Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 896

Search results for: Iftikhar Ahmad

896 Reconstruction and Rejection of External Disturbances in a Dynamical System

Authors: Iftikhar Ahmad, A. Benallegue, A. El Hadri

Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed an observer for the reconstruction and a control law for the rejection application of unknown bounded external disturbance in a dynamical system. The strategy of both the observer and the controller is designed like a second order sliding mode with a proportional-integral (PI) term. Lyapunov theory is used to prove the exponential convergence and stability. Simulations results are given to show the performance of this method.

Keywords: non-linear systems, sliding mode observer, disturbance rejection, nonlinear control

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
895 Towards Development of a Framework for Saudi Education Software Ecosystem

Authors: Fazal-e-Amin, Abdullah S. Alghamdi, Iftikhar Ahmad

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Software ecosystems’ concept is an inspiration from the natural ecosystem. Software ecosystems refer to large systems developed on top of a platform composed of different components developed by different entities of that ecosystem. Ecosystems improve information access, dissemination and coordination considerably. The ability to evolve and accommodate new subsystems gives a boost to the software ecosystems. In this paper, Saudi education software ecosystem is discussed and its need and potential benefits are highlighted. This work will provide a basis for further research in this area and foundation in development of Saudi education ecosystem.

Keywords: software ecosystem, education software, framework, software engineering

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894 High-Frequency Induction Heat Sintering of Al/SiC/GNS Nanocomposites and Their Tribological Properties

Authors: Mohammad Islam, Iftikhar Ahmad, Hany S. Abdo, Yasir Khalid

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High-frequency induction heat sintering (HFIHS) is a fast, efficient powder consolidation technique. In this work, aluminum (Al) powder was mixed with silicon carbide (SiC) and/or graphene nanosheets (GNS) in different proportions and compacted using HFIHS process to produce dense nanocomposites. The nanostructures dispersion was assessed via electron microscopy using both SEM and TEM. Tribological behavior of the nanocomposites was investigated at different loads to determine wear rate and coefficient of friction. The scratch profiles were examined under the microscope to correlate wear properties with the microstructure. While the addition of SiC nanoparticles enhances microhardness values, GNS incorporation promotes dry lubricity with strikingly different wear scratch morphologies. Such Al/SiC/GNS material compositions can be explored for use in automotive brake pad and thermal management applications.

Keywords: aluminum nanocomposites, silicon carbide, graphene nanosheets, tribology

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893 Jalal-Ale-Ahmad and ‘Critical Consciousness’: A Comparative Study

Authors: Zohreh Ramin

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One of the most important contributions that Edward Said has had in the realm of critical theory is his insistence on the worldliness of the text and the critic. By this, Said meant that the critic and the text must be considered in their ‘material’ contexts. Foregrounding the substantial role of a critic as embodying what he refers to as ‘critical consciousness’, a true critic, Said maintains, is one who can stand between the ‘dominant culture’ and ‘the totalizing forms of critical systems.’ Considered as one of Iran’s major contemporary intellectuals, Jalal Ale Ahmad is responsible for introducing the idea of ‘Westoxication’ in Iran, constructing a social paradigm of the necessity to return to tradition in contemporary Iran. The present paper intends to study Al-Ahmad’s definition of the orient versus the occident, his criticism of the ‘machination’ of contemporary Iranian society, and his solution to the problem of ‘Westoxication’. The objective of this study is to see whether Ale Ahmad can be considered as embodying the spirit of ‘critical consciousness’ as described by Said as the necessary tool in the hands of an intellectual who is simultaneously attached filitavely to his culture but can detach himself affilitavely through employing critical consciousness.

Keywords: Westoxication, filiative, affiliative, machination

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892 Evaluating Antifungal Potential of Respiratory Inhibitors against Phyto-Pathogenic Fungi

Authors: Sehrish Iftikhar, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Kiran Nawaz, Waheed Anwar

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Discovery and development of new compounds require intense studies in chemistry, biochemistry. Numerous experiments under laboratory-, greenhouse- and field conditions can be performed to select suitable candidates and to understand their full potential. Novel fungicides are fundamental to combat plant diseases. Fusarium solani is important plant pathogen. New broad spectrum foliar fungicides against complex II were designed in this study. Complex II, namely succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), or succinate quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is a multi-subunit enzyme at the crossroads of TCA and ETC at the inner mitochondrial membrane. The need for new and innovative fungicides is driven by resistance management, regulatory hurdles and increasing customer expectations amongst others. Fungicidal activity was assessed for the effect on mycelial growth and spore germination of the fungi using fungicide amended media assay. In mycelial growth assay compounds C10 and C6 were highly active against all the isolates. The compounds C1 and C10 were found most potent in spore germination test. It fully proved that the SDHIs designed in this paper displayed as good inhibitory effects against Fusarium solani.

