Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 53

Search results for: Tephritid flies

53 The Diversity of Black Flies in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: C. D. Chen, H. Takaoka, Z. Ya’cob, V. L. Low, K. W. Lau, M. Sofian-Azirun

Abstract:

Adult black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are small (1.5-6.0 mm long), two-winged insects, and are well known as one of the biting flies of medical and veterinary importance. Female of certain species, when they bite and take blood, not only cause severe skin diseases to human and cattle but also play a role as vectors of viral, protozoan and filarial diseases in humans and animals. Black flies also attract environmental biologist and ecologist because their immature states breed only in clean running fresh waters, and larvae are one of the principal processors of plant debris in streams. All these researches on medical and ecological aspects of black flies could not be reliably proceeded without sufficient basic knowledge of the fauna of black flies established by traditional but still important morphotaxonomy. Previously, only 39 species of black flies were recorded from Peninsular Malaysia, all of which are classified into four subgenus (Daviesellum, Gomphostilbia, Nevermannia and Simulium) of the genus Simulium. We carried out faunal surveys and taxonomic works of black flies in Peninsular Malaysia since November 2010. A total of 17 new species and 4 newly recorded species were collected. This increased the number of the described species of black flies in Peninsular Malaysia from 39 to 60. Our results suggest that a much higher diverse nature of black flies in Peninsular Malaysia will be clarified by further extensive surveys.

Keywords: black flies, Simulium, Nevermannia, feuerborni species-group

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52 Performance of Different Biodegradable Waxes Based Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology-Male Anhelation Technique-Cue Lure Formulations in Bittergourd Field against Bactrocera cucurbitae

Authors: Amna Jalal, Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Anum Tariq, Waleed Afzal Naveed, Talha Farooq, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar

Abstract:

Melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) are economically important pests of the cucurbits and are geographically distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world. It causes heavy quantitative and qualitative losses in bitter gourd. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of different biodegradable waxes based SPLAT-MAT-CL (Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology-Male Anhelation Technique- Cue Lure) formulations in bitter gourd field. Fourteen SPLAT-MAT emulsions/formulations were prepared by admixing different SPLAT matrices with toxicant (spinosad) and sex pheromone cuelure (attractant) in different proportionate percentage by weight. The results revealed that attraction and trapping of fruit flies of B. cucurbitae varied significantly for different SPLAT-MAT-CL formulations (p < 0.05). The maximum B. cucurbitae males were trapped in SPLAT-MAT-CL-7 (60 flies/trap/day) followed by SPLAT-MAT-CL-9 (40 flies/trap/day). The performance of all other formulations of SPLAT-MAT-CL was found in the order of SPLAT-MAT-CL-8 (30 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-3 (28 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-5 (25 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-4 (22 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-12 (20 flies/trap/day) SPLAT-MAT-CL-2 (19 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-14 (17 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-13 (15 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-11 (10 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-1 (8 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-10 (02 flies/trap/day). Overall, all the SPLAT-MAT-CL formulations, except SPLAT-MAT-CL-10, demonstrated higher density of captures of B. cucurbitae males as compared to standard (06 flies/trap/day). The results also demonstrate that SPLAT-MAT-CL-7, SPLAT-MAT-CL-9, SPLAT-MAT-CL-8, SPLAT-MAT-CL-3, SPLAT-MAT-CL-5, SPLAT-MAT-CL-4, SPLAT-MAT-CL-12, SPLAT-MAT-CL-2, SPLAT-MAT-CL-14, SPLAT-MAT-CL-13, SPLAT-MAT-CL-11 and SPLAT-MAT-CL-1 explained approximately 5, 4.6, 4.1, 3.6, 3.3, 3.1,2.8,2.5 and 1.6 times higher captures of B. cucurbitae males over standards. However, SPLAT-MAT-CL-10 demonstrated 3 times fewer captures of B. cucurbitae males over standards. In conclusion, SPLAT-MAT-CL-7, SPLAT-MAT-CL-9 can be exploited for the monitoring and trapping of B. cucurbitae in its IPM of program.

Keywords: attractancy, field conditions, melon fruit fly, SPLAT-MAT-CL

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51 Assessment of Attractency of Bactrocera Zonata and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera:Tephritidae) to Different Biolure Phagostimulant-Mixtures

Authors: Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashir Iqbal, Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammad Ahsan Khan, Ahmad Nawaz, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Arshad, Amna Jalal

Abstract:

Fruit flies of Bactrocera genus cause heavy losses in fruits and vegetables globally and insecticide-application for their control creates issues of ecological backlash, environmental pollution, and food safety. There is need to explore alternatives and food-baits application is considered safe for the environment and effective for fruit fly management. Present experiment was carried out to assess the attractancy of five phagostimulant-Mixtures (PHS-Mix) prepared by mixing banana-squash, mulberry, protein-hydrolysate and molasses with some phagostimulant-lure sources including beef extract, fish extract, yeast, starch, rose oil, casein and cedar oil in five different ratios i.e., PHS-Mix-1 (1 part of all ingredients), PHS-Mix-2 (1 part of banana with 0.75 parts of all other ingredients), PHS-Mix-3 (1 part of banana with 0.5 parts of all other ingredients), PHS-Mix-4 (1 part of banana with 0.25 parts of all other ingredients) and PHS-Mix-5 (1 part of banana with 0.125 parts of all other ingredients). These were evaluated in comparison with a standard (GF-120). PHS-Mix-4 demonstrated 40.5±1.3-46.2±1.6% AI for satiated flies (class-II i.e., moderately attractive) and 59.5±2.0-68.6±3.0% AI for starved flies (class-III i.e., highly attractive) for both B. dorsalis and B. zonata in olfactometric study while the same exhibited 51.2±0.53% AI (class-III i.e., highly attractive) for B. zonata and 45.4±0.89% AI (class-II i.e., moderately attractive) for B. dorsalis in field study. PHS-Mix-1 proved non-attractive (class-I) and moderately attractive (class-II) phagostimulant in olfactometer and field studies, respectively. PHS-Mix-2 exhibited moderate attractiveness for starved lots in olfactometer and field-lot in field studies. PHS-Mix-5 proved non-attractive to starved and satiated lots of B. zonata and B. dorsalis females in olfactometer and field studies. Overall PHS-Mix-4 proved better phagostimulant-mixture followed by PHS-Mix-3 which was categorized as class-II (moderately attractive) phagostimulant for starved and satiated lots of female flies of both species in olfactometer and field studies; hence these can be exploited for fruit fly management.

