Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1665

Search results for: Muhammad Ahmad

1665 A Next Generation Multi-Scale Modeling Theatre for in silico Oncology

Authors: Safee Chaudhary, Mahnoor Naseer Gondal, Hira Anees Awan, Abdul Rehman, Ammar Arif, Risham Hussain, Huma Khawar, Zainab Arshad, Muhammad Faizyab Ali Chaudhary, Waleed Ahmed, Muhammad Umer Sultan, Bibi Amina, Salaar Khan, Muhammad Moaz Ahmad, Osama Shiraz Shah, Hadia Hameed, Muhammad Farooq Ahmad Butt, Muhammad Ahmad, Sameer Ahmed, Fayyaz Ahmed, Omer Ishaq, Waqar Nabi, Wim Vanderbauwhede, Bilal Wajid, Huma Shehwana, Muhammad Tariq, Amir Faisal

Abstract:

Cancer is a manifestation of multifactorial deregulations in biomolecular pathways. These deregulations arise from the complex multi-scale interplay between cellular and extracellular factors. Such multifactorial aberrations at gene, protein, and extracellular scales need to be investigated systematically towards decoding the underlying mechanisms and orchestrating therapeutic interventions for patient treatment. In this work, we propose ‘TISON’, a next-generation web-based multiscale modeling platform for clinical systems oncology. TISON’s unique modeling abstraction allows a seamless coupling of information from biomolecular networks, cell decision circuits, extra-cellular environments, and tissue geometries. The platform can undertake multiscale sensitivity analysis towards in silico biomarker identification and drug evaluation on cellular phenotypes in user-defined tissue geometries. Furthermore, integration of cancer expression databases such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Human Proteome Atlas (HPA) facilitates in the development of personalized therapeutics. TISON is the next-evolution of multiscale cancer modeling and simulation platforms and provides a ‘zero-code’ model development, simulation, and analysis environment for application in clinical settings.

Keywords: systems oncology, cancer systems biology, cancer therapeutics, personalized therapeutics, cancer modelling

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1664 Application of Facilities Management Practice in High Rise Commercial Properties: Jos in Perpective

Authors: Aliyu Ahmad Aliyu, Abubakar Ahmad, Muhammad Umar Bello, Rozilah Kasim, David Martin

Abstract:

The article studied the application of facilities management practice in high rise commercial properties. Convenience sampling technique was used in administering questionnaires to the 60 respondents who responded to the survey. It was found out that the extent of application of facilities management in the subject properties is better described as below average. Similarly, the most frequently tools of facilities management in use and employed in the properties were outsourcing and in-house sourcing. This was influenced by the level of their familiarity with the tools. Planned and Preventive maintenance should be taken regularly in other to enhance the effectiveness of the facilities management and to satisfy both the owner and customers of the organization.

Keywords: commercial properties, facilities management, high-rise buildings, Jos metropolis and outsourcing

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1663 Male Oreochromis mossambica as Indicator for Water Pollution with Trace Elements in Relation to Condition Factor from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Syed M. Moeen-ud-Din Raheel, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Naeem Qaisar, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Zubair Ahmed, Muhammad Ashraf

Abstract:

Iron, Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium levels were estimated to study the risk of trace elements on human consumption. The area of collection was Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan and was evaluated by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The standards find in favor of the six heavy metals were in accordance with the threshold edge concentrations on behalf of fish meat obligatory by European and other international normative. Regressions were achieved for both size (length and weight) and condition factor with concentrations of metal present in the fish body.

Keywords: Oreochromis mossambica, toxic analysis, body size, condition factor

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1662 Physiological and Biochemical Based Analysis to Assess the Efficacy of Mulch under Partial Root Zone Drying in Wheat

Authors: Salman Ahmad, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Rashid Iqbal, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Muhammad Usman Aslam, Imran Haider, Muhammad Adnan Nazar, Muhammad Ali

Abstract:

Among the various abiotic stresses, drought stress is one of the most challenging for field crops. Wheat is one of the major staple food of the world, which is highly affected by water deficit stress in the current scenario of climate change. In order to ensure food security by depleting water resources, there is an urgent need to adopt technologies which result in sufficient crop yield with less water consumption. Mulching and partial rootzone drying (PRD) are two important management techniques used for water conservation and to mitigate the negative impacts of drought. The experiment was conducted to screen out the best-suited mulch for wheat under PRD system. Two water application techniques (I1= full irrigation I2= PRD irrigation) and four mulch treatments (M0= un-mulched, M1= black plastic mulch, M2= wheat straw mulch and M4= cotton sticks mulch) were conducted in completely randomized design with four replications. The treatment, black plastic mulch was performed the best than other mulch treatments. For irrigation levels, higher values of growth, physiological and water-related parameters were recorded in control treatment while, quality traits and enzymatic activities were higher under partial root zone drying. The current study concluded that adverse effects of drought on wheat can be significantly mitigated by using mulches but black plastic mulch was best suited for partial rootzone drying irrigation system in wheat.

