Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 406

Search results for: electromagnetic

406 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Characteristics for Stainless Wire Mesh and Number of Plies of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

Authors: Min Sang Lee, Hee Jae Shin, In Pyo Cha, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Seong Woo Hong, Min Jae Yu, Hong Gun Kim, Lee Ku Kwac


In this paper, the electromagnetic shielding characteristics of an up-to-date typical carbon filler material, carbon fiber used with a metal mesh were investigated. Carbon fiber 12k-prepregs, where carbon fibers were impregnated with epoxy, were laminated with wire meshes, vacuum bag-molded and hardened to manufacture hybrid-type specimens, with which an electromagnetic shield test was performed in accordance with ASTM D4935-10, through which was known as the most excellent reproducibility is obtainable among electromagnetic shield tests. In addition, glass fiber prepress whose electromagnetic shielding effect were known as insignificant were laminated and formed with wire meshes to verify the validity of the electromagnetic shield effect of wire meshes in order to confirm the electromagnetic shielding effect of metal meshes corresponding existing carbon fiber 12k-prepregs. By grafting carbon fibers, on which studies are being actively underway in the environmental aspects and electromagnetic shielding effect, with hybrid-type wire meshes that were analyzed through the tests, in this study, the applicability and possibility are proposed.

Keywords: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic(CFRP), Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic(GFRP), stainless wire mesh, electromagnetic shielding

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405 Electromagnetic Radiation Absorbers on the Basis of Fibrous Materials with the Content of Allotropic Carbon Forms

Authors: Elena S. Belousova, Olga V. Boiprav


A technique for incorporating particles of allotropic forms of carbon into a fibrous material has been developed. It can be used for the manufacture of composite electromagnetic radiation absorbers. The frequency characteristics of electromagnetic radiation reflection and transmission coefficients in the microwave range of absorbers on the basis of powdered carbon black, activated carbon, shungite, graphite, manufactured in accordance with the developed technique, have been studied.

Keywords: carbon, graphite, electromagnetic radiation absorber, shungite

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
404 Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Capacitive Deionization Performance

Authors: Alibi Kilybay, Emad Alhseinat, Ibrahim Mustafa, Abdulfahim Arangadi, Pei Shui, Faisal Almarzooqi


In this work, the electromagnetic field has been used for improving the performance of the capacitive deionization process. The effect of electromagnetic fields on the efficiency of the capacitive deionization (CDI) process was investigated experimentally. The results showed that treating the feed stream of the CDI process using an electromagnetic field can enhance the electrosorption capacity from 20% up to 70%. The effect of the degree of time of exposure, concentration, and type of ions have been examined. The electromagnetic field enhanced the salt adsorption capacity (SAC) of the Ca²⁺ ions by 70%, while the SAC enhanced 20% to the Na⁺ ions. It is hypnotized that the electrometric field affects the hydration shell around the ions and thus reduces their effective size and enhances the mass transfer. This reduction in ion effective size and increase in mass transfer enhanced the electrosorption capacity and kinetics of the CDI process.

Keywords: capacitive deionization, desalination, electromagnetic treatment, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
403 Electromagnetic Simulation of Underground Cable Perforation by Nail

Authors: Ahmed Nour El Islam Ayad, Tahar Rouibah, Wafa Krika, Houari Boudjella, Larab Moulay, Farid Benhamida, Selma Benmoussa


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the electromagnetic field of an underground cable of very high voltage perforated by nail. The aim of this work shows a numerical simulation of the electromagnetic field of 400 kV line after perforation through a ferrous nail in four positions for the pinch pin at different distances. From results for a longitudinal section, we observe and evaluate the distribution and the variation of the electromagnetic field in the cable and the earth. When the nail approaches the underground power cable, the distribution of the magnetic field changes and takes several forms, the magnetic field increase and become very important when the nail breaks the metal screen and will produce a significant leak of the electric field, characterized by a large electric arc and or electric discharge to earth and then a fault in the electrical network. These electromagnetic analysis results help to detect defects in underground cables.