Keywords: Wilt, Fusarium, SDH, antifungal

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
891 Interfacial Investigation and Chemical Bonding in Graphene Reinforced Alumina Ceramic Nanocomposites

Authors: Iftikhar Ahmad, Mohammad Islam

Abstract:

Thermally exfoliated graphene nanomaterial was reinforced into Al2O3 ceramic and the nanocomposites were consolidated using rapid high-frequency induction heat sintering route. The resulting nanocomposites demonstrated higher mechanical properties due to efficient GNS incorporation and chemical interaction with the Al2O3 matrix grains. The enhancement in mechanical properties is attributed to (i) uniformly-dispersed GNS in the consolidated structure (ii) ability of GNS to decorate Al2O3 nanoparticles and (iii) strong GNS/Al2O3 chemical interaction during colloidal mixing and pullout/crack bridging toughening mechanisms during mechanical testing. The GNS/Al2O3 interaction during different processing stages was thoroughly examined by thermal and structural investigation of the interfacial area. The formation of an intermediate aluminum oxycarbide phase (Al2OC) via a confined carbothermal reduction reaction at the GNS/Al2O3 interface was observed using advanced electron microscopes. The GNS surface roughness improves GNS/Al2O3 mechanical locking and chemical compatibility. The sturdy interface phase facilitates efficient load transfer and delayed failure through impediment of crack propagation. The resulting nanocomposites, therefore, offer superior toughness.

Keywords: ceramics, nanocomposites, interfaces, nanostructures, electron microscopy, Al2O3

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890 Critical Discourse Analysis of Political TV Talk Show of Pakistani Media

Authors: Sumaira Saleem, Sajjad Hussain, Asma Kashif Shahzad, Hina Shaheen

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This study aims at exploring the relationship between language and ideology and how such relationships are represented in the analysis of spoken texts, following Van Dijk’s Socio Cognitive Model (2002). In this study, it is tried to show that political Talk shows broadcast by Private TV channels are working apparatuses of ideology and store meanings which are not always obvious for readers. This analysis was about the situation created by Arslan Iftkhar, the son of ex-Chief Justice of Pakistan, Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudry and PTI Chief Imran Khan. Arslan Iftikhar submitted an application against Imran Khan that he is not able to become a member of parliament of Pakistan. In the application, he demanded the documents, which are submitted by Imran Khan at the time of Election to the Election Commission of Pakistan. Murad Ali from PTI also submitted an application against PM Nawaz Sharif to the Election Commission of Pakistan for providing the copies. It also suggests that these talk shows mystify the agency of processes by using various strategies. In other words, critical text analyses reveal how these choices enable speakers to manipulate the realizations of agency and power in the representation of action to produce particular meanings which are not always explicit for all readers.

Keywords: ECP, CDA, socio cognitive model, ideology, TV channels, power

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889 Novel Hybrid Ceramic Nanocomposites Fabricated by Rapid Sintering Technology

Authors: Iftikhar Ahmad, Abulhakim Almajid

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Alumina (Al2O3) is an attractive structural ceramic however; brittleness turns Al2O3 down for advanced applications. Development of multi-phase phase ceramics systems is promising to curtail the brittleness and the incorporation of strong/elastic graphene, as third phase, into dual phase (Al2O3-SiC) is striking for mechanical upgrading purpose. Thin graphene nanosheets (GNS) were prepared by thermal exfoliation process and reinforced into dual phase ceramic system. The hybrid nanocomposite was consolidated by novel HF-IH (high-frequency induction heating) sintering furnace at 1500 °C under 50 MPa in vacuum conditions. Structural features and grain size of the resulting nanocomposite were analyzed by SEM and TEM whilst the mechanical properties were assessed by microhardness and nanoindentation techniques. The fracture toughness of the hybrid nanocomposites was appraised by direct crack measurement method. Electron microscopic investigations confirmed the preparation of thin (< 10 nm) graphene nanosheets (GNS). HF-IH sintering route condensed the three-phase (GNS-Al2O3-SiC) hybrid nanocomposite system to > 99% relative densities. SEM of the hybrid nanocomposites fractured surfaces revealed even distribution of the nanocomposite constituents and changed in fracture-mode. Structurally, 88% grain reduction into hybrid nanocomposite was also obtained. Mechanically, enhanced fracture toughness (50%) and hardness (53%) were also achieved for hybrid nanocomposites were attained against bench marked monolithic Al2O3.

