Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 173

Search results for: piezoelectric

173 Defect Modes in Multilayered Piezoelectric Structures

Authors: D. G. Piliposyan

Abstract:

Propagation of electro-elastic waves in a piezoelectric waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer is studied using a modified transfer matrix method. The dispersion equation for a periodic structure consisting of unit cells made up from two piezoelectric materials with metallized interfaces is obtained. An analytical expression, for the transmission coefficient for a waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer, that is found can be used to accurately detect and control the position of the passband within a stopband. The result can be instrumental in constructing a tunable waveguide made of layers of different or identical piezoelectric crystals and separated by metallized interfaces.

Keywords: piezoelectric layered structure, periodic phononic crystal, bandgap, bloch waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
172 Functionally Graded MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Magnetic Tip Mass

Authors: M. Derayatifar, M. Packirisamy, R.B. Bhat

Abstract:

Role of piezoelectric energy harvesters has gained interest in supplying power for micro devices such as health monitoring sensors. In this study, in order to enhance the piezoelectric energy harvesting in capturing energy from broader range of excitation and to improve the mechanical and electrical responses, bimorph piezoelectric energy harvester beam with magnetic mass attached at the end is presented. In view of overcoming the brittleness of piezo-ceramics, functionally graded piezoelectric layers comprising of both piezo-ceramic and piezo-polymer is employed. The nonlinear equations of motions are derived using energy method and then solved analytically using perturbation scheme. The frequency responses of the forced vibration case are obtained for the near resonance case. The nonlinear dynamic responses of the MEMS scaled functionally graded piezoelectric energy harvester in this paper may be utilized in different design scenarios to increase the efficiency of the harvester.

Keywords: energy harvesting, functionally graded piezoelectric material, magnetic force, MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) piezoelectric, perturbation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
171 Optimal Design of Polymer Based Piezoelectric Actuator with Varying Thickness and Length Ratios

Authors: Vineet Tiwari, R. K. Dwivedi, Geetika Srivastava

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Piezoelectric cantilevers are exploited for their use in sensors and actuators. In this study, a unimorph cantilever beam is considered as a study element with a piezoelectric polymer Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) layer bonded to a substrate layer. The different substrates like polysilicon, stainless steel and silicon nitride are tried for the study. An effort has been made to optimize and study the effect of the various parameters of the device in order to achieve maximum tip deflection. The variation of the tip displacement of the cantilever with respect to the length ratio of the nonpiezoelectric layer to the piezoelectric layer has been studied. The electric response of this unimorph cantilever beam is simulated with the help of finite element analysis software COMSOL Multiphysics.

Keywords: actuators, cantilever, piezoelectric, sensors, PVDF

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170 Nonlinear Modelling and Analysis of Piezoelectric Smart Thin-Walled Structures in Supersonic Flow

Authors: Shu-Yang Zhang, Shun-Qi Zhang, Zhan-Xi Wang, Xian-Sheng Qin

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Thin-walled structures are used more and more widely in modern aircrafts and some other structures in aerospace field nowadays. Accompanied by the wider applications, the vibration of the structures has been a bigger problem. Because of the direct and converse piezoelectric effect, piezoelectric materials combined to host thin-walled structures, named as piezoelectric smart structures, can be an effective way to suppress the vibration. So, an accurate model for piezoelectric thin-walled structures in air flow is necessary and important. In our recent work, an electromechanical coupling nonlinear aerodynamic finite element model of piezoelectric smart thin-walled structures is built based on the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory and first-order piston theory for aerodynamic pressure of supersonic flow. Von Kármán type nonlinearity is considered in the present model. Finally, the model is validated by experimental and numerical results from the literature, which can describe the vibration of the structures in supersonic flow precisely.

