Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Search results for: buffalo

63 The First Step to Standardization of Iranian Buffalo Milk: Physicochemical Characterization

Authors: Farnoosh Attar

Abstract:

Nowadays, buffalo’s milk due to has highly nutritional properties, has a special place among consumers and its application for the production of dairy products due to the high technological properties is increasing day by day. In the present study, the physicochemical characteristics of Iranian buffalo’s milk were compared with cow's milk. According to chemical analysis, the amount of fat, protein, and total solid was higher in buffalo milk than cow's milk (respectively, 8.2%, 4.73%, and 15.92% compared with 3.5%, 3.25%, and 12.5%). Also, the percentage of cholesterol buffalo’s milk was less than in cow's milk. In contrast, no significant difference between the pH, acidity, and specific gravity was observed. The size of buffalo milk fat globules was larger than cow's milk. In addition, the profile of buffalo free fatty acids milk showed the relatively high distribution of long chain saturated fatty acids. The presence of four major bands related to αs casein, β casein, β-lactoglobulin, and α-lactalbumin with quite higher intensity than cow’s milk was also observed. The results obtained will provide a reference investigation to improve the developing of buffalo milk standard.

Keywords: buffalo milk, physicochemical characterization, standardization, dairy products

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
62 Existing Situation on Labour Use, Health Management and Problems of Buffalo Farming in Thailand

Authors: Chonlawit Yuwajitaa, Suttipong Pruangkab

Abstract:

Existing situation on labour use, health management and problems, and ancillary work done along with buffalo farming in Thailand was studied, There were 52 farms had been interviewed during August to September 2014. The study revealed that 100 percent of labor use was family labors themselves and all of farmers reared their buffaloes and grew rice simultaneously. The farmers valued veterinary service and advice as the most important problem (40.40%) and buffalo farming health problems was found 7.69% of dystocia, retain placenta and abortion. The major problem that should be taken into account was officials involved and buffalo farming should be continually promoted by government sectors to help solving economic problems as a whole.

Keywords: buffalo, labor use, health management, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
61 Performance and Breeding Potency of Local Buffalo in Kangean Island, Sumenep, East Java, Indonesia

Authors: A. Nurgiartiningsih, G. Ciptadi, S. B. Siswijono

Abstract:

This research was done to identify the performance and breeding potency of Local Buffalo in Kangean Island, Sumenep, East Java, Indonesia. Materials used were buffalo and farmer in Kangean Island. Method used was survey with purposive sampling method. Qualitative trait and existing breeding system including the type of production system were directly observed. Quantitative trait consisted of chest girth, body weight and wither height were measured and recorded. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance applying software GENSTAT 14. Results showed the purposes of buffalo breeding in Kangean Island were for production of calves, saving, religion tradition, and buffalo racing. The combination between grazing and cut and carry system were applied in Kangean Island. Forage, grass and agricultural waste product were available abundantly especially, during the wet season. Buffalo in Kangean Island was categorized as swamp buffalo with 48 chromosomes. Observation on qualitative trait indicated that there were three skin color types: gray (81.25%), red (10.42%) and white/albino (8.33%). Analysis on quantitative trait showed that there was no significant difference between male and female buffalo. The performance of male buffalo was 132.56 cm, 119.33 cm and 174.11 cm, for the mean of body length, whither height and chest girth, respectively. The performance of female buffalo were 129.8 cm, 114.0 cm and 166.2 cm, for mean of body length, wither height and chest girth (CG), respectively. The performance of local buffalo in Kangean Island was categorized well. Kangean Island could be promoted as center of buffalo breeding and conservation. For optimal improvement of population number and its genetics value, government policy in buffalo breeding program should be implemented.

Keywords: chromosome, qualitative trait, quantitative trait, swamp buffalo

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
60 Allelic Diversity of Productive, Reproductive and Fertility Traits Genes of Buffalo and Cattle

Authors: M. Moaeen-ud-Din, G. Bilal, M. Yaqoob

Abstract:

Identification of genes of importance regarding production traits in buffalo is impaired by a paucity of genomic resources. Choice to fill this gap is to exploit data available for cow. The cross-species application of comparative genomics tools is potential gear to investigate the buffalo genome. However, this is dependent on nucleotide sequences similarity. In this study gene diversity between buffalo and cattle was determined by using 86 gene orthologues. There was about 3% difference in all genes in term of nucleotide diversity; and 0.267±0.134 in amino acids indicating the possibility for successfully using cross-species strategies for genomic studies. There were significantly higher non synonymous substitutions both in cattle and buffalo however, there was similar difference in term of dN – dS (4.414 vs 4.745) in buffalo and cattle respectively. Higher rate of non-synonymous substitutions at similar level in buffalo and cattle indicated a similar positive selection pressure. Results for relative rate test were assessed with the chi-squared test. There was no significance difference on unique mutations between cattle and buffalo lineages at synonymous sites. However, there was a significance difference on unique mutations for non synonymous sites indicating ongoing mutagenic process that generates substitutional mutation at approximately the same rate at silent sites. Moreover, despite of common ancestry, our results indicate a different divergent time among genes of cattle and buffalo. This is the first demonstration that variable rates of molecular evolution may be present within the family Bovidae.

