Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1551

Search results for: cancer therapeutics

1551 Characterization of the Catalytic and Structural Roles of the Human Hexokinase 2 in Cancer Progression

Authors: Mir Hussain Nawaz, Lyudmila Nedyalkova, Haizhong Zhu, Wael M. Rabeh

Abstract:

In this study, we aim to biochemically and structurally characterize the interactions of human HK2 with the mitochondria in addition to the role of its N-terminal domain in catalysis and stability of the full-length enzyme. Here, we solved the crystal structure of human HK2 in complex with glucose and glucose-6-phosphate (PDB code: 2NZT), where it is a homodimer with catalytically active N- and C-terminal domains linked by a seven-turn α-helix. Different from the inactive N-terminal domains of isozymes 1 and 3, the N- domain of HK2 not only capable to catalyze a reaction but it is responsible for the thermodynamic stabilizes of the full-length enzyme. Deletion of first α-helix of the N-domain that binds to the mitochondria altered the stability and catalytic activity of the full-length HK2. In addition, we found the linker helix between the N- and C-terminal domains to play an important role in controlling the catalytic activity of the N-terminal domain. HK2 is a major step in the regulation of glucose metabolism in cancer making it an ideal target for the development of new anticancer therapeutics. Characterizing the structural and molecular mechanisms of human HK2 and its role in cancer metabolism will accelerate the design and development of new cancer therapeutics that are safe and cancer specific.

Keywords: cancer metabolism, enzymology, drug discovery, protein stability

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1550 Cloning and Expression of Azurin: A Protein Having Antitumor and Cell Penetrating Ability

Authors: Mohsina Akhter

Abstract:

Cancer has become a wide spread disease around the globe and takes many lives every year. Different treatments are being practiced but all have potential side effects with somewhat less specificity towards target sites. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to secrete a protein azurin with special anti-cancer function. It has unique cell penetrating peptide comprising of 18 amino acids that have ability to enter cancer cells specifically. Reported function of Azurin is to stabilize p53 inside the tumor cells and induces apoptosis through Bax mediated cytochrome c release from mitochondria. At laboratory scale, we have made recombinant azurin through cloning rpTZ57R/T-azu vector into E.coli strain DH-5α and subcloning rpET28-azu vector into E.coli BL21-CodonPlus (DE3). High expression was ensured with IPTG induction at different concentrations then optimized high expression level at 1mM concentration of IPTG for 5 hours. Purification has been done by using Ni+2 affinity chromatography. We have concluded that azurin can be a remarkable improvement in cancer therapeutics if it produces on a large scale. Azurin does not enter into the normal cells so it will prove a safe and secure treatment for patients and prevent them from hazardous anomalies.

Keywords: azurin, pseudomonas aeruginosa, cancer, therapeutics

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1549 A Next Generation Multi-Scale Modeling Theatre for in silico Oncology

Authors: Safee Chaudhary, Mahnoor Naseer Gondal, Hira Anees Awan, Abdul Rehman, Ammar Arif, Risham Hussain, Huma Khawar, Zainab Arshad, Muhammad Faizyab Ali Chaudhary, Waleed Ahmed, Muhammad Umer Sultan, Bibi Amina, Salaar Khan, Muhammad Moaz Ahmad, Osama Shiraz Shah, Hadia Hameed, Muhammad Farooq Ahmad Butt, Muhammad Ahmad, Sameer Ahmed, Fayyaz Ahmed, Omer Ishaq, Waqar Nabi, Wim Vanderbauwhede, Bilal Wajid, Huma Shehwana, Muhammad Tariq, Amir Faisal

Abstract:

Cancer is a manifestation of multifactorial deregulations in biomolecular pathways. These deregulations arise from the complex multi-scale interplay between cellular and extracellular factors. Such multifactorial aberrations at gene, protein, and extracellular scales need to be investigated systematically towards decoding the underlying mechanisms and orchestrating therapeutic interventions for patient treatment. In this work, we propose ‘TISON’, a next-generation web-based multiscale modeling platform for clinical systems oncology. TISON’s unique modeling abstraction allows a seamless coupling of information from biomolecular networks, cell decision circuits, extra-cellular environments, and tissue geometries. The platform can undertake multiscale sensitivity analysis towards in silico biomarker identification and drug evaluation on cellular phenotypes in user-defined tissue geometries. Furthermore, integration of cancer expression databases such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Human Proteome Atlas (HPA) facilitates in the development of personalized therapeutics. TISON is the next-evolution of multiscale cancer modeling and simulation platforms and provides a ‘zero-code’ model development, simulation, and analysis environment for application in clinical settings.