Keywords: underground, electromagnetic, nail, defect

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
402 Enhancement Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Separation of Edible Oil from Oil-Water Emulsion

Authors: Olfat A. Fadali, Mohamed S. Mahmoud, Omnia H. Abdelraheem, Shimaa G. Mohammed


The effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) on the removal of edible oil from oil-in-water emulsion by means of electrocoagulation was investigated in rectangular batch electrochemical cell with DC current. Iron (Fe) plate anodes and stainless steel cathodes were employed as electrodes. The effect of different magnetic field intensities (1.9, 3.9 and 5.2 tesla), three different positions of EMF (below, perpendicular and parallel to the electrocoagulation cell), as well as operating time; had been investigated. The application of electromagnetic field (5.2 tesla) raises percentage of oil removal from 72.4% for traditional electrocoagulation to 90.8% after 20 min.

Keywords: electrocoagulation, electromagnetic field, Oil-water emulsion, edible oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
401 Characterization of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Created by Multiple Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

Authors: Clement Temaneh-Nyah, Josiah Makiche, Josephine Nujoma


This paper considers the characterisation of a complex electromagnetic environment due to multiple sources of electromagnetic radiation as a five-dimensional surface which can be described by a set of several surface sections including: instant EM field intensity distribution maps at a given frequency and altitude, instantaneous spectrum at a given location in space and the time evolution of the electromagnetic field spectrum at a given point in space. This characterization if done over time can enable the exposure levels of Radio Frequency Radiation at every point in the analysis area to be determined and results interpreted based on comparison of the determined RFR exposure level with the safe guidelines for general public exposure given by recognised body such as the International commission on non-ionising radiation protection (ICNIRP), Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), the National Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA).

Keywords: complex electromagnetic environment, electric field strength, mathematical models, multiple sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
400 Soil Salinity Mapping using Electromagnetic Induction Measurements

Authors: Fethi Bouksila, Nessrine Zemni, Fairouz Slama, Magnus Persson, Ronny Berndasson, Akissa Bahri


Electromagnetic sensor EM 38 was used to predict and map soil salinity (ECe) in arid oasis. Despite the high spatial variation of soil moisture and shallow watertable, significant ECe-EM relationships were developed. The low drainage network efficiency is the main factor of soil salinization

Keywords: soil salinity map, electromagnetic induction, EM38, oasis, shallow watertable

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
399 A Fast Algorithm for Electromagnetic Compatibility Estimation for Radio Communication Network Equipment in a Complex Electromagnetic Environment

Authors: C. Temaneh-Nyah


Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is the ability of a Radio Communication Equipment (RCE) to operate with a desired quality of service in a given Electromagnetic Environment (EME) and not to create harmful interference with other RCE. This paper presents an algorithm which improves the simulation speed of estimating EMC of RCE in a complex EME, based on a stage by stage frequency-energy criterion of filtering. This algorithm considers different interference types including: Blocking and intermodulation. It consist of the following steps: simplified energy criterion where filtration is based on comparing the free space interference level to the industrial noise, frequency criterion which checks whether the interfering emissions characteristic overlap with the receiver’s channels characteristic and lastly the detailed energy criterion where the real channel interference level is compared to the noise level. In each of these stages, some interference cases are filtered out by the relevant criteria. This reduces the total number of dual and different combinations of RCE involved in the tedious detailed energy analysis and thus provides an improved simulation speed.

Keywords: electromagnetic compatibility, electromagnetic environment, simulation of communication network

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
398 Design of Process Parameters in Electromagnetic Forming Apparatus by FEM

Authors: Hyeong-Gyu Park, Hak-Gon Noh, Beom-Soo Kang, Jeong Kim


Electromagnetic forming (EMF) process is one of a high-speed forming process, which uses an electromagnetic body (Lorentz) force to deform work-piece. Advantages of EMF are summarized as improvement of formability, reduction in wrinkling, non-contact forming. In this study, the spiral coil is considered to evaluate formability in terms of pressure distribution of the forming process. It also is represented forming results of numerical analysis using ANSYS code. In the numerical simulation, RLC circuit coupled with spiral coil was made to consider the design parameters such as system input current and electromagnetic force. The simulation results show that even though input peak currents level are same level in each case, forming condition is certainly different because of frequency of input current and magnitude of current density and magnetic flux density. Finally, the simulation results appear that electromagnetic forming force apparently affected by input current frequency which determines magnitude of current density and magnetic flux density.