Keywords: buffalo, cattle, gene diversity, molecular evolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
59 Bioinformatic Study of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) Gene in Different Buffalo Breeds

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Adeela Ajmal, Kim EuiSoo, Noor-ul-Ain

Abstract:

World wild, buffalo production is considered as most important component of food industry. Efficient buffalo production is related with reproductive performance of this species. Lack of knowledge of reproductive efficiency and its related genes in buffalo species is a major constraint for sustainable buffalo production. In this study, we performed some bioinformatics analysis on Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) gene and explored the possible relationship of this gene among different buffalo breeds and with other farm animals. We also found the evolution pattern for this gene among these species. We investigate CDS lengths, Stop codon variation, homology search, signal peptide, isoelectic point, tertiary structure, motifs and phylogenetic tree. The results of this study indicate 4 different motif in this gene, which are Activin-recp, GS motif, STYKc Protein kinase and transmembrane. The results also indicate that this gene has very close relationship with cattle, bison, sheep and goat. Multiple alignment (MA) showed high conservation of motif which indicates constancy of this gene during evolution. The results of this study can be used and applied for better understanding of this gene for better characterization of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) gene structure in different farm animals, which would be helpful for efficient breeding plans for animal’s production.

Keywords: buffalo, FSHR gene, bioinformatics, production

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
58 Spatial Orientation of Land Use Activities along Buffalo River Estuary: A Study in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, Eastern Cape South Africa

Authors: A. Ngunga, M. K. Soviti, S. Nakin

Abstract:

South Africa is one of the developing countries rich in estuary ecosystem. Previous studies have identified many impacts of land use activities on the pollution status of the estuaries. These land use activity and related practices are often blamed for the many pollution problems affecting the estuaries. For example, the estuarine ecosystems on a global scale are experiencing vast transformations from anthropogenic influences; Buffalo River Estuary is one of the influenced estuaries whereby the sources of pollution are unknown. These problems consequently lead to the degradation of the estuaries. The aim of the research was to establish the factors that have the potential to impact pollution status of Buffalo river estuary. Study focuses on Identifying and mapping land use activities along Buffalo River Estuary. Questionnaire survey, structured interviews, direct observation, GPS survey and ArcGIS mapping were the methods used for data collection in the area, and results were analyzed and presented by ANOVA and Microsoft Excel statistical methods. The results showed that harbour is the main source of pollution, in Buffalo River Estuary, through Ballast water discharge. Therefore that requires more concern for protecting and cleaning the estuary.

Keywords: estuary, land-use activities, pollution, mapping, water pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
57 Vitamin C Status and Nitric Oxide in Buffalo Ovarian Follicular Fluid in Relation to Seasonal Heat Stress and Phase of Estrous Cycle

Authors: H. F. Hozyen, A. M. Abo-El Maaty

Abstract:

Heat stress is a recognized problem causing huge economic losses to the buffalo breeders as well as dairy industry. The aim of the present work was to study the pattern of vitamin C and nitric oxide in follicular fluid of buffalo during different seasons of the year considering phase of estrous cycle. This study was conducted on 208 cyclic buffaloes slaughtered at Al-Qaliobia governorate, Egypt, over one year. The obtained results revealed that vitamin C in follicular fluid was significantly lower in summer than winter and spring. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) was significantly higher in summer and autumn than winter and spring. Both vitamin C and NO did not differ significantly between follicular and luteal phases. In conclusion, the present study revealed that alterations in concentrations of follicular fluid vitamin C and NO that occur in summer could be related to low summer fertility in buffalo.

Keywords: Buffalo, follicular fluid, vitamin C, nitric oxide, heat stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
56 The Influence of the Types of Smoke Powder and Storage Duration on Sensory Quality of Balinese Beef and Buffalo Meatballs

Authors: E. Abustam, M. I. Said, M. Yusuf, H. M. Ali

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This study aims to examine the sensory quality of meatballs made from Balinese beef and buffalo meat after the addition of smoke powder prior to storage at the temperatures of 2-5°C for 7 days. This study used meat from Longissimus dorsi muscle of male Balinese cattle aged 3 years and of male buffalo aged 5 years as the main raw materials, and smoke powder as a binder and preservative in making meatballs. The study was based on completely randomized design (CRD) of factorial pattern of 2 x 3 x 2 where factors 1, 2 and 3 included the types of meat (cattle and buffalo), types of smoke powder (oven dried, freeze dried and spray dried) with a level of 2% of the weight of the meat (b/b), and storage duration (0 and 7 days) with three replications respectively. The parameters measured were the meatball sensory quality (scores of tenderness, firmness, chewing residue, and intensity of flavor). The results of this study show that each type of meat has produced different sensory characteristics. The meatballs made from buffalo meat have higher tenderness and elasticity scores than the Balinese beef. Meanwhile, the buffalo meatballs have a lower residue mastication score than the Balinese beef. Each type of smoke powders has produced a relatively similar sensory quality of meatballs. It can be concluded that the smoke powder of 2% of the weight of the meat (w/w) could maintain the sensory quality of the meatballs for 7 days of storage.