Keywords: antioxidants, leaf water relations, Mulches, osmolytes, partial root zone drying, photosynthesis

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1661 Physician and Theologian: An Analysis of Ibn Rabban’s Approach on Sīra Nabawiyya

Authors: Ahmad Sanusi Azmi, Amiruddin Mohd Sobali, Zulhilmi Mohamed Nor, Mohd Yusuf Ismail, Amran Abdul Halim

Abstract:

The non-Muslim communities’ reactions to the denials of the prophethood of Muḥammad in the ninth century created an impact on the development of Islamic prophetology. Vigorous refutations from non-Muslim community, specifically the Jews, Christians and Brahmins urged Muslims to develop a solid mechanism in defense of the status of their beloved prophet. One of the works that has been recognized as an apparatus to defend the Prophet Muḥammad veracity is al-Dīn wa al-Dawla composed by Ibn Rabban, a physician of the Caliph’s court. This study analyses the novelty of his approaches in exploring Sīra Nabawiyya and defending the prophethood of Muḥammad. The study employed a descriptive, comparative and critical approach where it analyses and extracts the author original approach in explaining the legitimacy of Muḥammad’s prophethood and enlightening the Prophet’s biography. The study in its finding argues that most of Ibn Rabban arguments in this work are actually developed from the foundations of Biblical scripture. His style of interpreting Biblical passages indicates a possible dependence on Ibn al-Layth’s letter. However, the way in which he presents Qur’ānic references seems not to be in accordance with Ibn al-Layth’s perspective. This is where the novelty of his approach is distinguished. As a result, the study also affirms that Ibn Rabban imposes his own standards of selection and interpretation of Qur’ānic verses when he applies it as reference to the Prophet life.

Keywords: Sīra Nabawiyya, Ibn Rabban, al-Dīn wa al-Dawla, Christian, Dalāil Nubuwwa

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1660 Cubic Trigonometric B-Spline Approach to Numerical Solution of Wave Equation

Authors: Shazalina Mat Zin, Ahmad Abd. Majid, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail, Muhammad Abbas

Abstract:

The generalized wave equation models various problems in sciences and engineering. In this paper, a new three-time level implicit approach based on cubic trigonometric B-spline for the approximate solution of wave equation is developed. The usual finite difference approach is used to discretize the time derivative while cubic trigonometric B-spline is applied as an interpolating function in the space dimension. Von Neumann stability analysis is used to analyze the proposed method. Two problems are discussed to exhibit the feasibility and capability of the method. The absolute errors and maximum error are computed to assess the performance of the proposed method. The results were found to be in good agreement with known solutions and with existing schemes in literature.

Keywords: collocation method, cubic trigonometric B-spline, finite difference, wave equation

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1659 Developing Variable Repetitive Group Sampling Control Chart Using Regression Estimator

Authors: Liaquat Ahmad, Muhammad Aslam, Muhammad Azam

Abstract:

In this article, we propose a control chart based on repetitive group sampling scheme for the location parameter. This charting scheme is based on the regression estimator; an estimator that capitalize the relationship between the variables of interest to provide more sensitive control than the commonly used individual variables. The control limit coefficients have been estimated for different sample sizes for less and highly correlated variables. The monitoring of the production process is constructed by adopting the procedure of the Shewhart’s x-bar control chart. Its performance is verified by the average run length calculations when the shift occurs in the average value of the estimator. It has been observed that the less correlated variables have rapid false alarm rate.

Keywords: average run length, control charts, process shift, regression estimators, repetitive group sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
1658 Investigating the Significance of Ground Covers and Partial Root Zone Drying Irrigation for Water Conservation Weed Suppression and Quality Traits of Wheat

Authors: Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Salman Ahmad, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Rashid Iqbal, Imran Haider, Muhammad Usman Aslam, Muhammad Adnan Nazar

Abstract:

One of the main negative effects of climate change is the increasing scarcity of water worldwide, especially for irrigation purpose. In order to ensure food security with less available water, there is a need to adopt easy and economic techniques. Two of the effective techniques are; use of ground covers and partial root zone drying (PRD). A field experiment was arranged to find out the most suitable mulch for PRD irrigation system in wheat. The experiment was comprised of two irrigation methods (I0 = irrigation on both sides of roots and I1= irrigation to only one side of the root as alternate irrigation) and four ground covers (M0= open ground without any cover, M1= black plastic cover, M2= wheat straw cover and M4= cotton sticks cover). More plant height, spike length, number of spikelets and number of grains were found in full irrigation treatment. While water use efficiency and grain nutrient (NPK) contents were more in PRD irrigation. All soil covers suppress the weeds and significantly influenced the yield attributes, final yield as well as the grain nutrient contents. However black plastic cover performed the best. It was concluded that joint use of both techniques was more effective for water conservation and increasing grain yield than their sole application and combination of PRD with black plastic mulch performed the best than other ground covers combination used in the experiment.

Keywords: ground covers, partial root zone drying, grain yield, quality traits, WUE, weed control efficiency

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1657 Experimental Lead Toxicity in Lohi Sheep: Risks and Impact on Edible Tissues

Authors: Muhammad Younus, Muhammad Sajid, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Asif Idrees, Iahtasham Khan, Aman Ullah Khan, Sajid Umar, Raheela Akhtar

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of lead on health and edible organs of Lohi sheep. The adult Lohi sheep (n=48) were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group was administered lead acetate at dose of 70 mg/kg live body weight daily as 10% solution by oral route for a period of 90 days and the second group served as a negative control. Blood and tissue samples were collected at day 0, 30, 60 and 90 and analyzed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The kidney showed the highest lead concentration (p < 0.05) followed by liver and then muscle. Lead acetate treated sheep showed structural and behavioral changes during the last month of trial. Liver showed necrosis, hemorrhages and hyperactivation of macrophages. Kidney showed degenerative and necrotic changes in glomeruli and tubules and the characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in tubular epithelial cells on H and E staining. It was concluded that Lohi sheep is affected by lead intoxication at low dose for longer period and hence exhibits lead accumulation in edible tissues.