Keywords: systems oncology, cancer systems biology, cancer therapeutics, personalized therapeutics, cancer modelling

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1548 Molecular Portraits: The Role of Posttranslational Modification in Cancer Metastasis

Authors: Navkiran Kaur, Apoorva Mathur, Abhishree Agarwal, Sakshi Gupta, Tuhin Rashmi

Abstract:

Aim: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and resistance to the current therapeutics, often concurrently, is an increasing clinical challenge. Glycosylation of proteins is one of the most important post-translational modifications. It is widely known that aberrant glycosylation has been implicated in many different diseases due to changes associated with biological function and protein folding. Alterations in cell surface glycosylation, can promote invasive behavior of tumor cells that ultimately lead to the progression of cancer. In breast cancer, there is an increasing evidence pertaining to the role of glycosylation in tumor formation and metastasis. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the disease associated sialoglycoproteins in breast cancer by using bioinformatics tools. The sequence will be retrieved from UniProt database. A database in the form of a word document was made by a collection of FASTA sequences of breast cancer gene sequence. Glycosylation was studied using yinOyang tool on ExPASy and Differential genes expression and protein analysis was done in context of breast cancer metastasis. The number of residues predicted O-glc NAc threshold containing 50 aberrant glycosylation sites or more was detected and recorded for individual sequence. We found that the there is a significant change in the expression profiling of glycosylation patterns of various proteins associated with breast cancer. Differential aberrant glycosylated proteins in breast cancer cells with respect to non-neoplastic cells are an important factor for the overall progression and development of cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, bioinformatics, cancer, metastasis, glycosylation

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1547 Aza-Flavanones as Small Molecule Inhibitors of MicroRNA-10b in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Debasmita Mukhopadhyay, Manika Pal Bhadra

Abstract:

MiRNAs contribute to oncogenesis either as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Hence, discovery of miRNA-based therapeutics are imperative to ameliorate cancer. Modulation of miRNA maturation is accomplished via several therapeutic agents, including small molecules and oligonucleotides. Due to the attractive pharmacokinetic properties of small molecules over oligonucleotides, we set to identify small molecule inhibitors of a metastasis-inducing microRNA. Cytotoxicity profile of aza-flavanone C1 was analyzed in a panel of breast cancer cells employing the NCI-60 screen protocols. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and western blotting of apoptotic or EMT markers were performed to analyze the effect of C1. A dual luciferase assay unequivocally suggested that C1 repressed endogenous miR-10b in MDA-MB-231 cells. A derivative of aza-flavanone C1 is shown as a strong inhibitor miR-10b. Blockade of miR-10b by C1 resulted in decreased expression of miR-10b targets in an aggressive breast cancer cell line model, MDA-MB-231. Abrogation of TWIST1, an EMT-inducing transcription factor also contributed to C1 mediated apoptosis. Moreover C1 exhibited a specific and selective down-regulation of miR-10b and did not function as a general inhibitor of miRNA biogenesis or other oncomiRs of breast carcinoma. Aza-flavanone congener C1 functions as a potent inhibitor of the metastasis-inducing microRNA, miR-10b. Our present study provides evidence for targeting metastasis-inducing microRNA, miR-10b with a derivative of Aza-flavanone. Better pharmacokinetic properties of small molecules place them as attractive agents compared to nucleic acids based therapies to target miRNA. Further work, in generating analogues based on aza-flavanone moieties will significantly improve the affinity of the small molecules to bind miR-10b. Finally, it is imperative to develop small molecules as novel miRNA-therapeutics in the fight against cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, microRNA, metastasis, EMT

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1546 Cell Line Screens Identify Biomarkers of Drug Sensitivity in GLIOMA Cancer

Authors: Noora Al Muftah, Reda Rawi, Richard Thompson, Halima Bensmail

Abstract:

Clinical responses to anticancer therapies are often restricted to a subset of patients. In some cases, mutated cancer genes are potent biomarkers of response to targeted agents. There is an urgent need to identify biomarkers that predict which patients with are most likely to respond to treatment. Systematic efforts to correlate tumor mutational data with biologic dependencies may facilitate the translation of somatic mutation catalogs into meaningful biomarkers for patient stratification. To identify genomic features associated with drug sensitivity and uncover new biomarkers of sensitivity and resistance to cancer therapeutics, we have screened and integrated a panel of several hundred cancer cell lines from different databases, mutation, DNA copy number, and gene expression data for hundreds of cell lines with their responses to targeted and cytotoxic therapies with drugs under clinical and preclinical investigation. We found mutated cancer genes were associated with cellular response to most currently available Glioma cancer drugs and some frequently mutated genes were associated with sensitivity to a broad range of therapeutic agents. By linking drug activity to the functional complexity of cancer genomes, systematic pharmacogenomic profiling in cancer cell lines provides a powerful biomarker discovery platform to guide rational cancer therapeutic strategies.