Keywords: electromagnetic forming, high-speed forming, RLC circuit, Lorentz force

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
397 Application of MoM-GEC Method for Electromagnetic Study of Planar Microwave Structures: Shielding Application

Authors: Ahmed Nouainia, Mohamed Hajji, Taoufik Aguili


In this paper, an electromagnetic analysis is presented for describing the influence of shielding in a rectangular waveguide. A hybridization based on the method of moments combined to the generalized equivalent circuit MoM-GEC is used to model the problem. This is validated by applying the MoM-GEC hybridization to investigate a diffraction structure. It consists of electromagnetic diffraction by an iris in a rectangular waveguide. Numerical results are shown and discussed and a comparison with FEM and Marcuvitz methods is achieved.

Keywords: method MoM-GEC, waveguide, shielding, equivalent circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
396 Improvement of the Calciferous Minerals Floatability through the Application of High-Power Electromagnetic Pulses

Authors: Valentine A. Chanturiya, Igor Zh. Bunin, Maria V. Ryazantseva


The modification of structural and chemical properties of fluorite, scheelite and calcite under the impact of high-power electromagnetic pulses (HPEMP-treatment) were studied with the help of adsorption of acid-base indicators and atomic – force microscopy (AFM). The HPEMP-treatment during the space of 30 seconds resulted in the intensification of fluorite surface the electron-donating ability and acceptor properties of calcite and scheelite surfaces. High-power electromagnetic treatment of the single minerals resulted in the improvement of the calciferous minerals floatability. The rising of the scheelite recovery is 10 – 12%, fluorite – 5 – 6%, calcite – 7 – 8%.

Keywords: calcite, fluorite, scheelite, high power electromagnetic pulses, floatability

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
395 Electromagnetic Tuned Mass Damper Approach for Regenerative Suspension

Authors: S. Kopylov, C. Z. Bo


This study is aimed at exploring the possibility of energy recovery through the suppression of vibrations. The article describes design of electromagnetic dynamic damper. The magnetic part of the device performs the function of a tuned mass damper, thereby providing both energy regeneration and damping properties to the protected mass. According to the theory of tuned mass damper, equations of mathematical models were obtained. Then, under given properties of current system, amplitude frequency response was investigated. Therefore, main ideas and methods for further research were defined.

Keywords: electromagnetic damper, oscillations with two degrees of freedom, regeneration systems, tuned mass damper

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
394 Absorption of Ultrashort Electromagnetic Pulses on Gold Nanospheres in Various Dielectric Media

Authors: Sergey Svita, Valeriy Astapenko


The study is devoted to theoretical analysis of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses (USP) absorption on gold nanospheres. Dependencies of USP energy absorption on nanospheres placed in various matrix are compared. The results of calculation of absorbed energy on gold nanospheres as a function of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse carrier frequency and number of pulse cycles of carrier frequency show strong non-linear dependence of absorbed energy on number of cycles of carrier frequency, but for relatively large number of cycles on USP carrier frequency it goes to linear dependence.

Keywords: ultrashort electromagnetic pulses, absorption, nanospheres, theoretical research

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
393 Tamper Resistance Evaluation Tests with Noise Resources

Authors: Masaya Yoshikawa, Toshiya Asai, Ryoma Matsuhisa, Yusuke Nozaki, Kensaku Asahi


Recently, side-channel attacks, which estimate secret keys using side-channel information such as power consumption and compromising emanations of cryptography circuits embedded in hardware, have become a serious problem. In particular, electromagnetic analysis attacks against cryptographic circuits between information processing and electromagnetic fields, which are related to secret keys in cryptography circuits, are the most threatening side-channel attacks. Therefore, it is important to evaluate tamper resistance against electromagnetic analysis attacks for cryptography circuits. The present study performs basic examination of the tamper resistance of cryptography circuits using electromagnetic analysis attacks with noise resources.

Keywords: tamper resistance, cryptographic circuit, hardware security evaluation, noise resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
392 The Regulation on Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields for Brazilian Power System

Authors: Hugo Manoel Olivera Da Silva, Ricardo Silva Thé Pontes


In this work, is presented an analysis of the Brazilian regulation on human exposure to electromagnetic fields, which provides limits to electric fields, magnetic and electromagnetic fields. The regulations for the electricity sector was in charge of the Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica-ANEEL, the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency, that made it through the Normative Resolution Nº 398/2010, resulting in a series of obligations for the agents of the electricity sector, especially in the areas of generation, transmission, and distribution.