Keywords: piezoelectric smart structures, aerodynamic, geometric nonlinearity, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
169 Prediction of the Performance of a Bar-Type Piezoelectric Vibration Actuator Depending on the Frequency Using an Equivalent Circuit Analysis

Authors: J. H. Kim, J. H. Kwon, J. S. Park, K. J. Lim

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This paper has investigated a technique that predicts the performance of a bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency. This paper has been proposed an equivalent circuit that can be easily analyzed for the bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator. In the dynamic analysis, rigidity and resonance frequency, which are important mechanical elements, were derived using the basic beam theory. In the equivalent circuit analysis, the displacement and bandwidth of the piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency were predicted. Also, for the reliability of the derived equations, the predicted performance depending on the shape change was compared with the result of a finite element analysis program.

Keywords: actuator, piezoelectric, performance, unimorph

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
168 Electromechanical-Traffic Model of Compression-Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System

Authors: Saleh Gareh, B. C. Kok, H. H. Goh

Abstract:

Piezoelectric energy harvesting has advantages over other alternative sources due to its large power density, ease of applications, and capability to be fabricated at different scales: macro, micro, and nano. This paper presents an electromechanical-traffic model for roadway compression-based piezoelectric energy harvesting system. A two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) electromechanical model has been developed for the piezoelectric energy harvesting unit to define its performance in power generation under a number of external excitations on road surface. Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT-5H) is selected as the piezoelectric material to be used in this paper due to its high Piezoelectric Charge Constant (d) and Piezoelectric Voltage Constant (g) values. The main source of vibration energy that has been considered in this paper is the moving vehicle on the road. The effect of various frequencies on possible generated power caused by different vibration characteristics of moving vehicle has been studied. A single unit of circle-shape Piezoelectric Cymbal Transducer (PCT) with diameter of 32 mm and thickness of 0.3 mm be able to generate about 0.8 mW and 3 mW of electric power under 4 Hz and 20 Hz of excitation, respectively. The estimated power to be generated for multiple arrays of PCT is approximately 150 kW/ km. Thus, the developed electromechanical-traffic model has enormous potential to be used in estimating the macro scale of roadway power generation system.

Keywords: piezoelectric energy harvesting, cymbal transducer, PZT (lead zirconate titanate), 2-DOF

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
167 Influence of Rotation on Rayleigh-Type Wave in Piezoelectric Plate

Authors: Soniya Chaudhary, Sanjeev Sahu

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Propagation of Rayleigh-type waves in a rotating piezoelectric plate is investigated. The materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic crystals. The frequency equation have been derived for electrically open and short cases. Effect of rotation and piezoelectricity have been shown. It is also found that piezoelectric material properties have an important effect on Rayleigh wave propagation. The result is relevant to the analysis and design of various acoustic surface wave devices constructed from piezoelectric materials also in SAW devices.

Keywords: rotation, frequency equation, piezoelectricity, rayleigh-type wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
166 Electrospun Zinc Oxide Nanowires as Highly Sensitive Piezoelectric Transduction Elements for Nano-Scale Devices

Authors: K. Brince Paul, Nagendra Pratap Singh, Shiv Govind Singh, Siva Rama Krishna Vanjari

Abstract:

In this paper, we report optimized procedure for synthesizing highly oriented, horizontally aligned, Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires targeted towards developing highly sensitive piezoelectric transduction elements. The synthesis was carried out using Electrospinning technique, a facile, robust, low cost technique for producing nanowires. The as-synthesized ZnO nanowires were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Field Emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).The Piezoelectric behavior of these nanowires was characterized using Peizoelectric Force microscopy (PFM). A very high d33 coefficient of 23.1 pm/V obtained through the PFM measurements is an indicative of its potential application towards developing miniaturized piezoelectric transduction elements for nanoscale devices.

Keywords: electrospinning, piezoelectric, technique, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
165 Numerical Modelling of Laminated Shells Made of Functionally Graded Elastic and Piezoelectric Materials

Authors: Gennady M. Kulikov, Svetlana V. Plotnikova

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This paper focuses on implementation of the sampling surfaces (SaS) method for the three-dimensional (3D) stress analysis of functionally graded (FG) laminated elastic and piezoelectric shells. The SaS formulation is based on choosing inside the nth layer In not equally spaced SaS parallel to the middle surface of the shell in order to introduce the electric potentials and displacements of these surfaces as basic shell variables. Such choice of unknowns permits the presentation of the proposed FG piezoelectric shell formulation in a very compact form. The SaS are located inside each layer at Chebyshev polynomial nodes that improves the convergence of the SaS method significantly. As a result, the SaS formulation can be applied efficiently to 3D solutions for FG piezoelectric laminated shells, which asymptotically approach the exact solutions of piezoelectricity as the number of SaS In goes to infinity.