Keywords: cancer, gene network, Lasso, penalized regression, P-values, unbiased estimator

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1545 Targeted Delivery of Novel Copper-Based Nanoparticles for Advance Cancer Therapeutics

Authors: Arindam Pramanik, Parimal Karmakar

Abstract:

We have explored the synergistic anti-cancer activity of copper ion and acetylacetone complex containing 1,3 diketone group (like curcumin) in metallorganic compound “Copper acetylacetonate” (CuAA). The cytotoxicity mechanism of CuAA complex was evaluated on various cancer cell lines in vitro. Among these, reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione level (GSH) in the cell was found to increase. Further mitochondrial membrane damage was observed. The fate of cell death was found to be induced by apoptosis. For application purpose, we have developed a novel biodegradable, non-toxic polymer-based nanoparticle which has hydrophobically modified core for loading of the CuAA. Folic acid is conjugated on the surface of the polymer (chitosan) nanoparticle for targeting to cancer cells for minimizing toxicity to normal cells in-vivo. Thus, this novel drug CuAA has an efficient anticancer activity which has been targeted specifically to cancer cells through polymer nanoparticle.

Keywords: anticancer, apoptosis, copper nanoparticle, targeted drug delivery

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1544 Targeted Photoactivatable Multiagent Nanoconjugates for Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy

Authors: Shazia Bano

Abstract:

Nanoconjugates that integrate photo-based therapeutics and diagnostics within a single platform promise great advances in revolutionizing cancer treatments. However, to achieve high therapeutic efficacy, designing functionally efficacious nanocarriers to tightly retain the drug, promoting selective drug localization and release, and the validation of the efficacy of these nanoconjugates is a great challenge. Here we have designed smart multiagent, liposome based targeted photoactivatable multiagent nanoconjugates, doped with a photoactivatable chromophore benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD) labelled with an active targeting ligand cetuximab to target the EGFR receptor (over expressed in various cancer cells) to deliver a combination of therapeutic agents. This study establishes a tunable nanoplatform for the delivery of the photoactivatable multiagent nanoconjugates for tumor-specific accumulation and targeted destruction of cancer cells in complex cancer model to enhance the therapeutic index of the administrated drugs.

Keywords: targeting, photodynamic therapy, photoactivatable, nanoconjugates

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1543 Synergistic Effect of Doxorubicin-Loaded Silver Nanoparticles – Polymeric Conjugates on Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Nancy M. El-Baz, Laila Ziko, Rania Siam, Wael Mamdouh

Abstract:

Cancer is one of the most devastating diseases, and has over than 10 million new cases annually worldwide. Despite the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents, their systemic toxicity and non-selective anticancer actions represent the main obstacles facing cancer curability. Due to the effective enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect of nanomaterials, nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as drug nanocarriers providing targeted cancer drug delivery systems. In addition, several inorganic nanoparticles such as silver (AgNPs) nanoparticles demonstrated a potent anticancer activity against different cancers. The present study aimed at formulating core-shell inorganic NPs-based combinatorial therapy based on combining the anticancer activity of AgNPs along with doxorubicin (DOX) and evaluating their cytotoxicity on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These inorganic NPs-based combinatorial therapies were designed to (i) Target and kill cancer cells with high selectivity, (ii) Have an improved efficacy/toxicity balance, and (iii) Have an enhanced therapeutic index when compared to the original non-modified DOX with much lower dosage The in-vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that the NPs-based combinatorial therapy achieved the same efficacy of non-modified DOX on breast cancer cell line, but with 96% reduced dose. Such reduction in DOX dose revealed that the combination between DOX and NPs possess a synergic anticancer activity against breast cancer. We believe that this is the first report on a synergic anticancer effect at very low dose of DOX against MCF-7 cells. Future studies on NPs-based combinatorial therapy may aid in formulating novel and significantly more effective cancer therapeutics.

Keywords: nanoparticles-based combinatorial therapy, silver nanoparticles, doxorubicin, breast cancer

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1542 CanVis: Towards a Web Platform for Cancer Progression Tree Analysis

Authors: Michael Aupetit, Mahmoud Al-ismail, Khaled Mohamed

Abstract:

Cancer is a major public health problem all over the world. Breast cancer has the highest incidence rate over all cancers for women in Qatar making its study a top priority of the country. Human cancer is a dynamic disease that develops over an extended period through the accumulation of a series of genetic alterations. A Darwinian process drives the tumor cells toward higher malignancy growing the branches of a progression tree in the space of genes expression. Although it is not possible to track these genetic alterations dynamically for one patient, it is possible to reconstruct the progression tree from the aggregation of thousands of tumor cells’ genetic profiles from thousands of different patients at different stages of the disease. Analyzing the progression tree is a way to detect pivotal molecular events that drive the malignant evolution and to provide a guide for the development of cancer diagnostics, prognostics and targeted therapeutics. In this work we present the development of a Visual Analytic web platform CanVis enabling users to upload gene-expression data and analyze their progression tree. The server computes the progression tree based on state-of-the-art techniques and allows an interactive visual exploration of this tree and the gene-expression data along its branching structure helping to discover potential driver genes.