Keywords: attractive index, field conditions, olfactometer, Tephritid flies

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50 Detection of Leishmania Mixed Infection from Phlebotomus papatasi in Central Iran

Authors: Nassibeh Hosseini-Vasoukolaei, Amir Ahmad Akhavan, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Ali Khamesipour, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi Ershadi, Kamhawi Shaden, Valenzuela Jesus, Hossein Mirhendi, Mohammad Hossein Arandian

Abstract:

Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an endemic disease in many rural areas of Iran. Sand flies were collected from rural areas of Esfahan province and were identified using valid identification keys. DNA was extracted from sand flies and Nested PCRs were done using specific primers. In this study, 44 out of 152 (28.9 %) sand flies were infected with L. majoralone. Eight sand flies showed mixed infection: four sand flies (2.6 %) were infected with L. major, L. turanicaand L. gerbili, one sand fly (0.7 %) was infected with L. major and L. turanica and three sand flies (2 %) were infected with L. turanicaand L. gerbili. Our results demonstrate the natural infection of P. papatasi sand fly with three species of L. major, L. turanica and L. gerbili which are circulating among R. opimusreservoir host and P. papatasi sand fly vector in central Iran.

Keywords: Phlebotomus papatasi, Leishmania major, Leishmania turanica, Leishmania gerbili, mixed infection, Iran

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49 Nuclear Mitochondrial Pseudogenes in Anastrepha fraterculus Complex

Authors: Pratibha Srivastava, Ayyamperumal Jeyaprakash, Gary Steck, Jason Stanley, Leroy Whilby

Abstract:

Exotic, invasive tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are a major threat to fruit and vegetable industries in the United States. The establishment of pest fruit fly in the agricultural industries and produce severe ecological and economic impacts on agricultural diversification and trade. Detection and identification of these agricultural pests in a timely manner will facilitate the possibility of eradication from newly invaded areas. Identification of larval stages to species level is difficult, but is required to determine pest loads and their pathways into the United States. The aim of this study is the New World genus, Anastrepha which includes pests of major economic importance. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequences were amplified from Anastrepha fraterculus specimens collected from South America (Ecuador and Peru). Phylogenetic analysis was performed to characterize the Anastrepha fraterculus complex at a molecular level. During phylogenetics analysis numerous nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) were discovered in different specimens. The numts are nonfunctional copies of the mtDNA present in the nucleus and are easily coamplified with the mitochondrial COI gene copy by using conserved universal primers. This is problematic for DNA Barcoding, which attempts to characterize all living organisms by using the COI gene. This study is significant for national quarantine use, as morphological diagnostics to separate larvae of the various members remain poorly developed.

Keywords: tephritid, Anastrepha fraterculus, COI, numts

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48 Energy Metabolites Show Cross-Protective Plastic Responses for Stress Resistance in a Circumtropical Drosophila Species

Authors: Ankita Pathak, Ashok Munjal, Ravi Parkash

Abstract:

Plastic responses to multiple environmental stressors in wet or dry seasonal populations of tropical Drosophila species have received less attention. We tested plastic effects of heat hardening, acclimation to drought or starvation; and changes in trehalose, proline and body lipids in D. ananassae flies reared under wet or dry season specific conditions. Wet season flies revealed significant increase in heat knockdown, starvation resistance and body lipids after heat hardening. However, accumulation of proline was observed only after desiccation acclimation of dry season flies while wet season flies elicited no proline but trehalose only. Therefore, drought-induced proline can be a marker metabolite for dry season flies. Further, partial utilization of proline and trehalose under heat hardening reflects their possible thermoprotective effects. Heat hardening elicited cross-protection to starvation stress. Stressor-specific accumulation or utilization, as well as rates of metabolic change for each energy metabolite, were significantly higher in wet season flies than dry season flies. Energy metabolite changes due to inter-related stressors (heat vs. desiccation or starvation) resulted in possible maintenance of energetic homeostasis in wet or dry season flies. Thus, low or high humidity induced plastic changes in energy metabolites can provide cross-protection to seasonally varying climatic stressors.

Keywords: wet-dry seasons, plastic changes, stress related traits, energy metabolites, cross protection

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47 Fungi Isolated from House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on Penned Cattle in South Texas

Authors: Cherity A. Ysquierdo, Pia U. Olafson, Donald B. Thomas

Abstract:

Musca domestica L. were collected from cattle diagnosed with bovine ringworm to evaluate the potential of the house fly to disseminate Trichophyton verrucosum E. Bodin, a fungal dermatophyte that is the causative agent for ringworm in cattle. Fungal isolates were cultured from 45 individual flies on supplemented Sabouraud dextrose agar, and isolates were identified using morphological and microscopic approaches. Each isolate was further identified by PCR amplification of the ribosomal DNA locus with fungal specific primers and subsequent amplicon sequencing. No T. verrucosum were identified using these approaches. However, 36 different fungal species representing 17 genera were cultured from these flies, including several allergenic and pathogenic species. Several species within the fungal orders Hypocreales, Microascales, Onygenales, Saccharomycetales, Xylaniales, and Agaricales were observed for the first time on house flies. The most frequent fungus recovered was Cladosporium cladosporoides, which is known to be a ubiquitous, airborne allergen.