Keywords: Lohi sheep, lead acetate, edible tissue, histopathology

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1656 Assessment of Attractency of Bactrocera Zonata and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera:Tephritidae) to Different Biolure Phagostimulant-Mixtures

Authors: Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashir Iqbal, Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammad Ahsan Khan, Ahmad Nawaz, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Arshad, Amna Jalal

Abstract:

Fruit flies of Bactrocera genus cause heavy losses in fruits and vegetables globally and insecticide-application for their control creates issues of ecological backlash, environmental pollution, and food safety. There is need to explore alternatives and food-baits application is considered safe for the environment and effective for fruit fly management. Present experiment was carried out to assess the attractancy of five phagostimulant-Mixtures (PHS-Mix) prepared by mixing banana-squash, mulberry, protein-hydrolysate and molasses with some phagostimulant-lure sources including beef extract, fish extract, yeast, starch, rose oil, casein and cedar oil in five different ratios i.e., PHS-Mix-1 (1 part of all ingredients), PHS-Mix-2 (1 part of banana with 0.75 parts of all other ingredients), PHS-Mix-3 (1 part of banana with 0.5 parts of all other ingredients), PHS-Mix-4 (1 part of banana with 0.25 parts of all other ingredients) and PHS-Mix-5 (1 part of banana with 0.125 parts of all other ingredients). These were evaluated in comparison with a standard (GF-120). PHS-Mix-4 demonstrated 40.5±1.3-46.2±1.6% AI for satiated flies (class-II i.e., moderately attractive) and 59.5±2.0-68.6±3.0% AI for starved flies (class-III i.e., highly attractive) for both B. dorsalis and B. zonata in olfactometric study while the same exhibited 51.2±0.53% AI (class-III i.e., highly attractive) for B. zonata and 45.4±0.89% AI (class-II i.e., moderately attractive) for B. dorsalis in field study. PHS-Mix-1 proved non-attractive (class-I) and moderately attractive (class-II) phagostimulant in olfactometer and field studies, respectively. PHS-Mix-2 exhibited moderate attractiveness for starved lots in olfactometer and field-lot in field studies. PHS-Mix-5 proved non-attractive to starved and satiated lots of B. zonata and B. dorsalis females in olfactometer and field studies. Overall PHS-Mix-4 proved better phagostimulant-mixture followed by PHS-Mix-3 which was categorized as class-II (moderately attractive) phagostimulant for starved and satiated lots of female flies of both species in olfactometer and field studies; hence these can be exploited for fruit fly management.

Keywords: attractive index, field conditions, olfactometer, Tephritid flies

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1655 Assessment of Toxic Impact of Metals on Different Instars of Silkworm, Bombyx Mori

Authors: Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ahsan Khan, M. Sufian, Ahmad Nawaz, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Waleed Afzal Naveed

Abstract:

Larvae of silkworm (Bombyx mori) exhibit very high mortality when reared on mulberry leaves collected from mulberry orchards which get contaminated with metallic/nonmetallic compounds through either drift-deposition or chemigation. There is need to screen out such metallic compound for their toxicity at their various concentrations. The present study was carried out to assess toxicity of metals in different instars of silkworm. Aqueous solutions of nine heavy-metal based salts were prepared by dissolving 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 mg of each salt in one liter of water and were applied on the mulberry leaves by leaf-dip methods. The results reveal that mortality in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae caused by each heavy metal salts increased with an increase in their concentrations. The 1st instar larvae were found more susceptible to metal salts followed by 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of silkworm. Overall, Nickel chloride proved more toxic for all larval instar as it demonstrated approximately 40-99% mortality. On the basis of LC2 and larval mortality, the order of toxicity of heavy metals against all five larval instar was Nickel chloride (LC₂ = 1.9-13.9 mg/L; & 15.0±1.2-69.2±1.7% mortality) followed by Chromium nitrate (LC₂ = 3.3-14.8 mg/L; & 13.3±1.4-62.4±2.8% mortality), Cobalt nitrate (LC₂ = 4.3-30.9; &11.4±0.07-54.9±2.0% mortality), Lead acetate (LC₂ =8.8-53.3 mg/L; & 9.5±1.3-46.4±2.9% mortality), Aluminum sulfate (LC₂ = 15.5-76.6 mg/L; & 8.4±0.08-42.1±2.8% mortality), Barium sulfide (LC₂ = 20.9-105.9; & 7.7±1.1-39.2±2.5% mortality), Copper sulfate (LC2 = 28.5-12.4 mg/L; & 7.3±0.06-37.1±2.4% mortality), Manganese chloride (LC₂ = 29.9-136.9 mg/L; & 6.8±0.09-35.3±1.6% mortality) and Zinc nitrate (LC₂ = 36.3-15 mg/L; & 6.2±1.2-32.1±1.9% mortality). Zinc nitrate @ 50 and 100 mg/L, Barium sulfide @ 50 mg/L, Manganese chloride @ 50 and 100 mg/L and Copper sulfate @ 50 mg/L proved safe for 5th instar larvae as these interaction attributed no mortality. All the heavy metal salts at a concentration of 50 mg/L demonstrated less than 10% mortality.