Keywords: breast cancer, progression tree, visual analytics, web platform

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1541 Surface Modified Polyamidoamine Dendrimer with Gallic Acid Overcomes Drug Resistance in Colon Cancer Cells HCT-116

Authors: Khushbu Priyadarshi, Chandramani Pathak

Abstract:

Cancer cells can develop resistance to conventional therapies especially chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to chemotherapy is another challenge in cancer therapeutics. Therefore, it is important to address this issue. Gallic acid (GA) is a natural plant compound that exhibits various biological properties including anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial. Despite of the wide spectrum biological properties GA has cytotoxic response and low bioavailability. To overcome this problem, GA was conjugated with the Polyamidoamine(PAMAM) dendrimer for improving the bioavailability and efficient delivery in drug-resistant HCT-116 Colon Cancer cells. Gallic acid was covalently linked to 4.0 G PAMAM dendrimer. PAMAM dendrimer is well established nanocarrier but has cytotoxicity due to presence of amphiphilic nature of amino group. In our study we have modified surface of PAMAM dendrimer with Gallic acid and examine their anti-proliferative effects in drug-resistant HCT-116 cells. Further, drug-resistant colon cancer cells were established and thereafter treated with different concentration of PAMAM-GA to examine their anti-proliferative potential. Our results show that PAMAM-GA conjugate induces apoptotic cell death in HCT-116 and drug-resistant cells observed by Annexin-PI staining. In addition, it also shows that multidrug-resistant drug transporter P-gp protein expression was downregulated with increasing the concentration of GA conjugate. After that we also observed the significant difference in Rh123 efflux and accumulation in drug sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cells. Thus, our study suggests that conjugation of anti-cancer agents with PAMAM could improve drug resistant property and cytotoxic response to treatment of cancer.

Keywords: drug resistance, gallic acid, PAMAM dendrimer, P-glycoprotein

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1540 Tunable Control of Therapeutics Release from the Nanochannel Delivery System (nDS)

Authors: Thomas Geninatti, Bruno Giacomo, Alessandro Grattoni

Abstract:

Nanofluidic devices have been investigated for over a decade as promising platforms for the controlled release of therapeutics. The nanochannel drug delivery system (nDS), a membrane fabricated with high precision silicon techniques, capable of zero-order release of drugs by exploiting diffusion transport at the nanoscale originated from the interactions between molecules with nanochannel surfaces, showed the flexibility of the sustained release in vitro and in vivo, over periods of time ranging from weeks to months. To improve the implantable bio nanotechnology, in order to create a system that possesses the key features for achieve the suitable release of therapeutics, the next generation of nDS has been created. Platinum electrodes are integrated by e-beam deposition onto both surfaces of the membrane allowing low voltage (<2 V) and active temporal control of drug release through modulation of electrostatic potentials at the inlet and outlet of the membrane’s fluidic channels. Hence, a tunable administration of drugs is ensured from the nanochannel drug delivery system. The membrane will be incorporated into a peek implantable capsule, which will include drug reservoir, control hardware and RF system to allow suitable therapeutic regimens in real-time. Therefore, this new nanotechnology offers tremendous potential solutions to manage chronic disease such as cancer, heart disease, circadian dysfunction, pain and stress.

Keywords: nanochannel membrane, drug delivery, tunable release, personalized administration, nanoscale transport, biomems

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1539 Hexane Extract of Thymus serpyllum L.: GC-MS Profile, Antioxidant Potential and Anticancer Impact on HepG2 (Liver Carcinoma) Cell Line

Authors: Salma Baig, Bakrudeen Ali Ahmad, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah Azizan, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Elham Rouhollahi, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla

Abstract:

Free radical damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to etiology of many chronic diseases, cancer being one of them. Recent studies have been successful in ROS targeted therapies via antioxidants using mouse models in cancer therapeutics. The present study was designed to scrutinize anticancer activity, antioxidant activity of 5 different extracts of Thymus serpyllum in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, HepG2, HCT-116, PC3, and A549. Identification of the phytochemicals present in the most active extract of Thymus serpyllum was conducted using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrophotometry and antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay. Anticancer impact of the extract in terms of IC50 was evaluated using MTT cell viability assay. Results revealed that the hexane extract showed the best anticancer activity in HepG2 (Liver Carcinoma Cell Line) with an IC50 value of 23 ± 0.14 µg/ml followed by 25 µg/ml in HCT-116 (Colon Cancer Cell Line), 30 µm/ml in MCF-7 (Breast Cancer Cell Line), 35 µg/ml in MDA-MB-231 (Breast Cancer Cell Line), 57 µg/ml in PC3 (Prostate Cancer Cell Line) and 60 µg/ml in A549 (Lung Carcinoma Cell Line). GC-MS profile of the hexane extract showed the presence of 31 compounds with carvacrol, thymol and thymoquione being the major compounds. Phenolics such as Vitamin E, terpinen-4-ol, borneol and phytol were also identified. Hence, here we present the first report on cytotoxicity of hexane extract of Thymus serpyllum extract in HepG2 cell line with a robust anticancer activity with an IC50 of 23 ± 0.14 µg/ml.

Keywords: Thymus serpyllum L., hexane extract, GC-MS profile, antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, HepG2 cell line

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1538 Functionalized Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Targeting, Cellular Uptake, and Applications in Photodynamic Therapy

Authors: Prabhavathi Sundaram, Heidi Abrahamse

Abstract:

In recent years, nanotechnology coupled with photodynamic therapy (PDT) has received considerable attention in terms of improving the effectiveness of drug delivery in cancer therapeutics. The development of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) has become revolutionary in targeted photosensitizers delivery since it improves the therapeutic index of drugs. The objective of this study was to prepare, characterize and evaluate the potential of functionalized SWCNTs using hyaluronic acid and loading it with photosensitizer and to effectively target colon cancer cells. The single-walled carbon nanotubes were covalently functionalized with hyaluronic acid and the loaded photosensitizer by non-covalent interaction. The photodynamic effect of SWCNTs is detected under laser irradiation in vitro. The hyaluronic acid-functionalized nanocomposites had a good affinity with CD44 receptors, and it avidly binds on to the surface of CACO-2 cells. The cellular uptake of nanocomposites was studied using fluorescence microscopy using lyso tracker. The anticancer activity of nanocomposites was analyzed in CACO-2 cells using different studies such as cell morphology, cell apoptosis, and nuclear morphology. The combined effect of nanocomposites and PDT improved the therapeutic effect of cancer treatment. The study suggested that the nanocomposites and PDT have great potential in the treatment of colon cancer.

Keywords: colon cancer, hyaluronic acid, single walled carbon nanotubes, photosensitizers, photodynamic therapy

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1537 Mobile Health Approaches in the Management of Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Content Analysis

Authors: Hyekyung Woo, Gwihyun Kim

Abstract:

mHealth, which encompasses mobile health technologies and interventions, is rapidly evolving in various medical specialties, and its impact is evident in oncology. This review describes current trends in research addressing the integration of mHealth into the management of breast cancer by examining evaluations of mHealth and its contributions across the cancer care continuum. Mobile technologies are perceived as effective in prevention and as feasible for managing breast cancer, but the diagnostic accuracy of these tools remains in doubt. Not all phases of breast cancer treatment involve mHealth, and not all have been addressed by research. These drawbacks in the application of mHealth to breast cancer management call for intensified research to strengthen its role in breast cancer care.

Keywords: mobile application, breast cancer, content analysis, mHealth

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1536 Association of Overweight and Obesity with Breast Cancer

Authors: Amir Ghasemlouei, Alireza Khalaj

Abstract:

In women, cancer of the breast is one of the most common incident cancer and cause of death from cancer .we reviewed the prevalence of obesity and its association with breast cancer. In this study, a total of 25 articles regarding the subject matter of the article have been presented in which 640 patients were examined that 320 patients with breast cancer and 320 were controls. The distribution of breast cancer patients and controls with respect to their anthropometric indices in patients with higher weight, which was statistically significant (60.2 ± 10.2 kg) compared with control group (56.1 ± 11.3 kg). The body mass index of patients was (26.06+/-3.42) and significantly higher than the control group (24.1+/-1.7). Obesity leads to increased levels of adipose tissue in the body that can be stored toxins and carcinogens to produce a continuous supply. Due to the high level of fat and the role of estrogen in a woman is endogenous estrogen of the tumor and regulate the activities of growth steroids, obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer is confirmed. Our study and other studies show that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer. And with a weight loss intervention for breast cancer can be prevented in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, review study, obesity, overweight

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1535 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Sachinkumar Patil, Sonali Patil, Shitalkumar Patil

Abstract:

Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, synthesis, characterization, cancer therapy, hyperthermia, application

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1534 An Extraction of Cancer Region from MR Images Using Fuzzy Clustering Means and Morphological Operations

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Gurjit Singh Bhathal

Abstract:

Cancer diagnosis is very difficult task. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is used to produce image of any part of the body and provides an efficient way for diagnosis of cancer or tumor. In existing method, fuzzy clustering mean (FCM) is used for the diagnosis of the tumor. In the proposed method FCM is used to diagnose the cancer of the foot. FCM finds the centroids of the clusters of the foot cancer obtained from MRI images. FCM thresholding result shows the extract region of the cancer. Morphological operations are applied to get extracted region of cancer.

Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fuzzy C mean clustering, segmentation, morphological operations

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1533 Lived Experience of Breast Cancer for Arab Muslim Women

Authors: Nesreen M. Alqaissi

Abstract:

Little is known about the lived experiences of breast cancer among Arab Muslim women. The researcher used a qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design to explore the lived experiences of breast cancer as described by Jordanian Muslim women. A purposive sample of 20 women with breast cancer was recruited. Data were collected utilizing individual semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using Heideggerian Hermeneutical methodology. Results: Five related themes and one constitutive pattern: (a) breast cancer means death; (b) matriarchal family members as important source of support; (c) spirituality as a way to live and survive breast cancer; (d) concealing cancer experiences to protect self and families; (e) physicians as protectors and treatment decision makers; (f) the constitutive pattern: culture influencing Jordanian women experiences with breast cancer. In conclusion, researchers and healthcare providers should consider the influence of culture, spirituality, and families, when caring for women with breast cancer from Jordan.

Keywords: breast cancer, Arab Muslim, Jordan, lived experiences, spirituality, culture

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1532 Enquiry into Psychological and Psychosocial Aspects in Cancer Care: Cancer Diseases Hospital, Zambia

Authors: Mubita Namuyamba

Abstract:

Despite an increase in the number of cancer programs and partnerships in cancer care provision, the burden of cancer in Zambia is increasingly having a significant impact on morbidity and mortality rates. The increase in cancer morbidity and mortality rates has given rise to psychological and psycho social implications (PPsI) in cancer care. Cancer patients, care givers and health care providers are faced with a multitude of PPsIs in cancer care that mainly impact negatively on the management of cancer patients. The study adopted a case study design and was purposively conducted at the Cancer Diseases Hospital in Lusaka (Zambia) after obtaining ethical clearance from the Ethics committee. The sample for this study included 70 cancer patients, 20 care givers and 5 hospital staff (4 nurses and 1 doctor). Data was collected using interviews guides, focus group discussion guides and questionnaires respectively. The qualitative data was analysed thematically. The various psychological and psychosocial challenges that conspire to deter the provision of effective cancer care nursing and improved methods of minimizing the psychological and psychosocial implications in cancer care are the products of this study.

Keywords: case study, enquiry, psychological and psycho social aspects, Zambia

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1531 Targeted Nano Anti-Cancer Drugs for Curing Cancers

Authors: Imran Ali

Abstract:

General chemotherapy for cancer treatment has many side and toxic effects. A new approach of targeting nano anti-cancer drug is under development stage and only few drugs are available in the market today. The unique features of these drugs are targeted action on cancer cells only without any side effect. Sometimes, these are called magic drugs. The important molecules used for nano anti-cancer drugs are cisplatin, carboplatin, bleomycin, 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, dactinomycin, 6-mercaptopurine, paclitaxel, topotecan, vinblastin and etoposide etc. The most commonly used materials for preparing nano particles carriers are dendrimers, polymeric, liposomal, micelles inorganic, organic etc. The proposed lecture will comprise the-of-art of nano drugs in cancer chemo-therapy including preparation, types of drugs, mechanism, future perspectives etc.

Keywords: cancer, nano-anti-cancer drugs, chemo-therapy, mechanism of action, future perspectives

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1530 The Impact of Breast Cancer Diagnosis on Omani Women

Authors: H. Al-Awaisi, M. H. Al-Azri, S. Al-Rasbi, M. Al-Moundhri

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. It is also the most common cancer among females in Oman with 100 new breast cancer cases diagnosed every year. It has been found that breast cancer have a devastating effect on women’s life. Women diagnosed with breast cancer might develop negative attitudes towards the illness and their bodies. They might also suffer from psychological ailments such as depression. Despite the evidence on the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on women, there was no study found to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis among women in Oman. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on Omani women. Data was collected through semi-structured individual interviews with 11 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data were analyzed thematically. From the data, there are four main themes identified in relation to the impact of cancer diagnosis on Omani women. These are 'shock and disbelieve', 'a death sentence', “uncertain future” and “social stigma”. At the time of interviews, all participants had advanced breast cancer with some participants having metastatic disease. The impact of the word “cancer” had a profound and catastrophic effect on the women and their close relatives. In conclusion, breast cancer diagnosis was shocking and mainly perceived as a death sentence by Omani women with uncertain future and social stigma. Regardless of age, maternal status and education level, it is evident that Omani women participated in this study lacked awareness about breast cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