Keywords: bovine ringworm, Cladosporium, dermatophyte, Musca domestica

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46 Host Plant Range of Aphidophagus Hoverflies in Relation to Their Pray Aphids in Thatta Pakistan

Authors: Kamal Khan Abro, Attaullah Ansari, Mahpara Pirzada

Abstract:

Hoverflies are commonly known as flower flies, sun flies or garden flies. Hoverflies are very important group of insects because their ecosystem services are diverse. They are an attractive group of insects with their striped abdomens. They are day-flying insects from small to large size, have worldwide distribution, but mostly prefer to live in relatively cold weather areas. In the world, about 6,000 species of 200 genera of two sub-families have been described. Their larvae exhibit a variety of feeding modes i.e. aphidophagous, saprophagous, zoophagous and Phytophagus, where adults are floral visitors of hundreds of different plants species. These floral resources enhance the longevity and fecundity of adult dipterous flies. Many syrphid species also have been documented as efficient crop pollinators. Aphids are commonly called plant louse, greenflies and blackflies. They are major pest of crops; about 4000 species of aphids have been described, feeding on 250 species of plants.

Keywords: host plant range, aphidophagous hoverflies, their prey aphids, Thatta Pakistan

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45 Heat and Humidity Induced Plastic Changes in Body Lipids and Starvation Resistance in the Tropical Zaprionus indianus of Wet-Dry Seasons

Authors: T. N. Girish, B. E. Pradeep, Ravi Parkash

Abstract:

Insects from tropical wet or dry seasons are likely to cope starvation stress through seasonal phenotypic plasticity in energy metabolites. Accordingly, we analyzed such plastic changes in Zaprionus indianus flies reared under wet or dry season-specific conditions; and also after adult acclimation at 32℃ for 1 to 6 days; and to low (40% RH) or high (70% RH) humidity. Both thermal or humidity acclimation revealed significant accumulation of body lipids for wet season flies but low humidity acclimation did not change the level of body lipids in dry season flies. Developmental and adult acclimation showed sex specific differences i.e., starvation resistance and body lipids were higher in the males of dry season but in females of wet season. We found seasonal and sex specific differences in the relative level for body lipids at death; and in the rates of accumulation or utilization of energy metabolites (body lipids, carbohydrates and proteins). Body lipids constitute the preferred energy source under starvation for flies of both the seasons. However, utilization of carbohydrates (~20% to 30%) and proteins (~20% to 25%) was evident only in dry season flies. Higher starvation resistance after thermal or humidity acclimation is achieved by increased accumulation of lipids. Adult acclimation of wet or dry season flies revealed plastic changes in mean daily fecundity despite reduction in fecundity under starvation. Thus, thermal or humidity induced plastic responses in body lipids support starvation resistance under wet or dry seasons.

Keywords: heat or humidity acclimation, plastic changes in body lipids and starvation resistance, tropical drosophilid, Wet- or Dry seasons, Zaprionus indianus

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44 Evaluation of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Eugenol with Lanolin Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Amjad Ali, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashar Iqbal, Amna Jalal, Faisal Munir

Abstract:

The study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax in orchard of the University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Lanolin wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFₗₗ-7 trapped 42.1 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 51.71%, proved strongly attractive SRFₗₗ for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (AI > 50%). The SRFₗₗ-2, SRFₗₗ-3, SRFₗₗ-4, SRFₗₗ-5, SRFₗₗ-6, SRFₗₗ-8 and SRFₗₗ-9 trapped 17.7, 27.9, 32.3, 23.8, 28.3, 37.8 and 19.9 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 20.54%, 41.02%, 26.00%, 34.15%, 43.50%, 49.86% and 46.07% AI respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulations for B. zonata and were categorized as Class-II slow-released formulations (AI = 11-50%). However, SRFₗₗ-1 trapped 14.8 flies /day/trap, exhibited 0.71% AI proved little or nonattractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: Bactrocera zonata, slow-released formulation, lenoline wax, methyl euginol

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43 Elongation Factor 1 Alpha Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis for Anastrepha fraterculus Complex

Authors: Pratibha Srivastava, Ayyamperumal Jeyaprakash, Gary Steck

Abstract:

Exotic, invasive tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are a major concern to fruit and vegetable production in the USA. Timely detection and identification of these agricultural pests facilitate the possibility of eradication from newly invaded areas. They spread primarily as larvae in infested fruits carried in commerce or personal baggage. Identification of larval stages to species level is difficult but necessary to determine pest loads and their pathways into the USA. The main focus of this study is the New World genus, Anastrepha. Many of its constituent taxa are pests of major economic importance. This study is significant for national quarantine use, as morphological diagnostics to separate larvae of the various members remain poorly developed. Elongation factor 1 alpha sequences were amplified from Anastrepha fraterculus specimens collected from South America (Ecuador and Peru). Phylogenetic analysis was performed to characterize the Anastrepha fraterculus complex at a molecular level.