Keywords: Balinese beef meatballs, buffalo meatballs, sensory quality, smoke powder

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55 Application of Dastamboo Fruit (Cucumis melo var. dudaim) Extract for Buffalo Meat Tenderization

Authors: A. Javadi, H. Asad Beygi

Abstract:

In line with the increasing demand for high-quality and safe food products, the present study is intended to examine the crude extract and juice of the fruit of Cucumis melo var. dudaim on tenderization of meat. Cubic pieces were selected from the biceps fermoris muscle of a five year-old female water buffalo; then, they were cut two or three hours after the buffalo was slaughtered. The selected samples were superficially exposed to the resolution obtained from the powder of the extract of Cucumis melo var. dudaim. Distilled water as a control sample and the powder of fruit extract of the mentioned plant with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 percent concentrations were experimented in the study. These samples were kept for three time spans of 2 hours, 7 and 14 days. Then, some tests were conducted on the samples both before and after cooking them. In general, with regard to the results obtained from the experiments and the investigations of the impact of time and different concentrations on the tenderization of buffalo meat, it can be argued that the time span of 2 hours and the concentration of 1.5 % can be considered as the best time and concentration for obtaining the most desirable tenderness. Also, tenderness increased in the samples kept for 7 and 14 days; however, due to the extraordinary decomposition, the samples were rather doughy and pasty.

Keywords: meat, Cucumis melo var. dudaim, tenderization, water buffalo

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
54 Effect of Species and Slaughtering Age on Quality Characteristics of Different Meat Cuts of Humped Cattle and Water Buffalo Bulls

Authors: Muhammad Kashif Yar, Muhammad Hayat Jaspal, Muawuz Ijaz, Zafar Hayat, Iftikhar Hussain Badar, Jamal Nasir

Abstract:

Meat quality characteristics such as ultimate pH (pHu), color, cooking loss and shear force of eight wholesale meat cuts of humped cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls at two age groups were evaluated. A total of 48 animals, 24 of each species and within species 12 from each 18 and 26 months age group were slaughtered. After 24h post-slaughter, eight meat cuts, i.e., tenderloin, sirloin, rump, cube roll, round, topside, silverside and blade were cut from the carcass. The pHu of tenderloin (5.65 vs 5.55), sirloin (5.67 vs 5.60), cube roll (5.68 vs 5.62) and blade (5.88 vs 5.72) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in buffalo than cattle. The tenderloin showed significantly higher (44.63 vs 42.23) and sirloin showed lower (P<0.05) mean L* value (42.28 vs 44.47) in cattle than buffalo whilst the mean L* value of the only tenderloin was affected by animal age. Species had a significant (P<0.05) effect on mean a*, b*, C, and h values of all meat cuts. The shear force of the majority of meat cuts, within species and age groups, varied considerably. The mean shear values of tenderloin, sirloin, cube roll and blade were higher (P<0.05) in buffalo than cattle. The shear values of rump, round, topside and silverside increased significantly (P<0.05) with animal age. In conclusion, primal cuts of cattle showed better meat quality especially tenderness than buffalo. Furthermore, calves should be raised at least up to 26 months of age to maximize profitability by providing better quality meat.

Keywords: buffalo, cattle, meat color, meat quality, slaughtering age, tenderness

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53 Anthelminthic Effect of Clitoria Ternatea on Paramphistomum Cervi in Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India

Authors: Bhanupriya Sanger, Kiran Roat, Gayatri Swarnakar

Abstract:

Helminths including Paramphistomum Cervi (P. cervi) are a major cause of reduced production in livestock or domestic ruminant. Rajasthan is the largest state of India having a maximum number of livestock. The economy of rural people largely depends on livestock such as cow, buffalo, goat and sheep. The prevalence of P. cervi helminth parasite is extremely high in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) of Udaipur, which causes the disease paramphistomiasis. This disease mainly affects milk, meat, wool production and loss of life of buffalo. Chemotherapy is the only efficient and effective tool to cure and control the helminth P. cervi infection, as efficacious vaccines against helminth have not been developed so far. Various veterinary drugs like Albendazole have been used as the standard drug for eliminating P. cervi from buffalo, but these drugs are unaffordable and inaccessible for poor livestock farmers. The fruits, leaves and seeds of Clitoria ternatea Linn. are known for their ethno-medicinal value and commonly known as “Aprajita” in India. Seed extract of Clitoria ternatea found to have a significant anthelmintic action against Paramphistomum cervi at the dose of 35 mg/ml. The tegument of treated P. cervi was compared with controlled parasites by light microscopy. Treated P. cervi showed extensive distortion and destruction of the tegument including ruptured parenchymal cells, disruption of musculature cells, swelling and vacuolization in tegumental and sub tegumental cells. As a result, it can be concluded that the seeds of Clitoria ternatea can be used as the anthelmintic agent. Key words: Paramphistomiasis, Buffalo, Alcoholic extract, Paramphistomum cervi, Clitoria ternatea.