Keywords: adverse effects, electric energy, electric and magnetic fields, human health, regulation

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391 A Novel Method For Non-Invasive Diagnosis Of Hepatitis C Virus Using Electromagnetic Signal Detection: A Multicenter International Study

Authors: Gamal Shiha, Waleed Samir, Zahid Azam, Premashis Kar, Saeed Hamid, Shiv Sarin


A simple, rapid and non-invasive electromagnetic sensor (C-FAST device) was- patented; for diagnosis of HCV RNA. Aim: To test the validity of the device compared to standard HCV PCR. Subjects and Methods: The first phase was done as pilot in Egypt on 79 participants; the second phase was done in five centers: one center from Egypt, two centers from Pakistan and two centers from India (800, 92 and 113 subjects respectively). The third phase was done nationally as multicenter study on (1600) participants for ensuring its representativeness. Results: When compared to PCR technique, C-FAST device revealed sensitivity 95% to 100%, specificity 95.5% to 100%, PPV 89.5% to 100%, NPV 95% to 100% and positive likelihood ratios 21.8% to 38.5%. Conclusion: It is practical evidence that HCV nucleotides emit electromagnetic signals that can be used for its identification. As compared to PCR, C-FAST is an accurate, valid and non-invasive device.

Keywords: C-FAST- a valid and reliable device, distant cellular interaction, electromagnetic signal detection, non-invasive diagnosis of HCV

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
390 Reducing Weight and Fuel Consumption of Civil Aircraft by EML

Authors: Luca Bertola, Tom Cox, Pat Wheeler, Seamus Garvey, Herve Morvan


Electromagnetic launch systems have been proposed for military applications to accelerate jet planes on aircraft carriers. This paper proposes the implementation of similar technology to aid civil aircraft take-off, which can provide significant economic, environmental and technical benefits. Assisted launch has the potential of reducing ground noise and emissions near airports and improving overall aircraft efficiency through reducing engine thrust requirements. This paper presents a take-off performance analysis for an Airbus A320-200 taking off with and without the assistance of the electromagnetic catapult. Assisted take-off allows for a significant reduction in take-off field length, giving more capacity with existing airport footprints and reducing the necessary footprint of new airports, which will both reduce costs and increase the number of suitable sites. The electromagnetic catapult may allow the installation of smaller engines with lower rated thrust. The consequent fuel consumption and operational cost reduction are estimated. The potential of reducing the aircraft operational costs and the runway length required making electromagnetic launch system an attractive solution to the air traffic growth in busy airports.

Keywords: electromagnetic launch, fuel consumption, take-off analysis, weight reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
389 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness of a Corrugated Rectangular Waveguide for a Microwave Conveyor-Belt Drier

Authors: Sang-Hyeon Bae, Sung-Yeon Kim, Min-Gyo Jeong, Ji-Hong Kim, Wang-Sang Lee


Traditional heating methods such as electric ovens or steam heating are slow and not very efficient. For continuously heating the objects, a microwave conveyor-belt drier is widely used in the industrial microwave heating systems. However, there is a problem in which electromagnetic wave leaks toward outside of the heating cavity through the insertion opening. To achieve the prevention of the leakage of microwaves and improved heating characteristics, the corrugated rectangular waveguide at the entrance and exit openings of a microwave conveyor-belt drier is proposed and its electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness is analyzed and verified. The corrugated waveguides in the proposed microwave heating system achieve at least 20 dB shielding effectiveness while ensuring a sufficient height of the openings.

Keywords: corrugated, electromagnetic wave, microwave conveyor-belt drier, rectangular waveguide, shielding effectiveness

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388 Analysis of Effects of Magnetic Slot Wedges on Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

Authors: B. Ladghem Chikouche


The influence of slot wedges permeability on the electromagnetic performance of three-phase permanent magnet synchronous machine is investigated in this paper. It is shown that the back-EMF waveform, electromagnetic torque and electromagnetic torque ripple are all significantly affected by slot wedges permeability. The paper presents an accurate analytical subdomain model and confirmed by finite-element analyses.

