canolol and phenolic compounds in the extracted oil such as rapeseed oil. This can be a new step to produce nutritional vegetable oils with improved shelf life because of high antioxidant content.

Keywords: Microwave pretreatment, vegetable oil extraction, nutraceuticals, oil quality

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12 CAD Tools Broadband Amplifier Design

Authors: Salwa M. Salah Eldeen, Fathi A. Farag, Abd Allah M. Moselhy

Abstract:

This paper proposed a new CAD tools for microwave amplifier design. The proposed tool is based on survey about the broadband amplifier design methods, such as the Feedback amplifiers, balanced amplifiers and Compensated Matching Network The proposed tool is developed for broadband amplifier using a compensated matching network "unconditional stability amplifier". The developed program is based on analytical procedures with ability of smith chart explanation. The C# software is used for the proposed tools implementation. The program is applied on broadband amplifier as an example for testing. The designed amplifier is considered as a broadband amplifier at the range 300-700 MHz. The results are highly agreement with the expected results. Finally, these methods can be extended for wide band amplifier design.

Keywords: Broadband amplifier (BBA), Compensated Matching Network, Microwave Amplifier.

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11 Decision Making during the Project Management Life Cycle of Infrastructure Projects

Authors: Karrar Raoof Kareem Kamoona, Enas Fathi Taher AlHares, Zeynep Isik

Abstract:

The various disciplines in the construction industry and the co-existence of the people in the various disciplines are what builds well-developed, closely-knit interpersonal skills at various hierarchical levels thus leading to a varied way of leadership. The varied decision making aspects during the lifecycle of a project include: autocratic, participatory and last but not least, free-rein. We can classify some of the decision makers in the construction industry in a hierarchical manner as follows: project executive, project manager, superintendent, office engineer and finally the field engineer. This survey looked at how decisions are made during the construction period by the key stakeholders in the project. From the paper it is evident that the three decision making aspects can be used at different times or at times together in order to bring out the best leadership decision. A blend of different leadership styles should be used to enhance the success rate during the project lifecycle.

Keywords: Leadership style, construction, decision-making, built environment.

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10 New Multi-Solid Thermodynamic Model for the Prediction of Wax Formation

Authors: Ehsan Ghanaei, Feridun Esmaeilzadeh, Jamshid Fathi Kaljahi

Abstract:

In the previous multi-solid models,¤ò approach is used for the calculation of fugacity in the liquid phase. For the first time, in the proposed multi-solid thermodynamic model,γ approach has been used for calculation of fugacity in the liquid mixture. Therefore, some activity coefficient models have been studied that the results show that the predictive Wilson model is more appropriate than others. The results demonstrate γ approach using the predictive Wilson model is in more agreement with experimental data than the previous multi-solid models. Also, by this method, generates a new approach for presenting stability analysis in phase equilibrium calculations. Meanwhile, the run time in γ approach is less than the previous methods used ¤ò approach. The results of the new model present 0.75 AAD % (Average Absolute Deviation) from the experimental data which is less than the results error of the previous multi-solid models obviously.

Keywords: Multi-solid thermodynamic model, PredictiveWilson model, Wax formation.

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9 A Quadratic Programming for Truck-to-Door Assignment Problem

Authors: Y. Fathi, B. Karimi, S. M. J. Mirzapour Al-e-Hashem

Abstract:

Cross-docking includes receiving products supplied by a set of suppliers, unloading them from inbound trucks (ITs) at strip doors, consolidating and handling these products to stack doors based on their destinations, loading them into outbound trucks (OTs); then, delivering these products to customers. An effective assignment of the trucks to the doors would enhance the advantages of the cross-docking (e.g. reduction of the handling costs). This paper addresses the truck-to-door assignment problem in a cross-dock in which assignment of the ITs to the strip doors as well as assignment of the OTs to the stacks doors is determined so that total material handling cost in the cross-dock is minimized. Capacity constraints are applied for the ITs, OTs, strip doors, and stack doors. We develop a Quadratic Programming (QP) to formulate the problem. To solve it, the model is coded in LINGO software to specify the best assignment of the trucks to the doors.

Keywords: Cross-docking, truck-to-door assignment, supply chain, quadratic programming.

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8 A New Heuristic Approach to Solving U-shape Assembly Line Balancing Problems Type-1

Authors: M. Fathi, M. J. Alvarez, V. Rodríguez

Abstract:

Assembly line balancing is a very important issue in mass production systems due to production cost. Although many studies have been done on this topic, but because assembly line balancing problems are so complex they are categorized as NP-hard problems and researchers strongly recommend using heuristic methods. This paper presents a new heuristic approach called the critical task method (CTM) for solving U-shape assembly line balancing problems. The performance of the proposed heuristic method is tested by solving a number of test problems and comparing them with 12 other heuristics available in the literature to confirm the superior performance of the proposed heuristic. Furthermore, to prove the efficiency of the proposed CTM, the objectives are increased to minimize the number of workstation (or equivalently maximize line efficiency), and minimizing the smoothness index. Finally, it is proven that the proposed heuristic is more efficient than the others to solve the U-shape assembly line balancing problem.