Keywords: breast cancer, coping, diagnosis, Oman, women

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1529 The Impact of Prior Cancer History on the Prognosis of Salivary Gland Cancer Patients: A Population-based Study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Database

Authors: Junhong Li, Danni Cheng, Yaxin Luo, Xiaowei Yi, Ke Qiu, Wendu Pang, Minzi Mao, Yufang Rao, Yao Song, Jianjun Ren, Yu Zhao

Abstract:

Background: The number of multiple cancer patients was increasing, and the impact of prior cancer history on salivary gland cancer patients remains unclear. Methods: Clinical, demographic and pathological information on salivary gland cancer patients were retrospectively collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 2004 to 2017, and the characteristics and prognosis between patients with a prior cancer and those without prior caner were compared. Univariate and multivariate cox proportional regression models were used for the analysis of prognosis. A risk score model was established to exam the impact of treatment on patients with a prior cancer in different risk groups. Results: A total of 9098 salivary gland cancer patients were identified, and 1635 of them had a prior cancer history. Salivary gland cancer patients with prior cancer had worse survival compared with those without a prior cancer (p<0.001). Patients with a different type of first cancer had a distinct prognosis (p<0.001), and longer latent time was associated with better survival (p=0.006) in the univariate model, although both became nonsignificant in the multivariate model. Salivary gland cancer patients with a prior cancer were divided into low-risk (n= 321), intermediate-risk (n=223), and high-risk (n=62) groups and the results showed that patients at high risk could benefit from surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, and those at intermediate risk could benefit from surgery. Conclusion: Prior cancer history had an adverse impact on the survival of salivary gland cancer patients, and individualized treatment should be seriously considered for them.

Keywords: prior cancer history, prognosis, salivary gland cancer, SEER

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1528 Analysis of Expression Data Using Unsupervised Techniques

Authors: M. A. I Perera, C. R. Wijesinghe, A. R. Weerasinghe

Abstract:

his study was conducted to review and identify the unsupervised techniques that can be employed to analyze gene expression data in order to identify better subtypes of tumors. Identifying subtypes of cancer help in improving the efficacy and reducing the toxicity of the treatments by identifying clues to find target therapeutics. Process of gene expression data analysis described under three steps as preprocessing, clustering, and cluster validation. Feature selection is important since the genomic data are high dimensional with a large number of features compared to samples. Hierarchical clustering and K Means are often used in the analysis of gene expression data. There are several cluster validation techniques used in validating the clusters. Heatmaps are an effective external validation method that allows comparing the identified classes with clinical variables and visual analysis of the classes.

Keywords: cancer subtypes, gene expression data analysis, clustering, cluster validation

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1527 Principle Component Analysis on Colon Cancer Detection

Authors: N. K. Caecar Pratiwi, Yunendah Nur Fuadah, Rita Magdalena, R. D. Atmaja, Sofia Saidah, Ocky Tiaramukti

Abstract:

Colon cancer or colorectal cancer is a type of cancer that attacks the last part of the human digestive system. Lymphoma and carcinoma are types of cancer that attack human’s colon. Colon cancer causes deaths about half a million people every year. In Indonesia, colon cancer is the third largest cancer case for women and second in men. Unhealthy lifestyles such as minimum consumption of fiber, rarely exercising and lack of awareness for early detection are factors that cause high cases of colon cancer. The aim of this project is to produce a system that can detect and classify images into type of colon cancer lymphoma, carcinoma, or normal. The designed system used 198 data colon cancer tissue pathology, consist of 66 images for Lymphoma cancer, 66 images for carcinoma cancer and 66 for normal / healthy colon condition. This system will classify colon cancer starting from image preprocessing, feature extraction using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and classification using K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) method. Several stages in preprocessing are resize, convert RGB image to grayscale, edge detection and last, histogram equalization. Tests will be done by trying some K-NN input parameter setting. The result of this project is an image processing system that can detect and classify the type of colon cancer with high accuracy and low computation time.