Keywords: electroelasticity, functionally graded material, laminated piezoelectric shell, sampling surfaces method

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164 Electrical Properties of Cement-Based Piezoelectric Nanoparticles

Authors: Moustafa Shawkey, Ahmed G. El-Deen, H. M. Mahmoud, M. M. Rashad

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Piezoelectric based cement nanocomposite is a promising technology for generating an electric charge upon mechanical stress of concrete structure. Moreover, piezoelectric nanomaterials play a vital role for providing accurate system of structural health monitoring (SHM) of the concrete structure. In light of increasing awareness of environmental protection and energy crises, generating renewable and green energy form cement based on piezoelectric nanomaterials attracts the attention of the researchers. Herein, we introduce a facial synthesis for bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (BiFeO3 NPs) as piezoelectric nanomaterial via sol gel strategy. The fabricated piezoelectric nanoparticles are uniformly distributed to cement-based nanomaterials with different ratios. The morphological shape was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) as well as the crystal structure has been confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The ferroelectric and magnetic behaviours of BiFeO3 NPs have been investigated. Then, dielectric constant for the prepared cement samples nanocomposites (εr) is calculated. Intercalating BiFeO3 NPs into cement materials achieved remarkable results as piezoelectric cement materials, distinct enhancement in ferroelectric and magnetic properties. Overall, this present study introduces an effective approach to improve the electrical properties based cement applications.

Keywords: piezoelectric nanomaterials, cement technology, bismuth ferrite nanoparticles, dielectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
163 Piezoelectric Micro-generator Characterization for Energy Harvesting Application

Authors: José E. Q. Souza, Marcio Fontana, Antonio C. C. Lima

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This paper presents analysis and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-generator for energy harvesting application. A low-cost experimental prototype was designed to operate as piezoelectric micro-generator in the laboratory. An input acceleration of 9.8m/s2 using a sine signal (peak-to-peak voltage: 1V, offset voltage: 0V) at frequencies ranging from 10Hz to 160Hz generated a maximum average power of 432.4μW (linear mass position = 25mm) and an average power of 543.3μW (angular mass position = 35°). These promising results show that the prototype can be considered for low consumption load application as an energy harvesting micro-generator.

Keywords: piezoelectric, micro-generator, energy harvesting, cantilever beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
162 Numerical Simulations for Nitrogen Flow in Piezoelectric Valve

Authors: Pawel Flaszynski, Piotr Doerffer, Jan Holnicki-Szulc, Grzegorz Mikulowski

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Results of numerical simulations for transonic flow in a piezoelectric valve are presented. The valve is the main part of an adaptive pneumatic shock absorber. Flow structure in the valve domain and the influence of the flow non-uniformity in the valve on a mass flow rate is investigated. Numerical simulation results are compared with experimental data.

Keywords: pneumatic valve, transonic flow, numerical simulations, piezoelectric valve

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161 Fabrication of Periodic Graphene-Like Structure of Zinc Oxide Piezoelectric Device

Authors: Zi-Gui Huang, Shen-Hsien Hu

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This study proposes a fabrication of phononic-crystal acoustic wave device. A graphene-like atomic structure was adopted as the main research subject, and a graphene-like structure was designed using piezoelectric material zinc oxide and its periodic boundary conditions were defined using the finite element method. The effects of a hexagonal honeycomb structure were investigated regarding the band gap phenomenon. The use of micro-electromechanical systems process technology to make the film etched micron graphics, designed to produce four kinds of different piezoelectric structure (plat, periodic, single defect and double defects). Frequency response signals and phase change were also measured in this paper.