Keywords: buffalo, Clitoria ternatea, Paramphistomiasis, Paramphistomum cervi

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
52 Effect of Varying Levels of Concentrate Ration on the Performance of Nili-Ravi Buffalo Heifer Calves

Authors: Z. M. Iqbal, M. Abdullah, K. Javed, M. A. Jabbar, A. Haque, M. Saadullah, F. Shahzad

Abstract:

The current study was conducted to set the appropriate concentrate level for Nili-Ravi buffalo heifers. Twenty seven buffalo heifers were randomly divided into three different groups A, B and C having nine animals in each group. All the heifers were given free access to chopped green fodder and fresh water. In addition, heifers of group A, B and C were given concentrate at the rate of 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of their body weight. The average daily dry matter intake was 2.69, 3.06 and 3.83 kg with average daily gain of 456.09, 398.56 and 515.87 gm in group A, B and C, respectively. The feed conversion ratio of heifers of these groups was 5.89, 7.74 and 7.52, respectively. There was non-significant (P>0.05) difference in the body measurements (height at wither, body length and heart girth), final body condition and scoring and blood serum (glucose, total protein and cholesterol) of heifers of all the three groups. The results of current study shows that there is non-significant (P>0.05) difference in the growth rate of Nili-Ravi heifers at varying levels of concentrate so, it is cost effective to raise 6-8 month calves by offering concentrate at the rate of 0.5% body weight along with free access of green fodder.

Keywords: concentrate level, buffalo heifer, body measurement, green fodder

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51 Impact of Climate Change on Some Physiological Parameters of Cyclic Female Egyptian Buffalo

Authors: Nabil Abu-Heakal, Ismail Abo-Ghanema, Basma Hamed Merghani

Abstract:

The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of seasonal variations in Egypt on hematological parameters, reproductive and metabolic hormones of Egyptian buffalo-cows. This study lasted one year extending from December 2009 to November 2010 and was conducted on sixty buffalo-cows. Group of 5 buffalo-cows at estrus phase were selected monthly. Then, after blood sampling through tail vein puncture in the 2nd day after natural service, they were divided in two samples: one with anticoagulant for hematological analysis and the other without anticoagulant for serum separation. Results of this investigation revealed that the highest atmospheric temperature was in hot summer 32.61±1.12°C versus 26.18±1.67°C in spring and 19.92±0.70°C in winter season, while the highest relative humidity % was in winter season 43.50±1.60% versus 32.50±2.29% in summer season. The rise in temperature-humidity index from 63.73±1.29 in winter to 78.53±1.58 in summer indicates severe heat stress which is associated with significant reduction in total red blood cell count (3.20±0.15×106), hemoglobin concentration (8.83±0.43 g/dl), packed cell volume (30.73±0.12%), lymphocytes % (40.66±2.33 %), serum progesterone hormone concentration (0.56±0.03 ng/mll), estradiol17-B concentration (16.8±0.64 ng/ml), triiodothyronin (T3) concentration (2.33±0.33 ng/ml) and thyroxin hormone (T4) concentration (21.66±1.66 ng/ml), while hot summer resulted in significant increase in mean cell volume (96.55±2.25 fl), mean cell hemoglobin (30.81±1.33 pg), total white blood cell count (10.63±0.97×103), neutrophils % (49.66±2.33%), serum prolactin hormone (PRL) concentration (23.45±1.72 ng/ml) and cortisol hormone concentration (4.47±0.33 ng/ml) compared to winter season. There was no significant seasonal variation in mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). It was concluded that in Egypt there was a seasonal variation in atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, temperature humidity index (THI) and the rise in THI above the upper critical level (72 units), which, for lactating buffalo-cows in Egypt is the major constraint on buffalo-cows' hematological parameters and hormonal secretion that affects animal reproduction. Hence, we should improve climatic conditions inside the dairy farm to eliminate or reduce summer infertility.