Keywords: anastrepha, diptera, elongation factor, fruit fly

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42 Purple Sweet Potato Anthocyanin Attenuates the Fat-Induced Mortality in Drosophila Melanogaster

Authors: Lijun Wang, Zhen-Yu Chen

Abstract:

A high-fat diet induces the accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides, accelerates the ageing process and causes a greater mortality in Drosophila melanogaster. The purple sweet potato is rich in antioxidant anthocyanin. The present study was to examine if supplementation of purple sweet potato anthocyanin (PSPA) could reduce the mortality of fruit flies fed a high-fat diet. Results showed that the mean lifespan of fruit fly was shortened from 56 to 35 days in a dose-dependent manner when lard in the diet increased from 0% to 20%. PSPA supplementation attenuated partially the lard-induced mortality. The maximum lifespan and 50% survival time were 49 and 27 days for the 10% lard control flies, in contrast, they increased to 57 and 30 days in the PSPA-supplemented fruit flies. PSPA-supplemented diet significantly up-regulated the mRNA of superoxide dismutase, catalase and Rpn11, compared with those in the control lard diet. In addition, PSPA supplementation could restore the climbing ability of fruit flies fed a 10% lard diet. It was concluded that the lifespan-prolonging activity of PSPA was most likely mediated by modulating the genes of SOD, CAT and Rpn11.

Keywords: purple sweet potato, anthocyanin, high-fat diet, oxidative stress

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41 Assesment of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Euginol with Carnauba Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashir Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Waqas Amjad, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq

Abstract:

Present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of methyl eugenol with Carnauba wax in orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Carnauba wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFCN-9 trapped 35.3 flies/day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 50.35%, proved strongly attractive SRFCN for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (Attractive Index > 50%). The SRFCN-1, SRFCN-2, SRFCN-3, SRFCN-4, SRFCN-5, SRFCN-6, SRFCN-7 and SRFCN-8 trapped 2.0, 5.3, 3.3, 4.0, 5.7, 12.0, 9.7 and 14.3 flies/day/trap respectively exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of -70.73%, -37.25%, -55.55%, -48.93%, -34.61%, 1.40%, -9.37% and 10.25% Attractive Index respectively, proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (Attractive Index < 11%). Results revealed that the Slow-Released Formulation containing 10% Carnauba wax with 90% methyl eugenol trapped maximum number of flies of over 30 days.

Keywords: slow-released formulation, Bactrocera zonata, Carnauba wax, methyl euginol

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40 Plant Volatiles for Trapping Queensland Fruit Flies

Authors: Nazma Akter Tithi

Abstract:

Plant volatiles consist of a variety of chemicals that may disperse in the air over a wide distance and play important role in attracting fruit flies to source food or find mating or ovipositing locations. In this study, six different host-plants have been studied for Bactroceratryoni, known as Queensland fruit flies (Qfly), to evaluate their potential to attract these flies. Extracts were prepared from fresh plant materials of capsicum annuum (bell pepper), Capsicum frutescens (chilli), Citrus sinensis (sweet orange), Eriobotrya japonica (loquat), Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), and Fragariaananassa (strawberry). Lab reared virgin and mature Qflies, both male and female, were exposed to a number of traps that were made consisting of each of one of these extracts and control and observed for their behaviour towards the traps. It was recorded that mature flies, both male and female, were highly attracted to the plants S. lycopersicum and C. sinensis, whereas virgin males are more attracted to F. ananassa extract. Headspace volatiles of these plants have been collected and analysed in GCMS to identify the compounds present in the headspace that may have an impact of the observed Qfly attraction of these plants. A number of volatile chemicals have been identified analysing their m/z peaks in mass spectra and similarity compared with the NIST database. It was observed that several identified alcohols and aldehydes are constituents of the general “green-leaf odor” that emitted from most of the plants. However, there were a number of interesting compounds identified in the headspace of these plants that might have an impact on fly attractiveness, and thus further, this preliminary study provides a good scope of further investigation of plant volatiles as a possible way to develop fruit fly attractants.

Keywords: plant volatiles, fruit fly, headspace, pest management

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39 Efficacy of Methyl Eugenol and Food-Based Lures in Trapping Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Mango Homestead Trees

Authors: Juliana Amaka Ugwu

Abstract:

Trapping efficiency of methyl eugenol and three locally made food-based lures were evaluated in three locations for trapping of B. dorsalis on mango homestead trees in Ibadan South west Nigeria. The treatments were methyl eugenol, brewery waste, pineapple juice, orange juice, and control (water). The experiment was laid in a Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD) and replicated three times in each location. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and significant means were separated by Turkey’s test. The results showed that B. dorsalis was recorded in all locations of study. Methyl eugenol significantly (P < 0.05) trapped higher population of B. dorsalis in all the study area. The population density of B. dorsalis was highest during the ripening period of mango in all locations. The percentage trapped flies after 7 weeks were 77.85%-82.38% (methyl eugenol), 7.29%-8.64% (pineapple juice), 5.62-7.62% (brewery waste), 4.41%-5.95% (orange juice), and 0.24-0.47% (control). There were no significance differences (p > 0.05) on the population of B. dorsalis trapped in all locations. Similarly, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) on the population of flies trapped among the food attractants. However, the three food attractants significantly (p < 0.05) trapped higher flies than control. Methyl eugenol trapped only male flies while brewery waste and other food based attractants trapped both male and female flies. The food baits tested were promising attractants for trapping B. dorsalis on mango homestead tress, hence increased dosage could be considered for monitoring and mass trapping as management strategies against fruit fly infestation.