Keywords: MEMS, phononic crystal, piezoelectric material, Zinc oxide

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160 Design and Fabrication of an Array Microejector Driven by a Shear-Mode Piezoelectric Actuator

Authors: Chiang-Ho Cheng, Hong-Yih Cheng, An-Shik Yang, Tung-Hsun Hsu

Abstract:

This paper reports a novel actuating design that uses the shear deformation of a piezoelectric actuator to deflect a bulge-diaphragm for driving an array microdroplet ejector. In essence, we employed a circular-shaped actuator poled radial direction with remnant polarization normal to the actuating electric field for inducing the piezoelectric shear effect. The array microdroplet ejector consists of a shear type piezoelectric actuator, a vibration plate, two chamber plates, two channel plates and a nozzle plate. The vibration, chamber and nozzle plate components are fabricated using nickel electroforming technology, whereas the channel plate is fabricated by etching of stainless steel. The diaphragm displacement was measured by the laser two-dimensional scanning vibrometer. The ejected droplets of the microejector were also observed via an optic visualization system.

Keywords: actuator, nozzle, microejector, piezoelectric

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159 Three-Dimensional Vibration Characteristics of Piezoelectric Semi-Spherical Shell

Authors: Yu-Hsi Huang, Ying-Der Tsai

Abstract:

Piezoelectric circular plates can provide out-of-plane vibrational displacements on low frequency and in-plane vibrational displacements on high frequency. Piezoelectric semi-spherical shell, which is double-curvature structure, can induce three-dimensional vibrational displacements over a large frequency range. In this study, three-dimensional vibrational characteristics of piezoelectric semi-spherical shells with free boundary conditions are investigated using three experimental methods and finite element numerical modeling. For the experimental measurements, amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (AF-ESPI) is used to obtain resonant frequencies and radial and azimuthal mode shapes. This optical technique utilizes a full-field and non-contact optical system that measures both the natural frequency and corresponding vibration mode shape simultaneously in real time. The second experimental technique used, laser displacement meter is a point-wise displacement measurement method that determines the resonant frequencies of the piezoelectric shell. An impedance analyzer is used to determine the in-plane resonant frequencies of the piezoelectric semi-spherical shell. The experimental results of the resonant frequencies and mode shapes for the piezoelectric shell are verified with the result from finite element analysis. Excellent agreement between the experimental measurements and numerical calculation is presented on the three-dimensional vibrational characteristics of the piezoelectric semi-spherical shell.

Keywords: piezoelectric semi-spherical shell, mode shape, resonant frequency, electronic speckle pattern interferometry, radial vibration, azimuthal vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
158 Design and Analysis of a Piezoelectric Linear Motor Based on Rigid Clamping

Authors: Chao Yi, Cunyue Lu, Lingwei Quan

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Piezoelectric linear motors have the characteristics of great electromagnetic compatibility, high positioning accuracy, compact structure and no deceleration mechanism, which make it promising to applicate in micro-miniature precision drive systems. However, most piezoelectric motors are employed by flexible clamping, which has insufficient rigidity and is difficult to use in rapid positioning. Another problem is that this clamping method seriously affects the vibration efficiency of the vibrating unit. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a piezoelectric stack linear motor based on double-end rigid clamping. First, a piezoelectric linear motor with a length of only 35.5 mm is designed. This motor is mainly composed of a motor stator, a driving foot, a ceramic friction strip, a linear guide, a pre-tightening mechanism and a base. This structure is much simpler and smaller than most similar motors, and it is easy to assemble as well as to realize precise control. In addition, the properties of piezoelectric stack are reviewed and in order to obtain the elliptic motion trajectory of the driving head, a driving scheme of the longitudinal-shear composite stack is innovatively proposed. Finally, impedance analysis and speed performance testing were performed on the piezoelectric linear motor prototype. The motor can measure speed up to 25.5 mm/s under the excitation of signal voltage of 120 V and frequency of 390 Hz. The result shows that the proposed piezoelectric stacked linear motor obtains great performance. It can run smoothly in a large speed range, which is suitable for various precision control in medical images, aerospace, precision machinery and many other fields.