Keywords: buffalo, climate change, Egypt, physiological parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 548
50 Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Observations of Anthelminthic Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum on Paramphistomum cervi in Buffalo

Authors: Kiran Roat, Bhanupriya Sanger, Gayatri Swarnakar

Abstract:

Amphistomiasis disease is the main health problem throughout of the world and responsible for great economic losses to cattle industries, mostly to poor cattle farmers in developing countries. Among the rumen parasites, the Paramphistomum cervi were collected from the rumen of freshly slaughtered buffalo for the further treatment process. Trigonella foenum-graecum is commonly known as methi and fenugreek and their seeds are known for their therapeutic value. The present study was considered to evaluate in vitro efficacy of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum on P. cervi. 130 mg/ml concentration of aqueous extract shows total mortality of P. cervi at 5 hours. The ultrastructural surface topography of untreated animal was compared with a treated animal by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The body of untreated P. cervi in conical shape, tegumental surface is highly ridged with transverse folds and present abundance number of papillaes. Observations demonstrated that the body of treated P. cervi become shrunken & elongated. Treated parasite shows the deep breakage in tegument and the disappearance of tegumental folds & papillae. Severe blebs formations have been found. Above findings, it can be concluded that the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum can be used as an anthelminthic agent to eliminate P. cervi from the body of buffalo.

Keywords: Paramphistomum cervi, Trigonella foenum-graecum, scanning electron microscope, buffalo

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
49 Antigenic Diversity of Theileria parva Isolates from Cattle and Buffalo at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface in Southern and Eastern Africa

Authors: Mukolwe D. Lubembe, Odongo O. David, Githaka Naftali, Kanduma Esther, Marinda Oosthuizen, Kgomotso P. Sibeko

Abstract:

Theileriosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle caused by an apicomplexan protozoan parasite of the genus Theileria. In eastern and southern Africa, Theileria infections in cattle are caused by the species Theileria parva whose natural reservoir is the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Currently, East Coast Fever (ECF) caused by the cattle-derived Theileria parva is still a major problem in eastern Africa and some parts of southern Africa but not in South Africa following its eradication in the 1950s. However, Corridor disease (CD) caused by the buffalo-derived Theileria parva still remains a concern in South Africa. The diversity of Theileria parva in South Africa in comparison to other affected countries is poorly defined yet its known to be the survival strategy of this parasite. We assessed the antigenic diversity of Theileria parva isolates from Buffalo and cattle at the wildlife-livestock interface comparing samples from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. Antigenic epitopes of eight schizont antigen genes (Tp1, Tp3, Tp4, Tp5, Tp6, Tp7, Tp8 and Tp10) were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA extracted from blood samples collected from cattle and buffalo at the wildlife-livestock interface. Amplicons were purified and then sequenced on NGS platform. Full length open reading frames (ORFs) of two schizont antigen genes (Tp2 and Tp9) and one sporozoite antigen gene, p67 were also amplified from genomic DNA. Amplicons were then purified and cloned for sequencing. Analysis was based on sequence differences in the genes. Preliminary results show an extensively diverse population of Theileria parva circulating in buffalo and cattle populations at the wildlife-livestock interface. Diversity of the antigen genes contributes to the evasion of the immune system of the host by Theileria parva. This possess a concern in that, some of the Theileria parva populations may re-assort and become adapted to cattle to cause a form of theileriosis that is as fatal as ECF in areas where ECF was eradicated or is absent

Keywords: Theileria parva, east coast fever, corridor diseases, antigen genes, diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
48 Prenatal Development of Heart and Great Vessels in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

Authors: Anuradha Gupta, Neelam Bansal, Varinder Uppal

Abstract:

The present investigation was made on 35 Indian buffalo fetuses ranging from 0.9 cm to 104 cm curved crown rump length (CVRL). The gross anatomical study revealed that all structures were developed at 13 cm CVRL (87 days) in group I. At 0.9 cm CVRL (32 days) the heart was unseptated and tubular and was clearly divided into common atrial chamber dorsally and primitive ventricle in 1.2 cm CVRL fetus (34 days). Septum primum appeared at 1.9 cm CVRL (37 days), truncal ridges at 2.5 cm CVRL (39 days) and foramen ovale in 3.0 cm CVRL (42 days) buffalo foetuses. At 7.6 cm CVRL (62 days) endocardial cushions fused to form left and right atrioventricular openings and four chambered heart was formed in 8.7 cm CVRL (66 days). Endocardium and epicardium was thicker in atria as compared to ventricles in all the age groups. Myocardium of atria was thin as compared to ventricles in all the age groups and was loosely arranged. Immature hyaline cartilage was first appeared at base of aorta in 62 cm CVRL (213 days) fetuses. Intercalated discs were seen in group III and aorta, pulmonary artery, coronary artery were well appreciated in 3.2 cm CVRL (43 days). Neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides were comparatively more in atria than ventricles. Basic proteins showed strong reaction in atrium and ventricle, and intense in conduction system. Lipids and phospholipids were more in myocardium and conduction system than endocardium and epicardium. All the histochemical moieties were comparatively more in tunica intima than media and adventitia of all the great vessels of heart.