Keywords: alumina, graphene, hybrid nanocomposites, rapid sintering

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888 Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Binder-free Trimetallic Phosphate Nanosheets

Authors: Iftikhar Hussain, Muhammad Ahmad, Xi Chen, Li Yuxiang

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Transition metal phosphides and phosphates are newly emerged electrode material candidates in energy storage devices. For the first time, we report uniformly distributed, interconnected, and well-aligned two-dimensional nanosheets made from trimetallic Zn-Co-Ga phosphate (ZCGP) electrode materials with preserved crystal phase. It is found that the ZCGP electrode material exhibits about 2.85 and 1.66 times higher specific capacity than mono- and bimetallic phosphate electrode materials at the same current density. The trimetallic ZCGP electrode exhibits superior conductivity, lower internal resistance (IR) drop, and high Coulombic efficiency compared to mono- and bimetallic phosphate. The charge storage mechanism is studied for mono- bi- and trimetallic electrode materials, which illustrate the diffusion-dominated battery-type behavior. By means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, ZCGP shows superior metallic conductivity due to the modified exchange splitting originating from 3d-orbitals of Co atoms in the presence of Zn and Ga. Moreover, a hybrid supercapacitor (ZCGP//rGO) device is engineered, which delivered a high energy density (ED) of 40 W h kg⁻¹ and a high-power density (PD) of 7,745 W kg⁻¹, lighting 5 different colors of light emitting diodes (LEDs). These outstanding results confirm the promising battery-type electrode materials for energy storage applications.

Keywords: trimetallic phosphate, nanosheets, DFT calculations, hybrid supercapacitor, binder-free, synergistic effect

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887 Fungicidal Evaluation of Essential Oils of Medicinal Plants for the Management of Early Blight Pathogen (Alternaria solani) in Pakistan

Authors: Sehrish Iftikhar, Kiran Nawaz, Ahmad A. Shahid, Waheed Anwar, Muhammad S. Haider

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Early blight caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer is one of the most serious foliage diseases of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). This disease causes huge crop losses and has major economic importance worldwide. The antifungal activity for three medicinal plants (Foeniculum vulgare, Syzygium aromaticum, and Eucalyptus citriodora) against Alternaria solani has been evaluated. The inhibitory potential of selected essential oils on the radial mycelial growth and germination of spore was measured in vitro at various concentrations (5%, 2.5%. 1.25%, 0.625%, and 0.312%) using agar well diffusion assay. Essential oil of E. citriodora was most effective causing 85% inhibition of mycelial growth and 88% inhibition of spore germination at 0.625% and 1.25% concentrations. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare also caused 80% and 82% inhibition of the above mentioned parameters but at double the concentrations 1.25% and 2.5%. While essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum was least effective in controlling the mycelial growth and spore germination with 76% and 77% inhibition at 1.25% and 2.5%. All the selected essential oils, especially E. citriodora, showed marked antimicrobial activity significant at higher concentration. These results suggest that the use of essential oils for the control of A. solani can reduce environmental risks related with commercial fungicides, lower cost for control, and the chances for resistance development. Additional studies are essential to evaluate the potential of essential oils as natural treatments for this disease.

Keywords: clove, essential oils, fennel, potato

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886 Growth Response of the Fry of Major and Chinese Carp to the Dietary Ingredients in Polyculture System

Authors: Anjum-Zubair, Muhammad, Muhammad Shoaib Alam, Muhammad Samee Mubarik, Iftikhar Ahmad

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The aim of present research was to evaluate the effect of dietary protein (soybean) formulated feed on the growth performance of carp fish seed (Rohu, Mori, Grass, and Gulfam) in ponds under polyculture system. Keeping in view the protein requirements of these four carps, they were fed with formulated feed contains 30% of crude protein. The fingerlings were fed once on daily basis at 5% of their wet body weight. A 90 days experiment was conducted in two cemented ponds situated at Fish Seed Hatchery and Research Centre, Rawal Town, Islamabad, Pakistan. Pond1 contain major carps i.e. Rohu and Mori while pond 2 was stocked with Chinese carps i.e. Grass carp and Gulfam. Random sampling of five individuals of each species was done fortnightly to measure the body weight and total body length. Maximum growth was observed in fingerling of Grass carp followed by Mori, Rohu and Gulfam. Total fish production was recorded as Grass 623.45 gm followed by Mori 260.3 gm, Rohu 243.08 gm and Gulfam 181.165 gm respectively. Significantly results were obtained among these four fish species when the corresponding data was subjected to statistical analysis by using two sample t-test. The survival rate was 100%. Study shows that soybean as plant based protein can be easily used as substitute to fish meal without any adverse effect on fish health and fish production.