Keywords: attractants, trapping, mango, Bactrocera dorsalis

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38 Cytochrome B Marker Reveals Three Distinct Genetic Lineages of the Oriental Latrine Fly Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Malaysia

Authors: Rajagopal Kavitha, Van Lun Low, Mohd Sofian-Azirun, Chee Dhang Chen, Mohd Yusof Farida Zuraina, Mohd Salleh Ahmad Firdaus, Navaratnam Shanti, Abdul Haiyee Zaibunnisa

Abstract:

This study investigated the hidden genetic lineages in the oriental latrine fly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) across four states (i.e., Johore, Pahang, Perak and Selangor) and a federal territory (i.e., Kuala Lumpur) in Malaysia using Cytochrome b (Cyt b) genetic marker. The Cyt b phylogenetic tree and haplotype network revealed three distinct genetic lineages of Ch. megacephala. Lineage A, the basal clade was restricted to flies that originated from Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, while Lineages B and C, comprised of flies from all studied populations. An overlap of the three genetically divergent groups of Ch. megacephala was observed. However, the flies from both Kuala Lumpur and Selangor populations consisted of three different lineages, indicating that they are genetically diverse compared to those from Pahang, Perak and Johore.

Keywords: forensic entomology, calliphoridae, mitochondrial DNA, cryptic lineage

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37 From Lack of Humanity to Self-Consciousness and Vision in Lord of the Flies and Blindness

Authors: Maryam Sadeghi

Abstract:

Civilization and industrialization are two important factors that make people believe they are just depriving of savagery and brutality. But practical studies show exactly something different. How groups of people behave, when they are put in extreme situations is the very unpleasant truth about the human being in general. Both novels deal with the fragility of human society, no matter the people who are playing a role are children or grown-ups, who by definition should know better. Both novels have got beautiful plots in which no one enforces rules and laws on the characters, so they begin to show their true nature. The present study is undertaken to investigate the process of a journey from lack of humanity to a sort of self-consciousness which happens at the end of both Blindness by Saramago and Lord of the Flies by Golding. In order to get the best result the two novels have been studied precisely and lots of different articles and critical essays have been analyzed, which shows people drift into cruelty and savagery easily but can also drift out of it. In blindness losing sight, and being apart from society in a deserted tropical island in Lord of the Flies causes limitation. Limitation in any form makes people rebel. Although in the process of both novels, any kind of savagery, brutality, filth, and social collapse can be observable and both writers believe that human being has the potential of being animal images, but they both also want to show that the very nature of human being is divine. Children’s weeping at the end Lord of the Flies and Doctor’s remark at the end of Blindness “I don’t think we did go blind, I think we are blind, blind but seeing, blind people who can see but do not see”, show exactly the matter of insight at the end of the novels. The fact that divinity exists in the very nature of human being is the indubitable aim that makes this research truly valuable.

Keywords: brutality, lack of humanity, savagery, Blindness

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36 Trapping Efficiency of Highly Effective Slow Released Formulations of Biodegradable Waxes with Methyl Eugenol Against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq, Faisal Munir

Abstract:

Experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of highly effective Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax, Candellila wax, Bee-wax, Carnauba wax and paraffin wax in the orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. The waxes were mixed with methyl eugenol in 1:9 ratio. The results revealed that SRF of Candellila, Paraffin, Bees and Carnauba wax attracted 13.77, 11, 8.15 and 7.23 flies/day/trap which was 2.6, 2, 1.5 and 1.4 times higher than standard respectively and exhibited 41.42%, 32.05%, 20.98% and 12.87% attractive index respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulation to B. zonata and was catagorized as Class-II slow-released formulation (AI = 11-50%). However, SRF of Lanolin wax trapped 1.81 flies/day/trap which was 3 times less than standard and exhibited -61.86% attractive index proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: biodegradable waxes, slow-released formulation, Bactrocera zonata, methyl euginol

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35 Laboratory Evaluation of Bacillus subtilis Bioactivity on Musca domestica (Linn) (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae from Poultry Farms in South Western Nigeria

Authors: Funmilola O. Omoya

Abstract:

Muscid flies are known to be vectors of disease agents and species that annoy humans and domesticated animals. An example of these flies is Musca domestica (house fly) whose adult and immature stages occur in a variety of filthy organic substances including household garbage and animal manures. They contribute to microbial contamination of foods. It is therefore imperative to control these flies as a result of their role in Public health. The second and third instars of Musca domestica (Linn) were infected with varying cell loads of Bacillus subtilis in vitro for a period of 48 hours to evaluate its larvicidal activities. Mortality of the larvae increased with incubation period after treatment with the varying cell loads. Investigation revealed that the second instars larvae were more susceptible to treatment than the third instars treatments. Values obtained from the third instar group were significantly different (P0.05) from those obtained from the second instars group in all the treatments. Lethal concentration (LC50) at 24 hours for 2nd instars was 2.35 while LC50 at 48 hours was 4.31.This study revealed that Bacillus subtilis possess good larvicidal potential for use in the control of Musca domestica in poultry farms.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, Musca domestica, larvicidal activities, poultry farms

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34 Description of a New Fruit Fly Species within Genus Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) Detected in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Sarwar

Abstract:

As a result of broad trapping program for the collection of fruit flies fauna of Pakistan, adults or larvae samples of fruit flies were collected from different localities. After sampling, to characterize fruit fly fauna involved, the collected samples were brought to the laboratory for their species identification. In this study, based on extensive literature records, the presence of one fruit fly species Bactrocera abbasi (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) belonging to genus Bactrocera Macquar was recognized for the first time. This new species is described and illustrated on the basis of morphological characters, supported by data on its ecology and geographic distribution. Information is also given on host plant and location of type specimen, distinguish remarks and diagnosis are as well included.