Keywords: buffalo, fetal development, histochemistry, heart

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47 Seasonal Heat Stress Effect on Cholesterol, Estradiol and Progesterone during Follicular Development in Egyptian Buffalo

Authors: Heba F. Hozyen, Hodallah H. Ahmed, S. I. A. Shalaby, G. E. S. Essawy

Abstract:

Biochemical and hormonal changes that occur in both follicular fluid and blood are involved in the control of ovarian physiology. The present study was conducted on follicular fluid and serum samples obtained from 708 buffaloes. Samples were examined for estradiol, progesterone, and cholesterol concentrations in relation to seasonal changes, ovarian follicular size, and stage of estrous cycle. The obtained results revealed that follicular fluid and serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, and cholesterol were significantly lower during summer and autumn when compared to winter and spring seasons. With the increase in follicular size, the follicular fluid levels of progesterone and cholesterol were significantly decreased, while estradiol levels were significantly increased. Estradiol and progesterone levels were significantly higher in follicular fluid than blood, while cholesterol was significantly lower in follicular fluid than serum. In conclusion, the current study threw a light on the hormonal changes in the follicular fluid and blood under the effect of heat stress which could be related to the low fertility of buffalo in the summer.

Keywords: buffalo, follicular fluid, folliculogenesis, seasonal changes, steroids

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46 Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacterial Isolates from Mastitis Milk of Cow and Buffalo in Udaipur, India

Authors: Hardik Goswami, Gayatri Swarnakar

Abstract:

-Mastitis disease has been known as one of the most costly diseases of dairy cattle and observed as an inflammatory disease of cow and buffalo udder. Mastitis badly affected animal health, quality of milk and economics of milk production along with cause’s great economic loss. Bacteria have been representing the most common etiological agents of mastitis. The antibiotic sensitivity test was important to attain accurate treatment of mastitis. The aim of present research work was to explore prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates recovered from cow and buffalo clinical mastitis milk sample. During the period of April 2010 to April 2014, total 1487 clinical mastitis milk samples of cow and buffalo were tested to check the prevalence of mastitis causing bacterial isolates. Milk samples were collected aseptically from the udder at the time of morning milking. The most prevalent bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (24.34%) followed by coliform bacteria (15.87%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus aureus (13.85%), non-coliform bacteria (13.05%), mixed infection (12.51%), Streptococcus spp. (10.96%). Out of 1487, 140 (9.42%) mastitis milk samples showed no growth on culture media. Identification of bacteria made on the basis of Standard Microbial features and procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates was investigated by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. In vitro Antibiotic susceptibility test of bacterial isolates revealed higher sensitivity to Gentamicin (74.6%), Ciprofloxacin (62.1%) and Amikacin (59.4%). The lower susceptibility was shown to Amoxicillin (21.6%), Erythromycin (26.4%) and Ceftizoxime (29.9%). Antibiotic sensitivity pattern revealed Gentamicin are the possible effective antibiotic against the major prevalent mastitis pathogens. Present research work would be helpful in increase production, quality and quantity of milk, increase annual income of dairy owners and improve health of cow and buffaloes.

Keywords: antibiotic, buffalo, cow, mastitis, prevalence

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
45 The Changes of Chemical Composition of Rice Straw Treated by a Biodecomposer Developed from Rumen Bacterial of Buffalo

Authors: A. Natsir, M. Nadir, S. Syahrir, A. Mujnisa

Abstract:

In tropical countries such as in Indonesia, rice straw plays an important role in fulfilling the needs of feed for ruminant, especially during the dry season in which the availability of forage is very limited. However, the main problem of using rice straw as a feedstuff is low digestibility due to the existence of the links between lignin and cellulose or hemicellulose, and imbalance of its minerals content. One alternative to solve this problem is by application of biodecomposer (BS) derived from rumen bacterial of the ruminant. This study was designed to assess the effects of BS application on the changes of the chemical composition of rice straw. Four adults local buffalo raised under typical feeding conditions were used as a source of inoculum for BS development. The animal was fed for a month with a diet consisted of rice straw and elephant grass before taking rumen fluid samples. Samples of rumen fluid were inoculated in the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) media under anaerobic condition for 48 hours at 37°C. The mixture of CMC media and microbes are ready to be used as a biodecomposer following incubation of the mixture under anaerobic condition for 7 days at 45°C. The effectiveness of BS then assessed by applying the BS on the straw according to completely randomized design consisted of four treatments and three replication. One hundred g of ground coarse rice straw was used as the substrate. The BS was applied to the rice straw substrate with the following composition: Rice straw without BS (P0), rice straw + 5% BS (P1), rice straw +10% BS (P2), and rice straw + 15% BS. The mixture of rice straw and BS then fermented under anaerobic for four weeks. Following the fermentation, the chemical composition of rice straw was evaluated. The results indicated that the crude protein content of rice straw significantly increased (P < 0.05) as the level of BS increased. On the other hand, the concentration of crude fiber of the rice straw was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) as the level of BS increased. Other nutrients such as minerals did not change (P > 0.05) due to the treatments. In conclusion, application of BS developed from rumen bacterial of buffalo has a promising prospect to be used as a biological agent to improve the quality of rice straw as feeding for ruminant.