Keywords: carps, fry growth, poly culture, soybean meal

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885 Body Mass Hurts Adolescent Girls More than Thin-Ideal Images

Authors: Javaid Marium, Ahmad Iftikhar

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This study was aimed to identify factors that affect negative mood and body image dissatisfaction in women. positive and negative affect, self esteem, body image satisfaction and figure rating scale was administered to 97 female undergraduate students. This served as a base line data for correlation analysis in the first instance. One week later participants who volunteered to appear in the second phase of the study (N=47) were shown thin- ideal images as an intervention and soon after they completed positive and negative affect schedule and body image states scale again as a post test. Results indicated body mass as a strong negative predictor of body image dis/satisfaction, self esteem was a moderate predictor and mood was not a significant predictor. The participants whose actual body shape was markedly discrepant with the ideally desired body shape had significantly low level of body image satisfaction (p < .001) than those with low discrepancy. Similar results were found for self esteem (p < .004). Both self esteem and body mass predicted body satisfaction about equally and significantly. However, on viewing thin-ideal images, the participants of different body weight showed no change in their body image satisfaction than before. Only the overweight participants were significantly affected on negative mood as a short term reaction after viewing the thin ideal images. Comparing the three groups based on their body mass, one-way ANOVA revealed significant difference on negative mood as well as body image satisfaction. This reveals body mass as a potent and stable factor that consistently and strongly affected body satisfaction not the transient portrayal of thin ideal images.

Keywords: body image satisfaction, thin-ideal images, media, mood affects, self esteem

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884 A Study of the Formation, Existence and Stability of Localised Pulses in PDE

Authors: Ayaz Ahmad

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TOPIC: A study of the formation ,existness and stability of localised pulses in pde Ayaz Ahmad ,NITP, Abstract:In this paper we try to govern the evolution deterministic variable over space and time .We analysis the behaviour of the model which allows us to predict and understand the possible behaviour of the physical system .Bifurcation theory provides a basis to systematically investigate the models for invariant sets .Exploring the behaviour of PDE using bifurcation theory which provides many challenges both numerically and analytically. We use the derivation of a non linear partial differential equation which may be written in this form ∂u/∂t+c ∂u/∂x+∈(∂^3 u)/(∂x^3 )+¥u ∂u/∂x=0 We show that the temperature increased convection cells forms. Through our work we look for localised solution which are characterised by sudden burst of aeroidic spatio-temporal evolution. Key word: Gaussian pulses, Aeriodic ,spatio-temporal evolution ,convection cells, nonlinearoptics, Dr Ayaz ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Mathematics National institute of technology Patna ,Bihar,,India 800005 [email protected] +91994907553

Keywords: Gaussian pulses, aeriodic, spatio-temporal evolution, convection cells, nonlinear optics

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883 Multi-Criteria Bid/No Bid Decision Support Framework for General Contractors: A Case of Pakistan

Authors: Nida Iftikhar, Jamaluddin Thaheem, Bilal Iftikhar

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In the construction industry, adequate and effective decision-making can mean the difference between success and failure. Bidding is the most important element of the construction business since it is a mean by which contractors obtain work. This is probably the only option for any contractor firm to sustain in the market and achieve its objective of earning the profits by winning tenders. The capability to select most appropriate ventures not only defines the success and wellbeing of contractor firms but also their survival and sustainability in the industry. The construction practitioners are usually on their own when it comes to deciding on bidding for a project or not. Usually, experience-based solutions are offered where a lot of subjectivity is involved. This research has been opted considering the local construction industry of Pakistan in order to examine the critical success factors from contractors’ perspective while making bidding decisions, listing and evaluating critical factors in order of their importance, categorization of these factors into decision support & decision oppose groups and to develop a framework to help contractors in the decision-making process. Literature review, questionnaires, and structured interviews are used for identification and quantification of factors affecting bid/no bid decision-making. Statistical methods of ranking analysis and analytical hierarchy process of multi-criteria decision-making method are used for analysis. It is found that profitability, need for work and financial health of client are the most decisive factors in bid/no bid decision-making while project size, project type, fulfilling the tender conditions imposed by the client and relationship, identity & reputation of the client are least impact factors in bid/no bid decision-making. Further, to verify the developed framework, case studies have been conducted to evaluate the bid/no bid decision-making in building procurement. This is the first of its nature study in the context of the local construction industry and recommends using a holistic decision-making framework for such business-critical deliberations.

Keywords: bidding, bid decision-making, construction procurement, contractor

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882 Automated Localization of Palpebral Conjunctiva and Hemoglobin Determination Using Smart Phone Camera

Authors: Faraz Tahir, M. Usman Akram, Albab Ahmad Khan, Mujahid Abbass, Ahmad Tariq, Nuzhat Qaiser

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the Degree of anemia by taking the picture of the palpebral conjunctiva using Smartphone Camera. We have first localized the region of interest from the image and then extracted certain features from that Region of interest and trained SVM classifier on those features and then, as a result, our system classifies the image in real-time on their level of hemoglobin. The proposed system has given an accuracy of 70%. We have trained our classifier on a locally gathered dataset of 30 patients.