Keywords: piezoelectric stack, linear motor, rigid clamping, elliptical trajectory

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157 Finite Element Analysis of Piezolaminated Structures with Both Geometric and Electroelastic Material Nonlinearities

Authors: Shun-Qi Zhang, Shu-Yang Zhang, Min Chen, , Jing Bai

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Piezoelectric laminated smart structures can be subjected to the strong driving electric field, which may result in large displacements and rotations. In one hand, piezoelectric materials usually behave very significant material nonlinear effects under strong electric fields. On the other hand, thin-walled structures undergoing large displacements and rotations exist nonnegligible geometric nonlinearity. In order to give a precise prediction of piezo laminated smart structures under the large electric field, this paper develops a finite element (FE) model accounting for material nonlinearity (piezoelectric part) and geometric nonlinearity based on the first order shear deformation (FSOD) hypothesis. The proposed FE model is first validated by both experimental and numerical examples from the literature. Afterwards, it is applied to simulate for plate and shell structures with multiple piezoelectric patches under the strong applied electric field. From the simulation results, it shows that large discrepancies occur between linear and nonlinear predictions for piezoelectric laminated structures driving at the strong electric field. Therefore, both material and geometric nonlinearities should be taken into account for piezoelectric structures under strong electric.

Keywords: piezoelectric smart structures, finite element analysis, geometric nonlinearity, electroelastic material nonlinearities

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156 Electrical and Piezoelectric Properties of Vanadium-Modified Lead-Free (K₀.₅Na₀.₅)NbO₃ Ceramics

Authors: Radhapiyari Laishram, Chongtham Jiten, K. Chandramani Singh

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During the last decade, there has been a significant growth in developing lead-free piezoelectric ceramics which have the potential to replace the currently dominant but highly superior lead-based piezoelectric materials such as PZT. Among the lead-free piezoelectrics, (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 - based piezoceramics are promising candidates due to their superior piezoelectric properties and high Curie temperatures. In this work, (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb1-xVx)O3 powders with x varying the range 0 to 0.05 were synthesized from the raw materials K2CO3, Na2CO3, Nb2O5, and V2O5. These powders were ball milled with high-energy Retsch PM 100 ball mill using isopropanol as the medium at the speed of 200rpm for a duration of 8h. The milled powders were sintered at 1080oC for 1h. The crystalline phase of all the calcined powders and corresponding ceramics prepared was found to be perovskite with orthorhombic symmetry. The ceramic with V5+ content of x=0.03 exhibits the maximum values in density of 4.292 g/cc, room temperature dielectric constant (εr) of 432, and piezoelectric charge constant (d33) of 93pC/N. For this sample, the dielectric tan δ loss remains relatively low over a wide temperature range. The temperature dependence of P-E hysteresis loops has been investigated for the ceramic composition with x = 0.03.

Keywords: dielectric properties, ferroelectric properties, perovskie, piezoelectric properties

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155 Single Chip Controller Design for Piezoelectric Actuators with Mixed Signal FPGA

Authors: Han-Bin Park, Taesam Kang, SunKi Hong, Jeong Hoi Gu

Abstract:

The piezoelectric material is being used widely for actuators due to its large power density with simple structure. It can generate a larger force than the conventional actuators with the same size. Furthermore, the response time of piezoelectric actuators is very short, and thus, it can be used for very fast system applications with compact size. To control the piezoelectric actuator, we need analog signal conditioning circuits as well as digital microcontrollers. Conventional microcontrollers are not equipped with analog parts and thus the control system becomes bulky compared with the small size of the piezoelectric devices. To overcome these weaknesses, we are developing one-chip micro controller that can handle analog and digital signals simultaneously using mixed signal FPGA technology. We used the SmartFusion™ FPGA device that integrates ARM®Cortex-M3, analog interface and FPGA fabric in a single chip and offering full customization. It gives more flexibility than traditional fixed-function microcontrollers with the excessive cost of soft processor cores on traditional FPGAs. In this paper we introduce the design of single chip controller using mixed signal FPGA, SmartFusion™[1] device. To demonstrate its performance, we implemented a PI controller for power driving circuit and a 5th order H-infinity controller for the system with piezoelectric actuator in the FPGA fabric. We also demonstrated the regulation of a power output and the operation speed of a 5th order H-infinity controller.