Keywords: Critical task method, Heuristic, Line balancingproblem, U-shape

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7 1-D Modeling of Hydrate Decomposition in Porous Media

Authors: F. Esmaeilzadeh, M. E. Zeighami, J. Fathi

Abstract:

This paper describes a one-dimensional numerical model for natural gas production from the dissociation of methane hydrate in hydrate-capped gas reservoir under depressurization and thermal stimulation. Some of the hydrate reservoirs discovered are overlying a free-gas layer, known as hydrate-capped gas reservoirs. These reservoirs are thought to be easiest and probably the first type of hydrate reservoirs to be produced. The mathematical equations that can be described this type of reservoir include mass balance, heat balance and kinetics of hydrate decomposition. These non-linear partial differential equations are solved using finite-difference fully implicit scheme. In the model, the effect of convection and conduction heat transfer, variation change of formation porosity, the effect of using different equations of state such as PR and ER and steam or hot water injection are considered. In addition distributions of pressure, temperature, saturation of gas, hydrate and water in the reservoir are evaluated. It is shown that the gas production rate is a sensitive function of well pressure.

Keywords: Hydrate reservoir, numerical modeling, depressurization, thermal stimulation, gas generation.

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6 Modeling of Thermal Processes Associated to an Electric Arc

Authors: Allagui Hatem, Ghodbane Fathi

Abstract:

The primary objective of this paper is to study the thermal effects of the electric arc on the breaker apparatus contacts for forecasting and improving the contact durability. We will propose a model which takes account of the main influence factors on the erosion contacts. This phenomenon is very complicated because the amount of ejected metal is not necessarily constituted by the whole melted metal bath but this depends on the balance of forces on the contact surface. Consequently, to calculate the metal ejection coefficient, we propose a method which consists in comparing the experimental results with the calculated ones. The proposed model estimates the mass lost by vaporization, by droplets ejection and by the extraction mechanism of liquid or solid metal. In the one-dimensional geometry, to calculate of the contact heating, we used Green’s function which expresses the point source and allows the transition to the surface source. However, for the two- dimensional model we used explicit and implicit numerical methods. The results are similar to those found by Wilson’s experiments.

Keywords: Electric arc, thermal effect, erosion, contact, durability.

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5 Obtaining Constants of Johnson-Cook Material Model Using a Combined Experimental, Numerical Simulation and Optimization Method

Authors: F. Rahimi Dehgolan, M. Behzadi, J. Fathi Sola

Abstract:

In this article, the Johnson-Cook material model’s constants for structural steel ST.37 have been determined by a method which integrates experimental tests, numerical simulation, and optimization. In the first step, a quasi-static test was carried out on a plain specimen. Next, the constants were calculated for it by minimizing the difference between the results acquired from the experiment and numerical simulation. Then, a quasi-static tension test was performed on three notched specimens with different notch radii. At last, in order to verify the results, they were used in numerical simulation of notched specimens and it was observed that experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. Changing the diameter size of the plain specimen in the necking area was set as the objective function in the optimization step. For final validation of the proposed method, diameter variation was considered as a parameter and its sensitivity to a change in any of the model constants was examined and the results were completely corroborating.

Keywords: Constants, Johnson-Cook material model, notched specimens, quasi-static test, sensitivity.

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4 Determination and Assessment of Ground Motion and Spectral Parameters for Iran

Authors: G. Ghodrati Amiri, M. Khorasani, Razavian Ameri, M.Mohamadi Dehcheshmeh, S.Fathi

Abstract:

Many studies have been conducted for derivation of attenuation relationships worldwide, however few relationships have been developed to use for the seismic region of Iranian plateau and only few of these studies have been conducted for derivation of attenuation relationships for parameters such as uniform duration. Uniform duration is the total time during which the acceleration is larger than a given threshold value (default is 5% of PGA). In this study, the database was same as that used previously by Ghodrati Amiri et al. (2007) with same correction methods for earthquake records in Iran. However in this study, records from earthquakes with MS< 4.0 were excluded from this database, each record has individually filtered afterward, and therefore the dataset has been expanded. These new set of attenuation relationships for Iran are derived based on tectonic conditions with soil classification into rock and soil. Earthquake parameters were chosen to be hypocentral distance and magnitude in order to make it easier to use the relationships for seismic hazard analysis. Tehran is the capital city of Iran wit ha large number of important structures. In this study, a probabilistic approach has been utilized for seismic hazard assessment of this city. The resulting uniform duration against return period diagrams are suggested to be used in any projects in the area.