Keywords: heavy-metals, larval-instars, lethal-concentration, mortality, silkworm

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1654 A Review of Technology Roadmaps for Commercialization of Solar Photovoltaic Energy Systems

Authors: Muhammad Usman Sardar, Muhammad Haroon Nadeem, Shahbaz Ahmad, Ashiq Hussain

Abstract:

The marketing of solar photovoltaic energy systems has one of the monetary settlements to address the higher rate to pay in advance with the purchase of two decades worth of electricity services. To deploy solar photovoltaic technologies and energy setups in areas, it’s important to create a system of credit that can ensure the availability of subsidized capital and commercial conditions for the society. Meanings of energy in developing countries like Pakistan were strongly prompted by marketable interests and industrialization trend influences within their culture. It’s going to be essential to prepare the concerned proceeding models of energy development strategies. This paper discuss the impact and share of environmental friendly solar photo-voltaic energy, researching to find the most appropriate alternate solutions for balance the energy demand and supply and current progressive position in different countries regarding to development and deployment. Based on the literature reviews, its presence found that most beneficial and concerning policies have implemented in several countries around the globe.

Keywords: photovoltaic marketing and pricing, renewable energy technology, solar photovoltaic, SPV

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1653 Study on Developmental and Pathogenesis Related Genes Expression Deregulation in Brassica compestris Infected with 16Sr-IX Associated Phytoplasma

Authors: Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad, Samia Yasin, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Tahir, Jam Nazeer Ahmad

Abstract:

Phytoplasmas are phloem-inhibited plant pathogenic bacteria that are transferred by insect vectors. Among biotic factors, Phytoplasma infection induces abnormality influencing the physiology as well as morphology of plants. In 16Sr-IX group phytoplasma-infected brassica compestris, flower abnormalities have been associated with changes in the expression of floral development genes. To determine whether methylation was involved in down-regulation of flower development, the process of DNA methylation and Demethylation was investigated as a possible mechanism for regulation of floral gene expression in phytoplasma infected Brassica transmitted by Orosious orientalis vector by using RT-PCR, MSRE-PCR, Southern blotting, Bisulfite Sequencing, etc. Transcriptional expression of methylated genes was found to be globally down-regulated in plants infected with phytoplasma, but not severely in those infested by insect vectors and variation in expression was found in genes involved in methylation. These results also showed that genes particularly orthologous to Arabidopsis APETALA3 involved in petal formation and flower development was down-regulated severely in phytoplasma-infected brassica and with the fact that phytoplasma and insect induce variation in developmental gene expression. The DNA methylation status of flower developmental gene in phytoplasma infected plants with 5-azacytidine restored gene expression strongly suggesting that DNA methylation was involved in down-regulation of floral development genes in phytoplasma infected brassica.

Keywords: genes expression, phytoplasma, DNA methylation, flower development

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1652 Identification and Force Control of a Two Chambers Pneumatic Soft Actuator

Authors: Najib K. Dankadai, Ahmad 'Athif Mohd Faudzi, Khairuddin Osman, Muhammad Rusydi Muhammad Razif, IIi Najaa Aimi Mohd Nordin

Abstract:

Researches in soft actuators are now growing rapidly because of their adequacy to be applied in sectors like medical, agriculture, biological and welfare. This paper presents system identification (SI) and control of the force generated by a two chambers pneumatic soft actuator (PSA). A force mathematical model for the actuator was identified experimentally using data acquisition card and MATLAB SI toolbox. Two control techniques; a predictive functional control (PFC) and conventional proportional integral and derivative (PID) schemes are proposed and compared based on the identified model for the soft actuator flexible mechanism. Results of this study showed that both of the proposed controllers ensure accurate tracking when the closed loop system was tested with the step, sinusoidal and multi step reference input through MATLAB simulation although the PFC provides a better response than the PID.

Keywords: predictive functional control (PFC), proportional integral and derivative (PID), soft actuator, system identification

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1651 Effect of Bull Exposure on Post-Partum Estrus Interval in Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

Authors: Muhammad Saleem Akhtar, Mushtaq Hussain Lashari, Ejaz Ahmad, Tanveer Ahmad, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi, Ijaz Ahmad, Masood Akhtar

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of bull exposure continuously or intermittently or its excretory products after calving on postpartum interval to estrus, in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Forty-eight buffaloes of Nili-Ravi breed were allocated one of the four treatments in a totally randomized plan using a 4 x 1 factorial design. The four treatment groups were BEC (Bull Exposed Continuously), BEI (Bull Exposed Intermittently), EPB (Excretory Products of Bull) and BNE (Bull Not Exposed). BEC; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed continuously to the physical presence of a bull whereas in BEI; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed intermittently to the physical presence of bull. EPB; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed to discharge waste (urine and feces) of bull and BNE buffaloes (n = 12) were not exposed to a bull or discharge waste of bulls. Buffaloes were exposed on day 15 after parturition. Day 15 postpartum represented d 0 for each treatment. The postpartum interval from calving to first behavioural estrus was 66.88 days in BEC, 75.12 days in BEI, 77.28 days in EPB and 76.5 days in BNE treatments. Postpartum interval to first behavioural estrus was shorter in BEC than BEI, EPB, and BNE treatments. There was no significant difference in postpartum interval to estrus between BEI, EPB and BNE treatments. In present study, the percentage of buffaloes showing estrus during experimental period was 75.0%, 66.66%, 66.66% and 58.33% in BEC, BEI, EPB and BNE treatments, respectively. The mean serum progesterone concentration did not differ significantly between BEC and other (BEI, EPB, and BNE) treatments. It was concluded that presence of bull has positive effect in reducing calving interval in Nili Ravi buffalo.