Keywords: anemia, palpebral conjunctiva, SVM, smartphone

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881 Parallel Hybrid Honeypot and IDS Architecture to Detect Network Attacks

Authors: Hafiz Gulfam Ahmad, Chuangdong Li, Zeeshan Ahmad

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In this paper, we proposed a parallel IDS and honeypot based approach to detect and analyze the unknown and known attack taxonomy for improving the IDS performance and protecting the network from intruders. The main theme of our approach is to record and analyze the intruder activities by using both the low and high interaction honeypots. Our architecture aims to achieve the required goals by combing signature based IDS, honeypots and generate the new signatures. The paper describes the basic component, design and implementation of this approach and also demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach reducing the probability of network attacks.

Keywords: network security, intrusion detection, honeypot, snort, nmap

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880 Controlled Size Synthesis of ZnO and PEG-ZnO NPs and Their Biological Evaluation

Authors: Mahnoor Khan, Bashir Ahmad, Khizar Hayat, Saad Ahmad Khan, Laiba Ahmad, Shumaila Bashir, Abid Ali Khan

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The objective of this study was to synthesize the smallest possible size of ZnO NPs using a modified wet chemical synthesis method and to prepare core shell using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as shell material. Advanced and sophisticated techniques were used to confirm the synthesis, size, and shape of these NPs. Rounded, clustered NPs of size 5.343 nm were formed. Both the plain and core shell NPs were tested against MDR bacteria (E. cloacae, E. amnigenus, Shigella, S. odorifacae, Citrobacter, and E. coli). Both of the NPs showed excellent antibacterial properties, whereas E. cloacae showed maximum zone of inhibition of 16 mm, 27 mm, and 32 mm for 500 μg/ml, 1000 μg/ml, and 1500 μg/ml, respectively for plain ZnO NPs and 18 mm, 28 mm and 35 mm for 500 μg/ml, 1000 μg/ml and 1500 μg/ml for core shell NPs. These NPs were also biocompatible on human red blood cells showing little hemolysis of only 4% for 70 μg/ml for plain NPs and 1.5% for 70 μg/ml for core shell NPs. Core shell NPs were highly biocompatible because of the PEG. Their therapeutic effect as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer treatment was also monitored. The cytotoxicity of ZnO and PEG-ZnO was evaluated using MTT assay. Our results demonstrated that these NPs could generate ROS inside tumor cells after irradiation which in turn initiates an apoptotic pathway leading to cell death hence proving to be an effective candidate for PDT.

Keywords: ZnO, hemolysis, cytotoxiciy assay, photodynamic therapy, antibacterial

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879 Biocontrol Potential of Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria against Root Rot of Chili and Enhancement of Plant Growth

Authors: Kiran Nawaz, Waheed Anwar, Sehrish Iftikhar, Muhammad Nasir Subhani, Ahmad Ali Shahid

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Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been extensively studied and applied for the biocontrol of many soilborne diseases. These rhizobacteria are very efficient against root rot and many other foliar diseases associated with solanaceous plants. These bacteria may inhibit the growth of various pathogens through direct inhibition of target pathogens or indirectly by the initiation of systemic resistance (ISR) which is active all over the complete plant. In the present study, 20 different rhizobacterial isolates were recovered from the root zone of healthy chili plants. All soil samples were collected from various chili-growing areas in Punjab. All isolated rhizobacteria species were evaluated in vitro and in vivo against Phytophthora capsici. Different species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas were tested for the antifungal activity against P. capsici the causal organism of Root rot disease in different crops together with chili. Dual culture and distance culture bioassay were carried out to study the antifungal potential of volatile and diffusible metabolites secreted from rhizobacteria. After seven days of incubation at 22°C, growth inhibition rate was recorded. Growth inhibition rate depended greatly on the tested bacteria and screening methods used. For diffusible metabolites, inhibition rate was 35-62% and 20-45% for volatile metabolites. The screening assay for plant growth promoting and disease inhibition potential of chili associated PGPR indicated 42-100% reduction in disease severity and considerable enhancement in roots fresh weight by 55-87%, aerial parts fresh weight by 35-65% and plant height by 65-76% as compared to untreated control and pathogen-inoculated plants. Pseudomonas flourescene, B. thuringiensis, and B. subtilis were found to be the most efficient isolates in inhibiting P. capsici radial growth, increase plant growth and suppress disease severity.

Keywords: rhizobacteria, chili, phytophthora, root rot

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878 Sirhindi Family's Islamic Movements in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Nasurullah Qureshi

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Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi Mujadid Alif Thani (1564-1624) and his philosophy had influenced sub-continent as the whole; its rulers and nation. In his reign, he convinced the rulers toward Islamic way of life and succeed in his goal. After his death in 1624, his family consecutively produced prominent scholars to present. Some of them moved to Afghanistan and Pakistan's cities i.e., Jalalabad, Qandhar, Peshawar, Queta, Shikarpur, Hyderabad, and Sehwan. They played a vital role in their areas and transmitted spiritual and legal Islamic teachings to people. This research is aimed to elaborate efforts of the family's Sindh settled branch from 1898-present in fields of politics and Islamic education. Their link with Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi will be provided in the introduction. After that, the work will explain their scholarly published work briefly in different fields of Islamic studies such as Quran exegeses and its translation in Sindhi language, Hadith and its sciences, Islamic Jurisprudence, Sufism and etc. In addition, their political role will be briefly discussed in the research throughout the period, especially their noticeable role in the separate homeland for Muslims in the subcontinent. Furthermore, the impact of their scholarly work, political influence and spirituality will be enlightened. Lastly, the research will present the critical viewpoint on their struggle.