Keywords: exact analytical calculation, finite-element method, magnetic field distribution, permanent magnet machines performance, stator slot wedges permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
387 Magneto-Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Electromagnetic Devices Using the Finite Element Method

Authors: Michael G. Pantelyat


Fundamental basics of pure and applied research in the area of magneto-thermo-mechanical numerical analysis and design of innovative electromagnetic devices (modern induction heaters, novel thermoelastic actuators, rotating electrical machines, induction cookers, electrophysical devices) are elaborated. Thus, mathematical models of magneto-thermo-mechanical processes in electromagnetic devices taking into account main interactions of interrelated phenomena are developed. In addition, graphical representation of coupled (multiphysics) phenomena under consideration is proposed. Besides, numerical techniques for nonlinear problems solution are developed. On this base, effective numerical algorithms for solution of actual problems of practical interest are proposed, validated and implemented in applied 2D and 3D computer codes developed. Many applied problems of practical interest regarding modern electrical engineering devices are numerically solved. Investigations of the influences of various interrelated physical phenomena (temperature dependences of material properties, thermal radiation, conditions of convective heat transfer, contact phenomena, etc.) on the accuracy of the electromagnetic, thermal and structural analyses are conducted. Important practical recommendations on the choice of rational structures, materials and operation modes of electromagnetic devices under consideration are proposed and implemented in industry.

Keywords: electromagnetic devices, multiphysics, numerical analysis, simulation and design

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
386 Therapeutic Application of Light and Electromagnetic Fields to Reduce Hyper-Inflammation Triggered by COVID-19

Authors: Blanche Aguida, Marootpong Pooam, Nathalie Jourdan, Margaret Ahmad


COVID-19-related morbidity is associated with exaggerated inflammation and cytokine production in the lungs, leading to acute respiratory failure. The cellular mechanisms underlying these so-called ‘cytokine storms’ are regulated through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway and by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both light (photobiomodulation) and magnetic fields (e.g., pulsed electromagnetic field) stimulation are non-invasive therapies known to confer anti-inflammatory effects and regulate ROS signaling pathways. Here we show that daily exposure to two 10-minute intervals of moderate-intensity infra-red light significantly lowered the inflammatory response induced via the TLR4 receptor signaling pathway in human cell cultures. Anti-inflammatory effects were likewise achieved by electromagnetic field exposure of cells to daily 10-minute intervals of either pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) or to low-level static magnetic fields. Because current illumination and electromagnetic field therapies have no known side effects and are already approved for some medical uses, we have here developed protocols for verification in clinical trials of COVID 19 infection. These treatments are affordable, simple to implement, and may help to resolve the acute respiratory distress of COVID 19 patients both in the home and in the hospital.

Keywords: COVID 19, electromagnetic fields therapy, inflammation, photobiomodulation therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
385 Quantitative Changes in Biofilms of a Seawater Tubular Heat Exchanger Subjected to Electromagnetic Fields Treatment

Authors: Sergio Garcia, Alfredo Trueba, Luis M. Vega, Ernesto Madariaga


Biofilms adhesion is one of the more important cost of industries plants on wide world, which use to water for cooling heat exchangers or are in contact with water. This study evaluated the effect of Electromagnetic Fields on biofilms in tubular heat exchangers using seawater cooling. The results showed an up to 40% reduction of the biofilm thickness compared to the untreated control tubes. The presence of organic matter was reduced by 75%, the inorganic mater was reduced by 87%, and 53% of the dissolved solids were eliminated. The biofilm thermal conductivity in the treated tube was reduced by 53% as compared to the control tube. The hardness in the effluent during the experimental period was decreased by 18% in the treated tubes compared with control tubes. Our results show that the electromagnetic fields treatment has a great potential in the process of removing biofilms in heat exchanger.

Keywords: biofilm, heat exchanger, electromagnetic fields, seawater

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
384 Synthesis and Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Property of Amorphous Carbon Nanotube Networks on a 3D Graphene Aerogel/BaFe₁₂O₁₉ Nanorod Composite