Keywords: mixed signal FPGA, PI control, piezoelectric actuator, SmartFusion™

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154 Using Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) for Extracting Acoustic Microwaves (Bulk Acoustic Waves) in Piezoelectric Material

Authors: Hafdaoui Hichem, Mehadjebia Cherifa, Benatia Djamel

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In this paper, we propose a new method for Bulk detection of an acoustic microwave signal during the propagation of acoustic microwaves in a piezoelectric substrate (Lithium Niobate LiNbO3). We have used the classification by probabilistic neural network (PNN) as a means of numerical analysis in which we classify all the values of the real part and the imaginary part of the coefficient attenuation with the acoustic velocity in order to build a model from which we note the Bulk waves easily. These singularities inform us of presence of Bulk waves in piezoelectric materials. By which we obtain accurate values for each of the coefficient attenuation and acoustic velocity for Bulk waves. This study will be very interesting in modeling and realization of acoustic microwaves devices (ultrasound) based on the propagation of acoustic microwaves.

Keywords: piezoelectric material, probabilistic neural network (PNN), classification, acoustic microwaves, bulk waves, the attenuation coefficient

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153 Effect of Rotation on Love Wave Propagation in Piezoelectric Medium with Corrugation

Authors: Soniya Chaudhary

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The present study analyses the propagation of Love wave in rotating piezoelectric layer lying over an elastic substrate with corrugated boundaries. The appropriate solutions in the considered medium satisfy the required boundary conditions to obtain the dispersion relation of Love wave for charge free as well as electrically shorted cases. The effects of rotation are shown by graphically on the non-dimensional speed of the Love wave. In addition to classical case, some existing results have been deduced as particular case of the present study. The present study may be useful in rotation sensor and SAW devices.

Keywords: corrugation, dispersion relation, love wave, piezoelectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
152 Development of Piezoelectric Gas Micropumps with the PDMS Check Valve Design

Authors: Chiang-Ho Cheng, An-Shik Yang, Hon-Yi Cheng, Ming-Yu Lai

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This paper presents the design and fabrication of a novel piezoelectric actuator for a gas micropump with check valve having the advantages of miniature size, light weight and low power consumption. The micropump is designed to have eight major components, namely a stainless steel upper cover layer, a piezoelectric actuator, a stainless steel diaphragm, a PDMS chamber layer, two stainless steel channel layers with two valve seats, a PDMS check valve layer with two cantilever-type check valves and an acrylic substrate. A prototype of the gas micropump, with a size of 52 mm × 50 mm × 5.0 mm, is fabricated by precise manufacturing. This device is designed to pump gases with the capability of performing the self-priming and bubble-tolerant work mode by maximizing the stroke volume of the membrane as well as the compression ratio via minimization of the dead volume of the micropump chamber and channel. By experiment apparatus setup, we can get the real-time values of the flow rate of micropump and the displacement of the piezoelectric actuator, simultaneously. The gas micropump obtained higher output performance under the sinusoidal waveform of 250 Vpp. The micropump achieved the maximum pumping rates of 1185 ml/min and back pressure of 7.14 kPa at the corresponding frequency of 120 and 50 Hz.

Keywords: PDMS, check valve, micropump, piezoelectric

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151 Harvesting of Kinetic Energy of the Raindrops

Authors: K. C. R.Perera, V. P. C Dassanayake, B. M. Hapuwatte, B. G. Smapath

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This paper presents a methodology to harvest the kinetic energy of the raindrops using piezoelectric devices. In the study 1m×1m PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) piezoelectric membrane, which is fixed by the four edges, is considered for the numerical simulation on deformation of the membrane due to the impact of the raindrops. Then according to the drop size of the rain, the simulation is performed classifying the rainfall types into three categories as light stratiform rain, moderate stratiform rain and heavy thundershower. The impact force of the raindrop is dependent on the terminal velocity of the raindrop, which is a function of raindrop diameter. The results were then analyzed to calculate the harvestable energy from the deformation of the piezoelectric membrane.