Keywords: carcinoma, colorectal cancer, k-nearest neighbor, lymphoma, principle component analysis

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1526 Intelligent Prediction of Breast Cancer Severity

Authors: Wahab Ali, Oyebade K. Oyedotun, Adnan Khashman

Abstract:

Breast cancer remains a threat to the woman’s world in view of survival rates, it early diagnosis and mortality statistics. So far, research has shown that many survivors of breast cancer cases are in the ones with early diagnosis. Breast cancer is usually categorized into stages which indicates its severity and corresponding survival rates for patients. Investigations show that the farther into the stages before diagnosis the lesser the chance of survival; hence the early diagnosis of breast cancer becomes imperative, and consequently the application of novel technologies to achieving this. Over the year, mammograms have used in the diagnosis of breast cancer, but the inconclusive deductions made from such scans lead to either false negative cases where cancer patients may be left untreated or false positive where unnecessary biopsies are carried out. This paper presents the application of artificial neural networks in the prediction of severity of breast tumour (whether benign or malignant) using mammography reports and other factors that are related to breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, intelligent classification, neural networks, mammography

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1525 Discover a New Technique for Cancer Recognition by Analysis and Determination of Fractal Dimension Images in Matlab Software

Authors: Saeedeh Shahbazkhany

Abstract:

Cancer is a terrible disease that, if not diagnosed early, therapy can be difficult while it is easily medicable if it is diagnosed in early stages. So it is very important for cancer diagnosis that medical procedures are performed. In this paper we introduce a new method. In this method, we only need pictures of healthy cells and cancer cells. In fact, where we suspect cancer, we take a picture of cells or tissue in that area, and then take some pictures of the surrounding tissues. Then, fractal dimension of images are calculated and compared. Cancer can be easily detected by comparing the fractal dimension of images. In this method, we use Matlab software.

Keywords: Matlab software, fractal dimension, cancer, surrounding tissues, cells or tissue, new method

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1524 Phylogenetic Study of L1 Protein Human Papillomavirus Type 16 From Cervical Cancer Patients in Bandung

Authors: Fitri Rahmi Fadhilah, Edhyana Sahiratmadja, Ani Melani Maskoen, Ratu Safitri, Supartini Syarif, Herman Susanto

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. In Indonesia, the incidence of cervical cancer cases is estimated at 25-40 per 100,000 women per year. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause of cervical cancer, and HPV-16 is the most common genotype that infects the cervical tissue. The major late protein L1 may be associated with infectivity and pathogenicity and its variation can be used to classify HPV isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the phylogenetic tree of HPV 16 L1 gene from cervical cancer patient isolates in Bandung. After confirming HPV-16 by Linear Array Genotyping Test, L1 gene was amplified using specific primers and subject for sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HPV 16 from Bandung was in the subgroup of Asia and East Asia, showing the close host-agent relationship among the Asian type.

Keywords: L1 HPV 16, cervical cancer, bandung, phylogenetic

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1523 Assessment of Barriers to the Clinical Adoption of Cell-Based Therapeutics

Authors: David Pettitt, Benjamin Davies, Georg Holländer, David Brindley

Abstract:

Cellular based therapies, whose origins can be traced from the intertwined concepts of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, have the potential to transform the current medical landscape and offer an approach to managing what were once considered untreatable diseases. However, despite a large increase in basic science activity in the cell therapy arena alongside a growing portfolio of cell therapy trials, the number of industry products available for widespread clinical use correlates poorly with such a magnitude of activity, with the number of cell-based therapeutics in mainstream use remaining comparatively low. This research serves to quantitatively assess the barriers to the clinical adoption of cell-based therapeutics through identification of unique barriers, specific challenges and opportunities facing the development and adoption of such therapies.

Keywords: cell therapy, clinical adoption, commercialization, translation

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1522 Knowledge of Pap Smear Test and Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid in Cervical Cancer Patients in Manado

Authors: Eric Ng, Freddy W. Wagey, Frank M. M. Wagey

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide and the most common cancer in many low- and middle-income countries. The main causes are the lack of prevention programs and effective therapy, as well as the lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness for early detection. The Pap smear test and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) allow the cervical lesion to be detected so that progression to cervical cancer can be avoided. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of Pap smear test and VIA in cervical cancer patients. Methodology: A total of 67 cervical cancer patients in Manado who volunteered to participate in the research were identified as the sample. The data were collected during the month of November 2019-January 2020 with a questionnaire about the respondents' knowledge relating to Pap smear test and VIA. Questionnaire data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: Knowledge of pap smear among cervical cancer patients were good in 9 respondents (13.4%), moderate in 20 respondents (29.9%), and bad in 38 respondents (56.7%), whereas the knowledge of VIA was good in 13 respondents (19.4%), moderate in 15 respondents (22.4%), and bad in 39 respondents (58.2%). Conclusion: Majority of cervical cancer patients in Manado still had bad knowledge about Pap smear tests and VIA.

Keywords: cervical cancer, knowledge, pap smear test, visual inspection with acetic acid

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