Authors: Tingkai Zhao, Jingtian Hu, Xiarong Peng, Wenbo Yang, Tiehu Li


Homogeneous amorphous carbon nanotube (ACNT) networks have been synthesized using floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition method on a three-dimensional (3D) graphene aerogel (GA)/BaFe₁₂O₁₉ nanorod (BNR) composite which prepared by a self-propagating combustion process. The as-synthesized ACNT/GA/BNR composite which has 3D network structures could be directly used as a good absorber in the electromagnetic wave absorbent materials. The experimental results indicated that the maximum absorbing peak of ACNT/GA/BNR composite with a thickness of 2 mm was -18.35 dB at 10.64 GHz in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz. The bandwidth of the reflectivity below -10 dB is 3.32 GHz. The 3D graphene aerogel structures which composed of dense interlined tubes and amorphous structure of ACNTs bearing quantities of dihedral angles could consume the incident waves through multiple reflection and scattering inside the 3D web structures. The interlinked ACNTs have both the virtues of amorphous CNTs (multiple reflections inside the wall) and crystalline CNTs (high conductivity), consuming the electromagnetic wave as resistance heat. ACNT/GA/BNR composite has a good electromagnetic wave absorbing performance.

Keywords: amorphous carbon nanotubes, graphene aerogel, barium ferrite nanorod, electromagnetic wave absorption

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383 Occupational Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields Can Increase the Release of Mercury from Dental Amalgam Fillings

Authors: Ghazal Mortazavi, S. M. J. Mortazavi


Electricians, power line engineers and power station workers, welders, aluminum reduction workers, MRI operators and railway workers are occupationally exposed to different levels of electromagnetic fields. Mercury is among the most toxic metals. Dental amalgam fillings cause significant exposure to elemental mercury vapour in the general population. Today, substantial evidence indicates that mercury even at low doses may lead to toxicity. Increased release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings after exposure to MRI or microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones has been previously shown by our team. Moreover, our recent studies on the effects of stronger magnetic fields entirely confirmed our previous findings. From the other point of view, we have also shown that papers which reported no increased release of mercury after MRI, may have some methodological flaws. Over the past several years, our lab has focused on the health effects of exposure of laboratory animals and humans to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones and their base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons, and MRI. As a strong association between exposure to electromagnetic fields and mercury level has been found in our studies, our findings lead us to this conclusion that occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in workers with dental amalgam fillings can lead to elevated levels of mercury. Studies which reported that exposure to mercury can be a risk factor of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) due to the accumulation of amyloid beta protein (Aβ) in the brain and those reported that long-term occupational exposure to high levels of electromagnetic fields can increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia in male workers support our concept and confirm the significant role of the occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in increasing the mercury level in workers with amalgam fillings.

Keywords: occupational exposure, electromagnetic fields, workers, mercury release, dental amalgam, restorative dentistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
382 Environmental Impact Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Mobile Base Station in Central Area of KSA

Authors: Mohammed Abdullah Alrajhi


The rapid growth in the number of mobile phone subscribers has resulted in an increased number of mobile base stations all over the world. Generally, mobile base stations are existing in huge numbers in populated areas than in non-populated ones to serve the largest number of users. The total number of mobile subscriptions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia reached around 50 million at the end of 2014, with a penetration rate of 165.1% according to the quarterly electronic newsletter issued by the Communications and Information Technology Commission. The current investigation was conducted primarily to measure the level of electromagnetic fields emitted from 400 mobile base stations for the purpose of environmental safety and radiation protection in light of national guidelines for public exposure as well as the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The outcomes of this investigation provide valuable comments and recommendation for safety and protection of electromagnetic fields emitted from mobile base stations.

Keywords: electromagnetic fields, mobile, safety, protection, ICNIRP

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
381 Strip Size Optimization for Spiral Type Actuator Coil Used in Electromagnetic Flat Sheet Forming Experiment

Authors: M. A. Aleem, M. S. Awan


Flat spiral coil for electromagnetic forming system has been modelled in FEMM 4.2 software. Copper strip was chosen as the material for designing the actuator coil. Relationship between height to width ratio (S-factor) of the copper strip and coil’s performance has been studied. Magnetic field intensities, eddy currents, and Lorentz force were calculated for the coils that were designed using six different 'S-factor' values (0.65, 0.75, 1.05, 1.25, 1.54 and 1.75), keeping the cross-sectional area of strip the same. Results obtained through simulation suggest that actuator coil with S-factor ~ 1 shows optimum forming performance as it exerts maximum Lorentz force (84 kN) on work piece. The same coils were fabricated and used for electromagnetic sheet forming experiments. Aluminum 6061 sheets of thickness 1.5 mm have been formed using different voltage levels of capacitor bank. Smooth forming profiles were obtained with dome heights 28, 35 and 40 mm in work piece at 800, 1150 and 1250 V respectively.