Keywords: calving interval, biostimulation, buffalo, bull exposure

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1650 Growth Response of the Fry of Major and Chinese Carp to the Dietary Ingredients in Polyculture System

Authors: Anjum-Zubair, Muhammad, Muhammad Shoaib Alam, Muhammad Samee Mubarik, Iftikhar Ahmad

Abstract:

The aim of present research was to evaluate the effect of dietary protein (soybean) formulated feed on the growth performance of carp fish seed (Rohu, Mori, Grass, and Gulfam) in ponds under polyculture system. Keeping in view the protein requirements of these four carps, they were fed with formulated feed contains 30% of crude protein. The fingerlings were fed once on daily basis at 5% of their wet body weight. A 90 days experiment was conducted in two cemented ponds situated at Fish Seed Hatchery and Research Centre, Rawal Town, Islamabad, Pakistan. Pond1 contain major carps i.e. Rohu and Mori while pond 2 was stocked with Chinese carps i.e. Grass carp and Gulfam. Random sampling of five individuals of each species was done fortnightly to measure the body weight and total body length. Maximum growth was observed in fingerling of Grass carp followed by Mori, Rohu and Gulfam. Total fish production was recorded as Grass 623.45 gm followed by Mori 260.3 gm, Rohu 243.08 gm and Gulfam 181.165 gm respectively. Significantly results were obtained among these four fish species when the corresponding data was subjected to statistical analysis by using two sample t-test. The survival rate was 100%. Study shows that soybean as plant based protein can be easily used as substitute to fish meal without any adverse effect on fish health and fish production.

Keywords: carps, fry growth, poly culture, soybean meal

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1649 Evaluation of Neonicotinoids Against Sucking Insect Pests of Cotton in Laboratory and Field Conditions

Authors: Muhammad Sufyan, Muhammad D. Gogi, Muhammad Arshad, Ahmad Nawaz, Muhammad Usman

Abstract:

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) universally known as silver fiber and is one of the most important cash crop of Pakistan. A wide array of pests constraints cotton production among which sucking insect pests cause serious losses. Mostly new chemistry insecticides used to control a wide variety of insect pests including sucking insect pests. In the present study efficacy of different neonicotinoids was evaluated against sucking insect pests of cotton in the field and in laboratory for red and dusky cotton bug. The experiment was conducted at Entomology Research Station, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Confidence Ultra (Imidacloprid) 70% SL, Confidor (Imidacloprid) 20% SL, Kendo (Lambda cyhalothrin) 24.7 SC, Actara (Thiamethoxam) 25% WG, Forcast (Tebufenozide+ Emamectin benzoate) 8.8 EW and Timer (Emamectin benzoate) 1.9 EC at their recommended doses. The data was collected on per leaf basis of thrips, aphid, jassid and whitefly before 24 hours of spray. The post treatment data was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 hours. The fresh, non-infested and untreated cotton leaves was collected from the field and brought to the laboratory to assess the efficacy of neonicotinoids against red and dusky cotton bug. After data analysis all the insecticides were found effective against sucking pests. Confidence Ultra was highly effective against the aphid, jassid, and whitefly and gave maximum mortality, while showed non-significant results against thrips. In case of aphid plot which was treated with Kando 24.7 SC showed significant mortality after 72 hours of pesticide application. Similar trends were found in laboratory conditions with all these treatments by making different concentrations and had significant impact on dusky cotton bug and red cotton bug population after 24, 48 and 72 hours after application.

Keywords: cotton, laboratory and field conditions, neonicotinoids, sucking insect pests

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1648 Local Spectrum Feature Extraction for Face Recognition

Authors: Muhammad Imran Ahmad, Ruzelita Ngadiran, Mohd Nazrin Md Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat Isa, Mohd ZaizuIlyas, Raja Abdullah Raja Ahmad, Said Amirul Anwar Ab Hamid, Muzammil Jusoh

Abstract:

This paper presents two technique, local feature extraction using image spectrum and low frequency spectrum modelling using GMM to capture the underlying statistical information to improve the performance of face recognition system. Local spectrum features are extracted using overlap sub block window that are mapping on the face image. For each of this block, spatial domain is transformed to frequency domain using DFT. A low frequency coefficient is preserved by discarding high frequency coefficients by applying rectangular mask on the spectrum of the facial image. Low frequency information is non Gaussian in the feature space and by using combination of several Gaussian function that has different statistical properties, the best feature representation can be model using probability density function. The recognition process is performed using maximum likelihood value computed using pre-calculate GMM components. The method is tested using FERET data sets and is able to achieved 92% recognition rates.