Keywords: Attenuation Relationships, Iran, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, Tehran, Uniform Duration

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3 Effect of Silica Fume on the Properties of Steel-Fiber Reinforced Self-compacting Concrete

Authors: Ahmed Fathi Mohamed, Nasir Shafiq, M. F. Nuruddin, Ali Elheber

Abstract:

Implementing significant advantages in the supply of self-compacting concrete (SCC) is necessary because of the, negative features of SCC. Examples of these features are the ductility problem along with the very high cost of its constituted materials. Silica fume with steel fiber can fix this matter by improving the ductility and decreasing the total cost of SCC by varying the cement ingredients. Many different researchers have found that there have not been enough research carried out on the steel fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) produced with silica fume. This paper inspects both the fresh and the mechanical properties of SFRSCC with silica fume, the fresh qualities where slump flow, slump T50 and V- funnel. While, the mechanical characteristics were the compressive strength, ultrasound pulse velocity (UPV) and elastic modulus of the concrete samples. The experimental results have proven that steel fiber can enhance the mechanical features. In addition, the silica fume within the entire hybrid mix may possibly adapt the fiber dispersion and strengthen deficits due to the fibers. It could also improve the strength plus the bond between the fiber and the matrix with a dense calcium silicate-hydrate gel in SFRSCC. The concluded result was predicted using linear mathematical models and was found to be in great agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: Self-compacting concrete, silica fume, steel fiber, fresh and mechanical properties.

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2 The Effect of Zeolite on Sandy-Silt Soil Mechanical Properties

Authors: Shahryar Aftabi, Saeed Fathi, Mohammad H. Aminfar

Abstract:

It is well known that cemented sand is one of the best approaches for soil stabilization. In some cases, a blend of sand, cement and other pozzolan materials such as zeolite, nano-particles and fiber can be widely (commercially) available and be effectively used in soil stabilization, especially in road construction. In this research, we investigate the effects of CaO which is based on the geotechnical characteristics of zeolite composition with sandy silt soil. Zeolites have low amount of CaO in their structures, that is, varying from 3% to 10%, and by removing the cement paste, we want to investigate the effect of zeolite pozzolan without any activator on soil samples strength. In this research, experiments are concentrated on various weight percentages of zeolite in the soil to examine the effect of the zeolite on drainage shear strength and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) both with and without curing. The study also investigates their liquid limit and plastic limit behavior and makes a comparative result by using Feng's and Wroth-Wood's methods in fall cone (cone penetrometer) device; in the final the SEM images have been presented. The results show that by increasing the percentage of zeolite in without-curing samples, the fine zeolite particles increase some soil's strength, but in the curing-state we can see a relatively higher strength toward without-curing state, since the zeolites have no plastic behavior, the pozzolanic property of zeolites plays a much higher role than cementing properties. Indeed, it is better to combine zeolite particle with activator material such as cement or lime to gain better results.

Keywords: CBR, direct shear, fall-cone, sandy-silt, SEM, zeolite.

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1 Modern Detection and Description Methods for Natural Plants Recognition

Authors: Masoud Fathi Kazerouni, Jens Schlemper, Klaus-Dieter Kuhnert

Abstract:

Green planet is one of the Earth’s names which is known as a terrestrial planet and also can be named the fifth largest planet of the solar system as another scientific interpretation. Plants do not have a constant and steady distribution all around the world, and even plant species’ variations are not the same in one specific region. Presence of plants is not only limited to one field like botany; they exist in different fields such as literature and mythology and they hold useful and inestimable historical records. No one can imagine the world without oxygen which is produced mostly by plants. Their influences become more manifest since no other live species can exist on earth without plants as they form the basic food staples too. Regulation of water cycle and oxygen production are the other roles of plants. The roles affect environment and climate. Plants are the main components of agricultural activities. Many countries benefit from these activities. Therefore, plants have impacts on political and economic situations and future of countries. Due to importance of plants and their roles, study of plants is essential in various fields. Consideration of their different applications leads to focus on details of them too. Automatic recognition of plants is a novel field to contribute other researches and future of studies. Moreover, plants can survive their life in different places and regions by means of adaptations. Therefore, adaptations are their special factors to help them in hard life situations. Weather condition is one of the parameters which affect plants life and their existence in one area. Recognition of plants in different weather conditions is a new window of research in the field. Only natural images are usable to consider weather conditions as new factors. Thus, it will be a generalized and useful system. In order to have a general system, distance from the camera to plants is considered as another factor. The other considered factor is change of light intensity in environment as it changes during the day. Adding these factors leads to a huge challenge to invent an accurate and secure system. Development of an efficient plant recognition system is essential and effective. One important component of plant is leaf which can be used to implement automatic systems for plant recognition without any human interface and interaction. Due to the nature of used images, characteristic investigation of plants is done. Leaves of plants are the first characteristics to select as trusty parts. Four different plant species are specified for the goal to classify them with an accurate system. The current paper is devoted to principal directions of the proposed methods and implemented system, image dataset, and results. The procedure of algorithm and classification is explained in details. First steps, feature detection and description of visual information, are outperformed by using Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT), HARRIS-SIFT, and FAST-SIFT methods. The accuracy of the implemented methods is computed. In addition to comparison, robustness and efficiency of results in different conditions are investigated and explained.

Keywords: SIFT combination, feature extraction, feature detection, natural images, natural plant recognition, HARRIS-SIFT, FAST-SIFT.

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