Keywords: FEM modelling, electromagnetic forming, spiral coil, Lorentz force

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380 Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of the Electromagnetic Environment in the Vicinity of Two 220Kv Power Lines

Authors: Wafa Tourab, Abdessalem Babouri, Mohamed Nemamcha


This work presents an experimental and theoretical characterization of electromagnetic environment in the vicinity of EL-HADJAR high voltage substation located in the eastern Algerian within a very high populated zone. There have been analyses on the effects of electromagnetic fields emanating from coupled multi-lines power systems on the health of the workers and people living in proximity of substations. An experimental investigation has been conducted around a circuit of two 220Kv lines running in parallel. The experimental results are validated by a flexible code of calculus developed in the environment Matlab. The implications of the results are discussed and are in very good agreement with the ICNIRP reference levels for occupational and non-occupational exposures. In a case of study, the separation between the two structures “S” is varied to demonstrate its influence on the electric and magnetic charges quantities generated by the circuit of lines proposed. It is found that increasing S decreases the electric and magnetic fields which occur at the center of the structure then reduces the coupling between lines. We concluded that the evaluation of the spacing between the phase conductors is of paramount interest in the preparation of the line’s implantation inside the electrical posts to reduce them radiations in the environment.

Keywords: low frequency, electromagnetic fields, electromagnetic coupling, high voltage power lines

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379 Numerical and Experimental Approach to Evaluate Forming Coil of Electromagnetic Forming Process

Authors: H. G. Noh, H. G. Park, B. S. Kang, J. Kim


Electromagnetic forming process (EMF) is one of high-velocity forming processes using Lorentz force. Advantages of EMF are summarized as improvement of formability, reduction in wrinkling, non-contact forming. In this study, numerical simulations were conducted to determine the practical parameters for EMF process. A 2-D axis-symmetric electromagnetic model was considered based on the spiral type forming coil. In the numerical simulation, RLC circuit coupled with spiral coil was made to consider the design parameters such as system input current and electromagnetic force. In order to deform the sheet in the patter shape die, two types of spiral shape coil were considered to deform the pattern shape sheet. One is a spiral coil that has 6turns with dead zone at centre point. Another is a normal spiral coil without dead zone that has 8 turns. In the electric analysis, input current and magnetic force were compared and then plastic deformation was treated in the mechanical analysis for two coil cases. Deformation behaviour of dead zone coil case has good agreement with pattern shape die. As a result, deformation behaviour could be controlled by giving dead zone at centre of the coil in spiral shape coil case.

Keywords: electromagnetic forming, spiral coil, Lorentz force, manufacturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
378 Electromagnetic Source Direction of Arrival Estimation via Virtual Antenna Array

Authors: Meiling Yang, Shuguo Xie, Yilong Zhu


Nowadays, due to diverse electric products and complex electromagnetic environment, the localization and troubleshooting of the electromagnetic radiation source is urgent and necessary especially on the condition of far field. However, based on the existing DOA positioning method, the system or devices are complex, bulky and expensive. To address this issue, this paper proposes a single antenna radiation source localization method. A single antenna moves to form a virtual antenna array combined with DOA and MUSIC algorithm to position accurately, meanwhile reducing the cost and simplify the equipment. As shown in the results of simulations and experiments, the virtual antenna array DOA estimation modeling is correct and its positioning is credible.

Keywords: virtual antenna array, DOA, localization, far field

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
377 ELectromagnetic-Thermal Coupled Analysis of PMSM with Cooling Channel

Authors: Hyun-Woo Jun, Tae-Chul Jeong, Huai-Cong Liu, Ju Lee


The paper presents the electromagnetic-thermal flow coupled analysis of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which has cooling channel in stator core for forced air cooling. Unlike the general PMSM design, to achieve ohmic loss reduction for high efficiency, cooling channel actively used in the stator core. Equivalent thermal network model was made to analyze the effect of the formation of the additional flow path in the core. According to the shape and position changing of the channel design, electromagnetic-thermal coupled analysis results were reviewed.

Keywords: coupled problems, electric motors, equivalent circuits, fluid flow, thermal analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 499