Keywords: local features modelling, face recognition system, Gaussian mixture models, Feret

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1647 Utilization of Oat in Rabbit Feed for the Development of Healthier Rabbit Meat and Its Impact on Human Blood Lipid Profile

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Tariq, Muhammad Issa Khan, Zulfiqar Ahmad, Muhammad Adnan Nasir, Muhammad Sameem Javed, Sheraz Ahmed

Abstract:

Functional foods may be a good tool that can be simply utilized in reducing community health expenses. Regular consumption of rabbit meat can offer patrons with bioactive components because the manipulation in rabbit feed is much successful to raise the levels of conjugated linoleic acid, ecosapentaenoic acid, decosahexaenoic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, tocopherol etc. and to reduce the ω-3/ω-6 ratio which is performing a major role in curing of cardiovascular and several other diseases. In comparison to the meats of other species, rabbit meat has higher amounts of protein with essential amino acids, especially in the muscles and low cholesterol contents that also have elevated digestibility. The present study was carried out to develop the functional rabbit meat by modifying feed ingredient of rabbit diet. Thirty-day old rabbits were fed with feeds containing 2 % and 4 % oat. The feeding trial was carried out for eight weeks. Rabbits were divided into three different groups and reared for the period of two months. T0 rabbits were considered control group while T1 rabbits were reared on 4% oat, and T2 were on 2% oat in the feed. At the end of the 8 weeks, the rabbits were slaughtered. Results presented in this study concluded that 4 % oat seed supplementation enhanced n-3 PUFA in meat. It was observed that oat seed supplementation also reduced fat percentage in the meat. Utilization of oat in the feed of rabbits significantly affected the pH, protein, fat, textural and concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. A study trial was conducted in order to examine the impact of functional meat on the blood lipid profile of human subjects. They were given rabbit meat in comparison to the chicken meat for the period of one month. The cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein were found to be lower in blood serum of human subject group treated with 4 % oat meat.

Keywords: functional food, functional rabbit meat, meat quality, rabbit

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1646 Effect of Crude Flowers Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco Flowers on Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Cheddar Cheese

Authors: Usman Mir Khan, Ishtiaque Ahmad, Saima Inayat, H. M. Arslan Amin, Muhammad Ayaz, Nisar Ahmad

Abstract:

Citrus reticulata Blanco crude flowers extract (CFE) at four different concentration (1, 2, 3 and 4%, v/v) were used as natural milk coagulant instead of rennet to apply for Cheddar cheese making from buffalo milk. The physicochemical properties and nutrition composition of Cheddar cheeses were compared with cheese made with 0.002% (v/v) rennet (control cheese). Physico-chemical of Cheddar cheese showed that cheese made with 1% and 2% of CFE had a crumbly and slightly softer texture of cheese. While, cheeses containing 3 and 4% CFE had semi-hard textural properties of curd similar to rennet added cheese. The CFE made cheese had moisture 37 %, fat 45 % on dry basis similar to rennet made Cheddar cheese. Protein analysis shows that CFE made cheese had significant higher protein content than control. The Cheddar cheese with 3% and 1% CFE were preferred by consumers instead of 2% and 4% CFE for their taste, texture/appearance and overall acceptability. Conclusively, CFE coagulated Cheddar cheese fulfills the nutritional requirement with acceptable organoleptic characteristics and at the same time provides nutritional health benefits.

Keywords: cheddar cheese, Citrus reticulata Blanco, buffalo milk, milk coagulant

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1645 Online Community Suitable for e-Masjid ?

Authors: Norlizam Md Sukiban, Muhammad Faisal Ashaari, Hidayah bt Rahmalan

Abstract:

The role that a mosque or masjid have applied during the life of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was magnificent. Masjid managed to gather the community in lots of ways. It was the center of the first Islamic community and nation, with greatest triumphs and tragedies. It was a place to accommodate for the community center, homeless refuge, university and mosque all rolled into one. However, the role of masjid applied today was less than the time of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was alive. The advanced technology such as the internet has a major impact to the community nowadays. For example, community online has been chosen for lots of people to maintain their relationship and suggest various events among the communities members. This study is to investigate the possibility of the role of e-Masjid in adapting the concept of community online in order to remain the role played as such as role of masjid during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). Definition and the characteristic of the online community were listed, along with the benefits of the online community. Later, discussion on the possibility of the online community to be adapted in e-Masjid.

Keywords: e-masjid, online community, virtual community, e-community

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1644 Antiprotozoal Activity of Peganum harmala against Babesiosis in Cattle

Authors: Muhammad Mustafa Jafar, Syed Ashar Mahfooz, Muhammad Ejaz Saleem, Muhammad Asif Raza, Asghar Abbas, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Kasib Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq

Abstract:

The Babesia gradually attained resistance against the synthetic medicines. To overcome the drug resistance, herbal therapy has gained more attention as compared to allopathic therapy. Peganumharmala (harmal) is a plant which has shown effective results against various protozoal diseases. Therefore, the present study was planned to monitor the efficacy of Peganumharmala (aqueous extract) against Babesiosis in cattle. For this purpose, a total of forty (n=40) infected animals were randomly divided into four equal groups (A, B, C, and D). Group A was treated with aqueous extract of Peganum harmala at 7.5 mg/kg, group B at 10 mg/kg and group C at 12.5 mg/kg of body weight. Group D served as a control group (normal). It was observed that there was a stabilization in hematological parameters (white and red blood cells, hemoglobin and Packed cell volume) in infected animals treated with Peganum harmala at different doses. Results of this study hence indicated that Peganum harmala extract at 12.5mg/kg BW is more effective against Babesiosis than lower doses.