Keywords: raindrop, piezoelectricity, deformation, terminal velocity

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150 A Study on Unidirectional Analog Output Voltage Inverter for Capacitive Load

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Nam-HeeByeon, Jung-Seop Lee, Tae-Sam Kang

Abstract:

For Common R or R-L load to apply arbitrary voltage, the bridge traditional inverters don’t have any difficulties by PWM method. However for driving some piezoelectric actuator, arbitrary voltage not a pulse but a steady voltage should be applied. Piezoelectric load is considered as R-C load and its voltage does not decrease even though the applied voltage decreases. Therefore it needs some special inverter with circuit that can discharge the capacitive energy. Especially for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, it becomes more difficult problem. In this paper, a charge and discharge circuit for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator is proposed. The circuit has charging and discharging switches for increasing and decreasing output voltage. With the proposed simple circuit, the load voltage can have any unidirectional level with tens of bandwidth because the load voltage can be adjusted by switching the charging and discharging switch appropriately. The appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, analog output voltage, sinusoidal drive, piezoelectric load, discharging circuit

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149 Structural Damage Detection in a Steel Column-Beam Joint Using Piezoelectric Sensors

Authors: Carlos H. Cuadra, Nobuhiro Shimoi

Abstract:

Application of piezoelectric sensors to detect structural damage due to seismic action on building structures is investigated. Plate-type piezoelectric sensor was developed and proposed for this task. A film-type piezoelectric sheet was attached on a steel plate and covered by a layer of glass. A special glue is used to fix the glass. This glue is a silicone that requires the application of ultraviolet rays for its hardening. Then, the steel plate was set up at a steel column-beam joint of a test specimen that was subjected to bending moment when test specimen is subjected to monotonic load and cyclic load. The structural behavior of test specimen during cyclic loading was verified using a finite element model, and it was found good agreement between both results on load-displacement characteristics. The cross section of steel elements (beam and column) is a box section of 100 mm×100 mm with a thin of 6 mm. This steel section is specified by the Japanese Industrial Standards as carbon steel square tube for general structure (STKR400). The column and beam elements are jointed perpendicularly using a fillet welding. The resulting test specimen has a T shape. When large deformation occurs the glass plate of the sensor device cracks and at that instant, the piezoelectric material emits a voltage signal which would be the indicator of a certain level of deformation or damage. Applicability of this piezoelectric sensor to detect structural damages was verified; however, additional analysis and experimental tests are required to establish standard parameters of the sensor system.

Keywords: piezoelectric sensor, static cyclic test, steel structure, seismic damages

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148 Dependence of Dielectric Properties on Sintering Conditions of Lead Free KNN Ceramics Modified With Li-Sb

Authors: Roopam Gaur, K. Chandramani Singh, Radhapiyari Laishram

Abstract:

In order to produce lead free piezoceramics with optimum piezoelectric and dielectric properties, KNN modified with Li+ (as an A site dopant) and Sb5+ (as a B site dopant) (K0.49Na0.49Li0.02) (Nb0.96Sb0.04) O3 (referred as KNLNS in this paper) have been synthesized using solid state reaction method and conventional sintering technique. The ceramics were sintered in the narrow range of 10500C-10900C for 2-3 hours to get precise information about sintering parameters. Detailed study of dependence of microstructural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties on sintering conditions was then carried out. The study suggests that the volatility of the highly hygroscopic KNN ceramics is not only sensitive to sintering temperatures but also to sintering durations. By merely reducing the sintering duration for a given sintering temperature we saw an increase in the density of the samples which was supported by the increase in dielectric constants of the ceramics. And since density directly or indirectly affects almost all the associated properties, other dielectric and piezoelectric properties were also enhanced as we approached towards the most suitable sintering temperature and duration combination.