Keywords: Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi, Sirhindi scholars, Sindh, Sufism

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877 Application of Facilities Management Practice in High Rise Commercial Properties: Jos in Perpective

Authors: Aliyu Ahmad Aliyu, Abubakar Ahmad, Muhammad Umar Bello, Rozilah Kasim, David Martin

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The article studied the application of facilities management practice in high rise commercial properties. Convenience sampling technique was used in administering questionnaires to the 60 respondents who responded to the survey. It was found out that the extent of application of facilities management in the subject properties is better described as below average. Similarly, the most frequently tools of facilities management in use and employed in the properties were outsourcing and in-house sourcing. This was influenced by the level of their familiarity with the tools. Planned and Preventive maintenance should be taken regularly in other to enhance the effectiveness of the facilities management and to satisfy both the owner and customers of the organization.

Keywords: commercial properties, facilities management, high-rise buildings, Jos metropolis and outsourcing

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876 Modular Harmonic Cancellation in a Multiplier High Voltage Direct Current Generator

Authors: Ahmad Zahran, Ahmed Herzallah, Ahmad Ahmad, Mahran Quraan

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Generation of high DC voltages is necessary for testing the insulation material of high voltage AC transmission lines with long lengths. The harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage supplied by high voltage DC circuits require the use of costly capacitors to smooth the output voltage after rectification. This paper proposes a new modular multiplier high voltage DC generator with embedded Cockcroft-Walton circuits that achieve a negligible harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage without the need for costly filters to produce a nearly constant output voltage. In this new topology, Cockcroft-Walton modules are connected in series to produce a high DC output voltage. The modules are supplied by low input AC voltage sources that have the same magnitude and frequency and shifted from each other by a certain angle to eliminate the harmonics from the output voltage. The small ripple factor is provided by the smoothing column capacitors and the phase shifted input voltages of the cascaded modules. The constituent harmonics within each module are determined using Fourier analysis. The viability of the proposed DC generator for testing purposes and the effectiveness of the cascaded connection are confirmed by numerical simulations using MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: Cockcroft-Walton circuit, harmonics, ripple factor, HVDC generator

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875 Assessment of Solid Insulating Material Using Partial Discharge Characteristics

Authors: Qasim Khan, Furkan Ahmad, Asfar A. Khan, M. Saad Alam, Faiz Ahmad

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In this paper, partial discharge analysis is performed in cavities artificially created in insulation. The setup is according with Cigre-II Method. Circular Samples created from Perspex Sheet with different configuration with changing number of cavities. Assessment of insulation health can be performed by Partial Discharge measurement as this has been found to be important means of condition monitoring. The experiments are done using MPD 540, which is a modern partial discharge measurement system. By analyzing the PD activity obtained for various voids/cavities, it is observed that the PD voltages show variation for cavity’s diameter, depth even for its ratios. This can be employed for scrutiny of insulation system.

Keywords: partial discharges, condition monitoring, insulation defects, degradation and corrosion, PMMA

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874 Case Study of Child Labour in Pakistan

Authors: Ahmad Ali Ansari, Hassan Arshad, Basharat Hussani, Adnan Raza, Ahmad Ali Khan

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Child labor is a kind of an issue which was found all over the world, but now the first world countries like countries in Europe and America (USA) got hold of it up to a large extent but Underdeveloped or the developing countries including Pakistan are still a victim of this issue. The following attempt has been made in this research article to figure out the main reasons of child labor in underdeveloped countries especially in Pakistan and also some of the issues are discussed which are hindering the solution of child labor in Pakistan. In this research we interviewed 70 working children in the area of Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Taxila and Hatar who belonged to the different parts of the country and figured out the basic causes of the child labor in Pakistan, what are its bad effects on the young one who is a victim of it and we also put a light on what the government of Pakistan is doing in this context and what the government still have to do.

Keywords: child labour, Pakistan, case study, underdeveloped countries

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873 Design of a Universal Wireless Battery Charger

Authors: Ahmad B. Musamih, Ahmad A. Albloushi, Ahmed H. Alshemeili, Abdulaziz Y. Alfili, Ala A. Hussien

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This paper proposes a universal wireless battery charger design for portable electronic devices. As the number of portable electronics devices increases, the demand for more flexible and reliable charging techniques is becoming more urgent. A wireless battery charger differs from a traditional charger in the way the power transferred to the battery. In the latter, the power is transferred through electrical wires that connect the charger terminals to the battery terminals, while in the former; the power is transferred by induction without electrical connections. With a detection algorithm that detects the battery size and chemistry, the proposed charger will be able to accommodate a wide range of applications, and will allow a more flexible and reliable option to most of today’s portable electronics.