Keywords: Babesiosis, cattle, control, Peganum harmala

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1643 Jalal-Ale-Ahmad and ‘Critical Consciousness’: A Comparative Study

Authors: Zohreh Ramin

Abstract:

One of the most important contributions that Edward Said has had in the realm of critical theory is his insistence on the worldliness of the text and the critic. By this, Said meant that the critic and the text must be considered in their ‘material’ contexts. Foregrounding the substantial role of a critic as embodying what he refers to as ‘critical consciousness’, a true critic, Said maintains, is one who can stand between the ‘dominant culture’ and ‘the totalizing forms of critical systems.’ Considered as one of Iran’s major contemporary intellectuals, Jalal Ale Ahmad is responsible for introducing the idea of ‘Westoxication’ in Iran, constructing a social paradigm of the necessity to return to tradition in contemporary Iran. The present paper intends to study Al-Ahmad’s definition of the orient versus the occident, his criticism of the ‘machination’ of contemporary Iranian society, and his solution to the problem of ‘Westoxication’. The objective of this study is to see whether Ale Ahmad can be considered as embodying the spirit of ‘critical consciousness’ as described by Said as the necessary tool in the hands of an intellectual who is simultaneously attached filitavely to his culture but can detach himself affilitavely through employing critical consciousness.

Keywords: Westoxication, filiative, affiliative, machination

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1642 Studying the Effect of Different Sizes of Carbon Fiber on Locally Developed Copper Based Composites

Authors: Tahir Ahmad, Abubaker Khan, Muhammad Kamran, Muhammad Umer Manzoor, Muhammad Taqi Zahid Butt

Abstract:

Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) is a class of weight efficient structural materials that are becoming popular in engineering applications especially in electronic, aerospace, aircraft, packaging and various other industries. This study focuses on the development of carbon fiber reinforced copper matrix composite. Keeping in view the vast applications of metal matrix composites,this specific material is produced for its unique mechanical and thermal properties i.e. high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion at elevated temperatures. The carbon fibers were not pretreated but coated with copper by electroless plating in order to increase the wettability of carbon fiber with the copper matrix. Casting is chosen as the manufacturing route for the C-Cu composite. Four different compositions of the composite were developed by varying the amount of carbon fibers by 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 wt. % of the copper. The effect of varying carbon fiber content and sizes on the mechanical properties of the C-Cu composite is studied in this work. The tensile test was performed on the tensile specimens. The yield strength decreases with increasing fiber content while the ultimate tensile strength increases with increasing fiber content. Rockwell hardness test was also performed and the result followed the increasing trend for increasing carbon fibers and the hardness numbers are 30.2, 37.2, 39.9 and 42.5 for sample 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The microstructures of the specimens were also examined under the optical microscope. Wear test and SEM also done for checking characteristic of C-Cu marix composite. Through casting may be a route for the production of the C-Cu matrix composite but still powder metallurgy is better to follow as the wettability of carbon fiber with matrix, in that case, would be better.

Keywords: copper based composites, mechanical properties, wear properties, microstructure

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1641 Rubric in Vocational Education

Authors: Azmanirah Ab Rahman, Jamil Ahmad, Ruhizan Muhammad Yasin

Abstract:

Rubric is a very important tool for teachers and students for a variety of purposes. Teachers use the rubric for evaluating student work while students use rubrics for self-assessment. Therefore, this paper was emphasized scoring rubric as a scoring tool for teachers in an environment of Competency Based Education and Training (CBET) in Malaysia Vocational College. A total of three teachers in the fields of electrical and electronics engineering were interviewed to identify how the use of rubrics practiced since vocational transformation implemented in 2012. Overall holistic rubric used to determine the performance of students in the skills area.

Keywords: rubric, vocational education, teachers, CBET

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1640 Minimizing Fresh and Wastewater Using Water Pinch Technique in Petrochemical Industries

Authors: Wasif Mughees, Malik Al-Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem

Abstract:

This research involves the design and analysis of pinch-based water/wastewater networks to minimize water utility in the petrochemical and petroleum industries. A study has been done on Tehran Oil Refinery to analyze feasibilities of regeneration, reuse and recycling of water network. COD is considered as a single key contaminant. Amount of freshwater was reduced about 149m3/h (43.8%) regarding COD. Re-design (or retrofitting) of water allocation in the networks was undertaken. The results were analyzed through graphical method and mathematical programming technique which clearly demonstrated that amount of required water would be determined by mass transfer of COD.

Keywords: minimization, water pinch, water management, pollution prevention

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1639 Durability Properties of Foamed Concrete with Fiber Inclusion

Authors: Hanizam Awang, Muhammad Hafiz Ahmad

Abstract:

An experimental study was conducted on foamed concrete with synthetic and natural fibres consisting of AR-glass, polypropylene, steel, kenaf and oil palm fibre. The foamed concrete mixtures produced had a target density of 1000 kg/m3 and a mix ratio of (1:1.5:0.45). The fibres were used as additives. The inclusion of fibre was maintained at a volumetric fraction of 0.25 and 0.4 %. The water absorption, thermal and shrinkage were determined to study the effect of the fibre on the durability properties of foamed concrete. The results showed that AR-glass fibre has the lowest percentage value of drying shrinkage compared to others.