Keywords: piezoelectric, dielectric, Li, Sb, KNN, conventional sintering

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147 Analog Voltage Inverter Drive for Capacitive Load with Adaptive Gain Control

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Yong-Ho Cho, Ki-Seok Kim, Tae-Sam Kang

Abstract:

Piezoelectric actuator is treated as RC load when it is modeled electrically. For some piezoelectric actuator applications, arbitrary voltage is required to actuate. Especially for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, some special inverter with circuit that can charge and discharge the capacitive energy can be used. In this case, the difference between power supply level and the object voltage level for RC load is varied. Because the control gain is constant, the controlled output is not uniform according to the voltage difference. In this paper, for charge and discharge circuit for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator, the controller gain is controlled according to the voltage difference. With the proposed simple idea, the load voltage can have controlled smoothly although the voltage difference is varied. The appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: analog voltage inverter, capacitive load, gain control, dc-dc converter, piezoelectric, voltage waveform

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146 Design and Fabrication of Micro-Bubble Oxygenator

Authors: Chiang-Ho Cheng, An-Shik Yang, Hong-Yih Cheng

Abstract:

This paper applies the MEMS technology to design and fabricate a micro-bubble generator by a piezoelectric actuator. Coupled with a nickel nozzle plate, an annular piezoelectric ceramic was utilized as the primary structure of the generator. In operations, the piezoelectric element deforms transversely under an electric field applied across the thickness of the generator. The surface of the nozzle plate can expand or contract because of the induction of radial strain, resulting in the whole structure to bend, and successively transport oxygen micro-bubbles into the blood flow for enhancing the oxygen content in blood. In the tests, a high magnification microscope and a high speed CCD camera were employed to photograph the time evolution of meniscus shape of gaseous bubbles dispensed from the micro-bubble generator for flow visualization. This investigation thus explored the bubble formation process including the influences of inlet gas pressure along with driving voltage and resonance frequency on the formed bubble extent.

Keywords: micro-bubble, oxygenator, nozzle, piezoelectric

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145 Surface Integration Effect on Mechanical and Piezoelectric Properties of ZnO

Authors: A. Khan, M. Hussain, S. Afgun

Abstract:

In the present work, the effect of the surface integration on the piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods were grown by using aqueous chemical growth method on two samples of graphene coated pet plastic substrate. First substrate’s surface was integrated with ZnO nanoparticles while the other substrate was used without ZnO nanoparticles. Various important parameters were analyzed, the growth density and morphological analysis were taken into account through surface scanning electron microscopy; it was observed that the growth density of nanorods on the integrated surface was much higher than the nonintegrated substrate. The crystal quality of growth orientation was analyzed by X-ray diffraction technique. Mechanical stability of ZnO nanorods on an integrated substrate was more appropriate than the nonintegrated substrate. The generated amount of piezoelectric potential from the integrated substrate was two times higher than the nonintegrated substrate. This shows that the layer of nanoparticles plays a crucial role in the enhancement of piezoelectric potential. Besides this, it also improves the performance of fabricated devices like its mechanical stability and piezoelectric properties. Additionally, the obtained results were compared with the other two samples used for the growth of ZnO nanorods on silver coated glass substrates for similar measurement. The consistency of the results verified the importance of surface integration effect. This study will help us to fabricate improved performance devices by using surface integrated substrates.

Keywords: ZnO nanorods, surface integration, mechanical properties, harvesting piezoelectricity

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144 Numerical Investigation of Poling Vector Angle on Adaptive Sandwich Plate Deflection

Authors: Alireza Pouladkhan, Mohammad Yavari Foroushani, Ali Mortazavi

Abstract:

This paper presents a finite element model for a sandwich plate containing a piezoelectric core. A sandwich plate with a piezoelectric core is constructed using the shear mode of piezoelectric materials. The orientation of poling vector has a significant effect on deflection and stress induced in the piezo-actuated adaptive sandwich plate. In the present study, the influence of this factor for a clamped-clamped-free-free and simple-simple-free-free square sandwich plate is investigated using Finite Element Method. The study uses ABAQUS (v.6.7) software to derive the finite element model of the sandwich plate. By using this model, the study gives the influences of the poling vector angle on the response of the smart structure and determines the maximum transverse displacement and maximum stress induced.

Keywords: finite element method, sandwich plate, poling vector, piezoelectric materials, smart structure, electric enthalpy

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