Keywords: diptera, tephritidae, bactrocera, new species, taxonomy, Pakistan

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33 Attraction and Identification of Early Scavenger Insects on Shaded and Sunny Liver Baits in a Saharian Region of South-Central Algeria

Authors: A. M. Taleb, A. G. Tail, A. F. Kara, B. B. Djedouani, C. T. Moussa

Abstract:

Forensic entomology is the use of insects to aid legal investigations. The main purpose of forensic entomology is to establish the postmortem interval (PMI). In order to estimate the PMI, a forensic entomologist compares the case data with certain reference information relevant to the particular location and time of year. This reference information, including the local distribution of species, are not available in Algeria. Therefore, experiments need to be conducted to provide references for entomological evidence. The objective of this study was to identify the necrophagous flies species which arrive first to carrion using liver baits in Ghardaia, South Algeria. The study was carried out during the spring season in the palmeral of Beni Isguen, Ghardaia which is well known by its hot arid climate. The experiment site (32°28’0’’ N, 3°42’0’’ E), is situated at an altitude of about 526 metres above mean sea level. On April the 4th, 2014, a number of three replicates of liver baited traps were placed in the shade and other three baits were exposed to the sun. Flying insects and larvae were captured and identified. After few minutes, flies invaded the traps which were exposed to the sun. In contrast, no flies were observed in the other traps. A total number of fourty five (45) adult specimens belonging to three taxa were identified: Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) (51.11 %), Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) (33.33 %) and Sarcophaga africa (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) (15.55 %). Six hundred and three (603) maggots belonging to two taxa were identified: Calliphora vicina (76.28 %) and Lucilia sericata (23.71 %). The data obtained from this study provides baseline information regarding the carrion fauna of this area. It will also form a basis for similar studies in different geographical and climatological regions of Algeria.

Keywords: forensic entomology, liver baits, necrophagous fly, Ghardaia, South Algeria

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32 Infectivity of Glossina pallidipes Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (GpSGHV) to Various Tsetse Species

Authors: Guler D. Uzel, Andrew G. Parker, Robert L. Mach, Adly Abd-Alla

Abstract:

Several tsetse fly species (Diptera: Glossinidae) in natural or colonized populations can be infected with the salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), a circular dsDNA virus (Hytrosaviridae). The virus infection is mainly asymptomatic but, in some species under certain conditions, the infection can produce salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms. In the laboratory colonized tsetse, flies with SGH have reduced fertility, which negatively affects colony performance. Therefore, a high prevalence of SGH in insect mass rearing represents a major challenge for tsetse control using the sterile insect technique. The main objective of this study is to analyze the impact of Glossina pallidipes SGHV infection in various tsetse species on mortality and productivity and its impact on the symbiotic bacteria. Hypertropied salivary glands (SG) were collected from G. pallidipes into phosphate buffered saline (PBS) to prepare suspension; 2 µl aliquots were injected into adults of several tsetse species (G. pallidipes (Gp), G. p. gambiensis (Gpg), G. brevipalpis (Gb), G. morsitans morsitans (Gmm), G. morsitans centralis (Gmc) and G. fuscipes (Gf)) and the change in virus and symbiont titers were analyzed using qPCR. The development of SGH in the F1 was detected by dissection 10 days after emergence and virus infection was confirmed by PCR. The impact of virus infection on fly mortality and productivity was recorded. 2 µl aliquots were also injected into 3rd instar larvae of the different species and the adult SGs assayed by PCR for virus. Virus positive SGs from each species were homogenized in PBS and pooled within species for injection into larvae of the same species. Flies injected with PBS were used as control. Injecting teneral flies with SGHV caused increasing virus titer over time in all species but no SGH was detected. Dissection of the F1 also showed no development of SGH except in Gp (the homologous host). Injection of SGHV did not have any impact on the prevalence of the tsetse symbionts, but an increase in Sodalis titer was observed correlated with fly age regardless of virus infection. The virus infection had a negative impact on productivity and mortality. SGHV injection into larvae of the different species produced SGHV infected glands in the adults determined by PCR with a rate of 60%, 27%, 16%, 7% and 7% for Gp, Gf, Gpg, Gmm and Gmc, respectively. Virus positive SGs observed in the heterologous species were smaller than SGH found in Gp. No virus positive SG was detected by PCR in Gb and no SGH was observed in any adults except in Gp. Injecting virus suspension from the virus positive SGs into conspecific larvae did not produce any adults with infected SGs (except in Gp). SGHV can infect all tested tsetse species. Although the virus can infect and increase in titer in other tsetse species and affect fly mortality and productivity, no vertical virus transmission was observed in other tsetse species with might indicate a transmission barrier in these species, and virus collected from flies injected as larvae was not infective by injection.

Keywords: DNA viruses, glossina, hytrosaviridae, symbiotic bacteria, tsetse

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31 Microalgae Applied to the Reduction of Biowaste Produced by Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster

Authors: Shuang Qiu, Zhipeng Chen, Lingfeng Wang, Shijian Ge

Abstract:

Biowastes are a concern due to the large amounts of commercial food required for model animals during the biomedical research. Searching for sustainable food alternatives with negligible physiological effects on animals is critical to solving or reducing this challenge. Microalgae have been demonstrated as suitable for both human consumption and animal feed in addition to biofuel and bioenergy applications. In this study, the possibility of using Chlorella vulgaris and Senedesmus obliquus as a feed replacement to Drosophila melanogaster, one of the fly models commonly used in biomedical studies, was investigated to assess the fly locomotor activity, motor pattern, lifespan, and body weight. Compared to control, flies fed on 60% or 80% (w/w) microalgae exhibited varied walking performance including travel distance and apparent step size, and flies treated with 40% microalgae had shorter lifespans and decreased body weight. However, the 20% microalgae treatment showed no statistical differences in all parameters tested with respect to the control. When partially including 20% microalgae in the standard food, it can annually reduce the food waste (~ 202 kg) by 22.7 % and save $ 7,200 of the food cost, offering an environmentally superior and cost-effective food alternative without compromising physiological performance.