Keywords: efficiency, magnetically-coupled resonators, resonance frequency, wireless power transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
872 Cubic Trigonometric B-Spline Approach to Numerical Solution of Wave Equation

Authors: Shazalina Mat Zin, Ahmad Abd. Majid, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail, Muhammad Abbas

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The generalized wave equation models various problems in sciences and engineering. In this paper, a new three-time level implicit approach based on cubic trigonometric B-spline for the approximate solution of wave equation is developed. The usual finite difference approach is used to discretize the time derivative while cubic trigonometric B-spline is applied as an interpolating function in the space dimension. Von Neumann stability analysis is used to analyze the proposed method. Two problems are discussed to exhibit the feasibility and capability of the method. The absolute errors and maximum error are computed to assess the performance of the proposed method. The results were found to be in good agreement with known solutions and with existing schemes in literature.

Keywords: collocation method, cubic trigonometric B-spline, finite difference, wave equation

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871 Ceratocystis manginecans Causal Agent of a Destructive Mangoes in Pakistan

Authors: Asma Rashid, Shazia Iram, Iftikhar Ahmad

Abstract:

Mango sudden death is an emerging problem in Pakistan. As its prevalence is observed in almost all mango growing areas and severity varied from 2-5% in Punjab and 5-10% in Sindh. Symptoms on affected trees include bark splitting, discoloration of the vascular tissue, wilting, gummosis and at the end rapid death. Total of n= 45 isolates were isolated from different mango growing areas of Punjab and Sindh. Pathogenicity of these fungal isolates was tested through artificial inoculation method on different hosts (potato tubers, detached mango leaves, detached mango twigs and mango plants) under controlled conditions and all were proved pathogenic with varying degree of aggressiveness in reference to control. The findings of the present study proved that out of these four methods, potato tubers inoculation method was the most ideal as this fix the inoculums on the target site. Increased fungal growth and spore numbers may be due to soft tissues of potato tubers from which Ceratocystis isolates can easily pass. Lesion area on potato tubers was in the range of 7.09-0.14 cm2 followed by detached mango twigs which were ranged from 0.48-0.09 cm2). All pathological results were proved highly significant at P<0.05 through ANOVA but isolate to isolate showed non-significant behaviour but they have the positive effect on lesion area. Re-isolation of respective fungi was achieved with 100 percent success which results in the verification of Koch’s postulates. DNA of fungal pathogens was successfully extracted through phenol chloroform method. Amplification was done through ITS, b-tubulin gene, and Transcription Elongation Factor (EF1-a) gene primers and the amplified amplicons were sequenced and compared from NCBI which showed 99-100 % similarity with Ceratocystis manginecans. Fungus Ceratocystis manginecans formed one of strongly supported sub-clades through phylogenetic tree. Results obtained through this work would be supportive in establishment of relation of isolates with their region and will give information about pathogenicity level of isolates that would be useful to develop the management policies to reduce the afflictions in orchards caused by mango sudden death.

Keywords: artificial inoculation, mango, Ceratocystis manginecans, phylogenetic, screening

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870 Study on Developmental and Pathogenesis Related Genes Expression Deregulation in Brassica compestris Infected with 16Sr-IX Associated Phytoplasma

Authors: Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad, Samia Yasin, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Tahir, Jam Nazeer Ahmad

Abstract:

Phytoplasmas are phloem-inhibited plant pathogenic bacteria that are transferred by insect vectors. Among biotic factors, Phytoplasma infection induces abnormality influencing the physiology as well as morphology of plants. In 16Sr-IX group phytoplasma-infected brassica compestris, flower abnormalities have been associated with changes in the expression of floral development genes. To determine whether methylation was involved in down-regulation of flower development, the process of DNA methylation and Demethylation was investigated as a possible mechanism for regulation of floral gene expression in phytoplasma infected Brassica transmitted by Orosious orientalis vector by using RT-PCR, MSRE-PCR, Southern blotting, Bisulfite Sequencing, etc. Transcriptional expression of methylated genes was found to be globally down-regulated in plants infected with phytoplasma, but not severely in those infested by insect vectors and variation in expression was found in genes involved in methylation. These results also showed that genes particularly orthologous to Arabidopsis APETALA3 involved in petal formation and flower development was down-regulated severely in phytoplasma-infected brassica and with the fact that phytoplasma and insect induce variation in developmental gene expression. The DNA methylation status of flower developmental gene in phytoplasma infected plants with 5-azacytidine restored gene expression strongly suggesting that DNA methylation was involved in down-regulation of floral development genes in phytoplasma infected brassica.