Keywords: foamed concrete, fibres, durability, construction, geological engineering

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1638 Alterations in Esterases and Phosphatases of Three Economically Important Stored Grain Insect Pests Exposed to Botanical Extracts, Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus

Authors: Kazam Ali, Muhammad Sagheer, Mansoor-Ul- Hasan, Abdul Rashid, Chaudhary Muhammad Shahid Hanif, Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif

Abstract:

Natural extracts of two medicinal plants Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus were tested for their toxic and enzyme inhibition effects against three insects species of stored grains Tribolium castaneum, Trogoderma granarium and Sitophilus granarius. Responses of insects varied with exposure periods and dilution levels of acetone extracts of plants. Both plant extracts were lethal to insects but the crude leaf extract of N. tabacum evidenced strong toxic action against three tested insect species. Maximum mortality 36.30% in S. granarius, 25.96% in T. castaneum, and 21.88% in T. granarium were found at 20% dilution level, after 10 days exposure to botanical extract of N. tabacum. The impact of N. tabacum and E. globulus on the activity of esterases; acetylcholinesterase (AChE), α-carboxylesterase (α-CE), β-carboxylesterase (β-CE) and phosphatses; acid phosphatase (AcP), alkaline phosphatase (AlP) of three stored grain insect species were also studied in the survivors of toxicity assay. Whole body homogenates of insects were used for enzyme determination and consumption of high dose rate N. tabacum extract containing diet resulted in maximum 55.33% inhibition of AChE and 26.17% AlP inhibition in T. castaneum, while 44.17% of α-CE and 31.67% inhibition of β-CE activity were noted in S. granarius. Maximum inhibition 23.44% of AcP activity was found in T. granarium exposed to diet treated with the extract of E. globulus. The findings indicate that acetone extracts of N. tabacum and E. globulus are naturally occurring pesticide and facts of the enzyme inhibition relations specify that their effect changes with the insect species.

Keywords: natural extract, medicinal plant, toxic effects, enzyme inhibition, acetone extract

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1637 Serotype Distribution and Demographics of Dengue Patients in a Tertiary Hospital of Lahore, Pakistan During the 2011 Epidemic

Authors: Muhammad Munir, Riffat Mehboob, Samina Naeem, Muhammad Salman, Shehryar Ahmed, Irshad Hussain Qureshi, Tahira Murtaza Cheema, Ashraf Sultan, Akmal Laeeq, Nakhshab Choudhry, Asad Aslam Khan, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad

Abstract:

A dengue outbreak in Lahore, Pakistan during 2011 was unprecedented in terms of severity and magnitude. This research aims to determine the serotype distribution of dengue virus during this outbreak and classify the patients demographically. 5ml of venous blood was drawn aseptically from 166 patients with dengue-like signs to test for the virus between the months of August to November 2011. The samples were sent to the CDC, Atlanta, Georgia for the purpose of molecular assays to determine their serotype. RT-PCR protocol was performed targeting at the 4 dengue serotypes. Out of 166 cases, dengue infection was detected with RT-PCR in 95 cases, all infected with same serotype DEN-2. 75% of positive cases were males while 25% were females. Most positive patients were in the age range of 16-30 years. 33% positive cases had accompanying bleeding. This is first study during the 2011 dengue epidemic in Lahore that reports DEN-2 as the only prevalent serotype. It also indicates that more infected patients were males, adults, within age range of 16-30 years, peaked in the month of November, Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is manifested more in females, Ravi town was heavily hit by dengue virus infection.

Keywords: dengue, serotypes, Pakistan, DEN 2, Lahore, demography, serotype distrbution, 2011 epidemic

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
1636 Foliar Feeding of Methyl Jasmonate Induces Resistance in Normal and Salinity Stressed Tomato Plants, at Different Stages

Authors: Abdul Manan, Choudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Rashid Ahmad, Muhammad Adnan Bukhari

Abstract:

A project was designed to investigate the effect of foliar application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on physiological, biochemical and ionic attributes of salinity stressed and normal tomato plants at different stages. Salinity stress at every stage markedly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, water relations parameters, protein contents, total free aminoacids and potassium (K+) contents. While, antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT)), sodium (Na+) contents and proline contents were increased substantially. Foliar application of MeJA ameliorated the drastic effects of salinity regime by recovery of physiological and biochemical attributes by enhanced production of antioxidant enzymes and osmoprotectants. The efficacy of MeJA at very initial stage (15 days after sowing (15 DAS)).proved effective for attenuating the deleterious effects of salinity stress than other stages (15 days after transplanting (15 DAT) and 30 days after transplanting (30 DAT)). To the best of our knowledge, different times of foliar feeding of MeJA was observed first time for amelioration of salinity stress in tomato plants that would be of pivotal significance for scientist to better understand the dynamics of physiological and biochemical processes in tomato.

Keywords: methyl jasmonate, osmoregulation, salinity stress, stress tolerance, tomato

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