Keywords: animal feed, Chlorella vulgaris, Drosophila melanogaster, food waste, microalgae

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30 Potential of Macroalgae Ulva lactuca for Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Fruitfly Food

Authors: Shuang Qiu, Lingfeng Wang, Zhipeng Chen, Shijian Ge

Abstract:

Macroalgae are considered a promising approach for wastewater treatment as well as an alternative animal feed in addition to a biofuel feedstock. Their large size and/or tendency to grow as dense floating mats or substrate-attached turfs lead to lower separation and drying costs than microalgae. In this study, the macroalgae species Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca) were used to investigate their capacity for treating municipal wastewaters, and the feasibility of using the harvested biomass as an alternative food source for the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, an animal model for biological research. Results suggested that U. lactuca could successfully grow on three types of wastewaters studied with biomass productivities of 8.12-64.3 g DW (dry weight)/(m²∙d). The secondary wastewater (SW) was demonstrated as the most effective wastewater medium for U. lactuca growth. However, both high nitrogen (92.5-98.9%) and phosphorus (64.5-88.6%) removal efficiencies were observed in all wastewaters, particularly in primary wastewater (PW) and SW, however, in central wastewater (CW), the highest removal rates were obtained (N 24.7 ± 0.97 and P 0.69 ± 0.01 mg/(g DW·d)). Additionally, the inclusion of 20% washed U. lactuca with 80% standard fruitfly food (w/w) resulted in a longer lifespan and more stable body weights in flies. On the other hand, similar results were not obtained for the food treatment with the addition of 20 % unwashed U. lactuca. This study suggests a promising method for the macroalgae-based treatment of municipal wastewater and the biomass for animal feed.

Keywords: animal feed, flies, macroalgae, nutrient recovery, Ulva lactuca, wastewater

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29 DNA Damage and Apoptosis Induced in Drosophila melanogaster Exposed to Different Duration of 2400 MHz Radio Frequency-Electromagnetic Fields Radiation

Authors: Neha Singh, Anuj Ranjan, Tanu Jindal

Abstract:

Over the last decade, the exponential growth of mobile communication has been accompanied by a parallel increase in density of electromagnetic fields (EMF). The continued expansion of mobile phone usage raises important questions as EMF, especially radio frequency (RF), have long been suspected of having biological effects. In the present experiments, we studied the effects of RF-EMF on cell death (apoptosis) and DNA damage of a well- tested biological model, Drosophila melanogaster exposed to 2400 MHz frequency for different time duration i.e. 2 hrs, 4 hrs, 6 hrs,8 hrs, 10 hrs, and 12 hrs each day for five continuous days in ambient temperature and humidity conditions inside an exposure chamber. The flies were grouped into control, sham-exposed, and exposed with 100 flies in each group. In this study, well-known techniques like Comet Assay and TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) Assay were used to detect DNA damage and for apoptosis studies, respectively. Experiments results showed DNA damage in the brain cells of Drosophila which increases as the duration of exposure increases when observed under the observed when we compared results of control, sham-exposed, and exposed group which indicates that EMF radiation-induced stress in the organism that leads to DNA damage and cell death. The process of apoptosis and mutation follows similar pathway for all eukaryotic cells; therefore, studying apoptosis and genotoxicity in Drosophila makes similar relevance for human beings as well.

Keywords: cell death, apoptosis, Comet Assay, DNA damage, Drosophila, electromagnetic fields, EMF, radio frequency, RF, TUNEL assay

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28 An Alternative Semi-Defined Larval Diet for Rearing of Sand Fly Species Phlebotomus argentipes in Laboratory

Authors: Faizan Hassan, Seema Kumari, V. P. Singh, Pradeep Das, Diwakar Singh Dinesh

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Phlebotomus argentipes is an established vector for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Indian subcontinent. Laboratory colonization of Sand flies is imperative in research on vectors, which requires a proper diet for their larvae and adult growth that ultimately affects their survival and fecundity. In most of the laboratories, adult Sand flies are reared on rabbit blood feeding/artificial blood feeding and their larvae on fine grinded rabbit faeces as a sole source of food. Rabbit faeces are unhygienic, difficult to handle, high mites infestation as well as owing to bad odour which creates menacing to human users ranging from respiratory problems to eye infection and most importantly it does not full fill all the nutrients required for proper growth and development. It is generally observed that the adult emergence is very low in comparison to egg hatched, which may be due to insufficient food nutrients provided to growing larvae. To check the role of food nutrients on larvae survival and adult emergence, a high protein rich artificial diet for sand fly larvae were used in this study. The composition of artificial diet to be tested includes fine grinded (9 gm each) Rice, Pea nuts & Soyabean balls. These three food ingredients are rich source of all essential amino acids along with carbohydrate and minerals which is essential for proper metabolism and growth. In this study artificial food was found significantly more effective for larval development and adult emergence than rabbit faeces alone (P value >0.05). The weight of individual larvae was also found higher in test pots than the control. This study suggest that protein plays an important role in insect larvae development and adding carbohydrate will also enhances the fecundity of insects larvae.