Keywords: genes expression, phytoplasma, DNA methylation, flower development

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869 Efficacy of Different Soil-Applied Fungicides to Manage Phytophthora Root Rot of Chili (Solanum annum) in Pakistan

Authors: Kiran Nawaz, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Sehrish Iftikhar, Waheed Anwar, Muhammad Nasir Subhani

Abstract:

Chili (Solanum annum L.) attacks by many fungal pathogens, including members of Oomycetes which are responsible for root rot in different chili growing areas of the world. Oomycetes pathogens cause economic losses in different regions of the Pakistan. Most of the plant tissues, including roots, crowns, fruit, and leaves, are vulnerable to Phytophthora capsici. It is very difficult to manage the Phytophthora root rot of chili as many commercial varieties are tremendously vulnerable to P. capsici. The causal agent of the disease was isolated on corn meal agar (CMA) and identified on a morphological basis by using available taxonomic keys. The pathogen was also confirmed on the molecular basis through internal transcribed spacer region and with other molecular markers.The Blastn results showed 100% homology with already reported sequences of P. capsici in NCBI database. Most of the farmers have conventionally relied on foliar fungicide applications to control Phytophthora root rot in spite of their incomplete effectiveness. In this study, in vitro plate assay, seed soaking and foliar applications of 6 fungicides were evaluated against root rot of chili. In vitro assay revealed that significant inhibition of linear growth was obtained with Triflumizole at 7.0%, followed by Thiophanate methyl (8.9%), Etridiazole (6.0%), Propamocarb (5.9%) and 7.5% with Mefenoxam and Iprodione for P. capsici. The promising treatments of in vitro plate bioassay were evaluated in pot experiments under controlled conditions in the greenhouse. All fungicides were applied after at 6-day intervals. Results of pot experiment showed that all treatments considerably inhibited the percentage of P. capsici root rot incidence. In addition, application of seed soaking with all six fungicides combined with the foliar spray of the same components showed the significant reduction in root rot incidence. The combine treatments of all fungicides as in vitro bioassay, seed soaking followed by foliar spray is considered non-harmful control methods which have advantages and limitation. Hence, these applications proved effective and harmless for the management of soil-borne plant pathogens.

Keywords: blastn, bioassay, corn meal agar(CMA), oomycetes

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868 Effect of Bull Exposure on Post-Partum Estrus Interval in Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

Authors: Muhammad Saleem Akhtar, Mushtaq Hussain Lashari, Ejaz Ahmad, Tanveer Ahmad, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi, Ijaz Ahmad, Masood Akhtar

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of bull exposure continuously or intermittently or its excretory products after calving on postpartum interval to estrus, in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Forty-eight buffaloes of Nili-Ravi breed were allocated one of the four treatments in a totally randomized plan using a 4 x 1 factorial design. The four treatment groups were BEC (Bull Exposed Continuously), BEI (Bull Exposed Intermittently), EPB (Excretory Products of Bull) and BNE (Bull Not Exposed). BEC; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed continuously to the physical presence of a bull whereas in BEI; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed intermittently to the physical presence of bull. EPB; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed to discharge waste (urine and feces) of bull and BNE buffaloes (n = 12) were not exposed to a bull or discharge waste of bulls. Buffaloes were exposed on day 15 after parturition. Day 15 postpartum represented d 0 for each treatment. The postpartum interval from calving to first behavioural estrus was 66.88 days in BEC, 75.12 days in BEI, 77.28 days in EPB and 76.5 days in BNE treatments. Postpartum interval to first behavioural estrus was shorter in BEC than BEI, EPB, and BNE treatments. There was no significant difference in postpartum interval to estrus between BEI, EPB and BNE treatments. In present study, the percentage of buffaloes showing estrus during experimental period was 75.0%, 66.66%, 66.66% and 58.33% in BEC, BEI, EPB and BNE treatments, respectively. The mean serum progesterone concentration did not differ significantly between BEC and other (BEI, EPB, and BNE) treatments. It was concluded that presence of bull has positive effect in reducing calving interval in Nili Ravi buffalo.

Keywords: calving interval, biostimulation, buffalo, bull exposure

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
867 Application of Granular Computing Paradigm in Knowledge Induction

Authors: Iftikhar U. Sikder

Abstract:

This paper illustrates an application of granular computing approach, namely rough set theory in data mining. The paper outlines the formalism of granular computing and elucidates the mathematical underpinning of rough set theory, which has been widely used by the data mining and the machine learning community. A real-world application is illustrated, and the classification performance is compared with other contending machine learning algorithms. The predictive performance of the rough set rule induction model shows comparative success with respect to other contending algorithms.

Keywords: concept approximation, granular computing, reducts, rough set theory, rule induction

Procedia PDF Downloads 439