Keywords: artificial food, nutrients, Phlebotomus argentipes, sand fly

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27 Rates of Hematophagous Ectoparasite Consumption during Grooming by an Endemic Madagascar Fruit Bat

Authors: Riana V. Ramanantsalama, Aristide Andrianarimisa, Achille P. Raselimanana, Steven M. Goodman

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Few details are available on the consumption of ectoparasites, specifically bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae and Streblidae), by their chiropteran hosts while grooming. Such details could provide information on the dynamics of host-parasite interactions. This study presents data on ectoparasite ingestion rates for an endemic Malagasy fruit bat (Pteropodidae: Rousettus madagascariensis) occupying a cave day roost colony in northern Madagascar. Using quantified behavioral analyses, grooming and associated ingestion rates were measured from infrared videos taken in close proximity to day-roosting bats. The recorded individual bats could be visually identified to age (adult, juvenile) and sex (male, female), allowing analyses of the proportion of time these different classes allocated to consuming ectoparasites via auto-grooming (self) or allo-grooming (intraspecific) per 10 min video recording session. These figures could then be extrapolated to estimates of individual daily consumption rates. Based on video recordings, adults spent significantly more time auto-grooming and allo-grooming than juveniles. The latter group was not observed consuming ectoparasites. Grooming rates and the average number of ectoparasites consumed per day did not differ between adult males and females. The mean extrapolated number consumed on a daily basis for individual adults was 37 ectoparasites. When these figures are overlaid on the estimated number of adult Rousettus occurring at the roost site during the dry season, the projected daily consumption rate was 57,905 ectoparasites. To the best knowledge of the authors of this study, the details presented here represent the first quantified data on bat consumption rates of their ectoparasites, specifically dipterans. These results provide new insights into host-parasite predation dynamics. More research is needed to explore the mechanism zoonotic diseases isolated from bat flies might be transmitted to their bat hosts, specifically those pathogens that can be communicated via an oral route.

Keywords: diptera, host-parasite interactions, Madagascar, nycteribiidae, pteropodidae, Rousettus madagascariensis

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26 Gingival Myiasis of Dog Caused by Wohlfahrtia magnifica, Garmsar, Iran

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi

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Myiasis is defined as the infestation of living tissues of vertebrates by larvae of flies. Gingival myiasis is an uncommon type of myiasis. In oral inspection of a death dog (Garmsar, Iran) for routine training postmortem investigation, gingival myiasis was found. Only one larva was removed from the lesions and sent to a parasitology laboratory for identification. For histopathological studies, affected area of the gingiva was cut and placed in 10% formalin, and then sent to pathology laboratory. On parasitological examination the causative agent of this condition was found as larva of Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Histopathological examination of the injured gingiva showed hyperplasia of squamous epithelial tissue and acanthosis in mucosal membrane, hyperemia and infiltration of mononuclear cells and eosinophils into lamina propria. The present report seems to be the first report of gingival myiasis in dog in Iran.

Keywords: Wohlfahrtia magnifica, gingiva, myiasis, dog

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25 Solid Waste and Its Impact on the Human Health

Authors: Waseem Akram, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan

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Unplanned urbanization together with change in life from simple to more technologically advanced style with flow of rural masses to urban areas has played a vital role in pilling loads of solid wastes in our environment. The cities and towns have expanded beyond boundaries. Even the uncontrolled population expansion has caused the overall environmental burden. Thus, today the indifference remains as one of the biggest trash that has come up due to the non-responsive behavior of the people. Everyday huge amount of solid waste is thrown in the streets, on the roads, parks, and in all those places that are frequently and often visited by the human beings. This behavior based response in many countries of the world has led to serious health concerns and environmental issues. Over 80% of our products that are sold in the market are packed in plastic bags. None of the bags are later recycled but simply become a permanent environment concern that flies, choke lines or are burnt and release toxic gases in the environment or form dumps of heaps. Lack of classification of the daily waste generated from houses and other places lead to worst clogging of the sewerage lines and formation of ponding areas which ultimately favor vector borne disease and sometimes become a cause of transmission of polio virus. Solid waste heaps were checked at different places of the cities. All of the wastes on visual assessments were classified into plastic bags, papers, broken plastic pots, clay pots, steel boxes, wrappers etc. All solid waste dumping sites in the cities and wastes that were thrown outside of the trash containers usually contained wrappers, plastic bags, and unconsumed food products. Insect populations seen in these sites included the house flies, bugs, cockroaches and mosquito larvae breeding in water filled wrappers, containers or plastic bags. The population of the mosquitoes, cockroaches and houseflies were relatively very high in dumping sites close to human population. This population has been associated with cases like dengue, malaria, dysentery, gastro and also to skin allergies during the monsoon and summer season. Thus, dumping of the huge amount of solid wastes in and near the residential areas results into serious environmental concerns, bad smell circulation, and health related issues. In some places, the same waste is burnt to get rid of mosquitoes through smoke which ultimately releases toxic material in the atmosphere. Therefore, a proper environmental strategy is needed to minimize environmental burden and promote concepts of recycled products and thus, reduce the disease burden.

Keywords: solid waste accumulation, disease burden, mosquitoes, vector borne diseases

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24 Targeting Trypanosoma brucei Using Antibody Drug Conjugates against the Transferrin Receptor

Authors: Camilla Trevor, Matthew K. Higgins, Andrea Gonzalez-Munoz, Mark Carrington

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Trypanosomiasis is a devastating disease affecting both humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. The diseases are caused by infection with African trypanosomes, protozoa transmitted by tsetse flies. Treatment currently relies on the use of chemotherapeutics with ghastly side effects. Here, we describe the development of effective antibody-drug conjugates that target the T. brucei transferrin receptor. The receptor is essential for trypanosome growth in a mammalian host but there are approximately 12 variants of the transferrin receptor in the genome. Two of the most divergent variants were used to generate recombinant monoclonal immunoglobulin G using phage display and we identified cross-reactive antibodies that bind both variants using phage ELISA, fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays and surface plasmon resonance. Fluorescent antibodies were used to demonstrate uptake into trypanosomes in culture. Toxin-conjugated antibodies were effective at killing trypanosomes at sub-nanomolar concentrations. The approach of using antibody-drug conjugates has proven highly effective.

Keywords: antibody-drug conjugates, phage display, transferrin receptor, trypanosomes

Procedia PDF Downloads 55