Keywords: biodecomposer, local buffalo, rumen microbial, chemical composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
44 Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors of Bovine Brucellosis under Diverse Production Systems in Central Punjab, Paksitan

Authors: A. Khan, I. Khan, M. Younus, S. E. Haque, U. Waheed, H. Neubauer, A. A. Anjum, S. A. Muhammad, A. Idrees T. Abbas, S. Raza, M. A. Ali, M. Farooq, M. Mahmood, A. Hussain, H. Danish, U. Tayyab, M. Zafar, M. Aslam.

Abstract:

Brucellosis is one of the major problems of milk producing animals in our country which deteriorate the health of livestock. It is a disease of zoonotic significance which is capable of producing disease in humans leading to infertility, orchitis, abortions, and synovitis. In this particular study, milk and serum samples of cattle and buffalo (n=402) were collected from different districts of Punjab including Narowal, Gujranwala and Gujrat. Milk samples were analyzed by Milk Ring Test (MRT), while serum samples were tested through Rose Bengal Plate agglutination Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (i-ELISA). The sample tested with MRT were 9.5% positive, including cattle 9.6% and buffalo 9.3%. While using the RBPT test for the detection of serum samples and for screening purpose it was observed that 16.4% animals were seropositive, cattle were 18.8% and buffalo were 13.9% seropositive. The higher prevalence of brucellosis indicates the danger of the disease to human population. The serum samples positive by RBPT were further confirmed by the use of most specific and sensitive serological test known as i-ELISA. 11.4% animals were confirmed as seropositive by i-ELISA including cattle 13.5% seropositive and buffalo 9.3%. The results indicated high seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle as compared to buffalos. Different risk factors were also studied to know the association between disease and their spread. Advanced age, larger herds, history of abortion and pregnancy of the animals is considered to be the important factors for the prevalence and spread of the hazardous zoonotic disease. It is a core issue of developing countries like Pakistan and has major public health impact.

Keywords: humans, bovines, infertility, orchitis, abortions, seroprevalence, brucellosis

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43 Distribution of Spotted Fever Group in Ixodid Ticks, Domestic Cattle and Buffalos of Faisalabad District, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Qurat-ul-Ain, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nisar Khan, Asma Kausar, Adil Ejaz

Abstract:

Rickettsiosis, caused by a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae (SFGR), is considered as an emerging infectious disease from public and veterinary perspective. The present study reports distribution of SFGR in the host (buffalo and cattle) and vector (ticks) population determined through gene specific amplification through PCR targeting outer membrane protein (ompA). Tick and blood samples were collected using standard protocols through convenient sampling from district Faisalabad. Ticks were dissected to extract salivary glands (SG). Blood and tick SG pools were subjected to DNA extraction and amplification of ompA using PCR. Overall prevalence of SFGR was reported as 21.5% and 33.6 % from blood and ticks, respectively. Hyalomma anatolicum was more prevalent tick associated with SFGR as compared to Rhipicephalus sp. Higher prevalence of SFGR was reported in cattle (25%) population as compared to that of buffalo (17.07%). On seasonal basis, high SFGR prevalence was recorded during spring season (48.1%, 26.32%, 17.76%) as compared to winter (27.9%, 21.43%, 15.38%) in vector and host (cattle and buffalo respectively) population. Sequencing analysis indicated that rickettsial endo-symbionts were associated with ticks of the study area. These results provided baseline information about the prevalence of SFGR in vector and host population.

Keywords: Rickettsia, livestock, polymerase chain reaction, sequencing, ticks, vectors

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42 The Inclusion of the Cabbage Waste in Buffalo Ration Made of Sugarcane Waste and Its Effect on Characteristics of the Silage

Authors: Adrizal, Irsan Ryanto, Sri Juwita, Adika Sugara, Tino Bapirco

Abstract:

The objective of the research was to study the influence of the inclusion of the cabbage waste into a buffalo rations made of sugarcane waste on the feed formula and characteristic of complete feed silage. Research carried out a two-stage i.e. the feed formulation and experiment of making complete feed silage. Feed formulation is done by linear programming. Data input is the price of feed stuffs and their nutrient contents as well as requirements for rations, while the output is the use of each feed stuff and the price of complete feed. The experiment of complete feed silage was done by a completely random design 4 x 4. The treatments were 4 inclusion levels of the cabbage waste i.e. 0%,(T1) 5%(T2), 10%(T3) and 15% (T4), with 4 replications. The result of feed formulation for T1 was cabbage (0%), sugarcane top (17.9%), bagasse (33.3%), Molasses (5.0%), cabagge (0%), Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (2.7%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (9.1%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt (0.5%). The formula of T2 was cabagge (5%), sugarcane top (1.7%), bagasse (45.2%), Molasses (5.0%), , Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (3.6%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (7.5%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt (0.5%). The formula of T3 was cabbage (10%), sugarcane top (0%), bagasse (45.3%), Molasses (5.0%), Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (3.8%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (3.9%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt(0.5%). The formula of T4 was cabagge (15.0%), sugarcane top (0%), bagasse (44.1%), Molasses (5.0%), Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (3.9%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (0%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt (0.5%). An increase in the level of inclusion of the cabbage waste can decrease the cost of rations. The cost of rations (IDR/kg on DM basis) were 1442, 1367, 1333, and 1300 respectively. The rations formula were not significantly (P > 0.05) influent the on fungal colonies, smell, texture and color of the complete ration silage, but the pH increased significantly (P < 0.05). It concluded that inclusion of cabbage waste can minimize the cost of buffalo ration, without decreasing the silage quality of complete feed.

Keywords: buffalo, cabbage, complete feed, sillage characteristic, sugarcane waste

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41 Effect of Bull Exposure on Post-Partum Estrus Interval in Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

Authors: Muhammad Saleem Akhtar, Mushtaq Hussain Lashari, Ejaz Ahmad, Tanveer Ahmad, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi, Ijaz Ahmad, Masood Akhtar

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of bull exposure continuously or intermittently or its excretory products after calving on postpartum interval to estrus, in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Forty-eight buffaloes of Nili-Ravi breed were allocated one of the four treatments in a totally randomized plan using a 4 x 1 factorial design. The four treatment groups were BEC (Bull Exposed Continuously), BEI (Bull Exposed Intermittently), EPB (Excretory Products of Bull) and BNE (Bull Not Exposed). BEC; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed continuously to the physical presence of a bull whereas in BEI; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed intermittently to the physical presence of bull. EPB; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed to discharge waste (urine and feces) of bull and BNE buffaloes (n = 12) were not exposed to a bull or discharge waste of bulls. Buffaloes were exposed on day 15 after parturition. Day 15 postpartum represented d 0 for each treatment. The postpartum interval from calving to first behavioural estrus was 66.88 days in BEC, 75.12 days in BEI, 77.28 days in EPB and 76.5 days in BNE treatments. Postpartum interval to first behavioural estrus was shorter in BEC than BEI, EPB, and BNE treatments. There was no significant difference in postpartum interval to estrus between BEI, EPB and BNE treatments. In present study, the percentage of buffaloes showing estrus during experimental period was 75.0%, 66.66%, 66.66% and 58.33% in BEC, BEI, EPB and BNE treatments, respectively. The mean serum progesterone concentration did not differ significantly between BEC and other (BEI, EPB, and BNE) treatments. It was concluded that presence of bull has positive effect in reducing calving interval in Nili Ravi buffalo.

Keywords: calving interval, biostimulation, buffalo, bull exposure

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40 Detection of Leptospira interrogans in Kidney and Urine of water Buffalo and its Relationship with Histopathological and Serological Findings

Authors: M. R. Haji Hajikolaei, A. A. Nikvand, A. R. Ghadrdan, M. Ghorbanpoor, B. Mohammadian

Abstract:

This study was carried out on water buffalo for detection of Leptospira interrogans in kidney and urine and its relationship with serological findings. Blood, urine and kidney samples were taken immediately after slaughter from 353 water buffalos at Ahvaz abattoir in Khouzestan province, Iran. Sera were initially screened at serum dilution of 1:100 against seven live antigens of Leptospira interrogans: pomona, hardjo, ballum, icterohemorrhagiae, tarasovi, australis and grippotyphosa using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and sera with positive results were titrated against reacting antigens in serial twofold dilution from 1:100 to 1:800. The samples of kidney were embedded in paraffin wax and 5µm thick sections were stained routinely with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination was done on urine and kidney by using LipL32 gene primers. Antibodies against one or more serovars at dilution >:100 were detected in sera. The most frequent reactor was hardjo (56.2%), followed by pomona (52.3%), australis (9.8%), tarassovi (5.9%), grippotyphosa (4.5%) and icterohaemorrhagiae (3.9%). The L. interrogans were detected in 43 (12.2%) of examined buffaloes, so that 26 (8.2%) of kidney tissues, 14 (4.8%) of urine samples separately and 3 (0.84%) of both kidney and urine samples were positive in PCR. From 153 (43.3%) buffaloes with positive MAT, 24 cases were positive by PCR of kidney and/or urine samples, synchronously. Renal lesions such as interstitial nephritis, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), pyelonephritis, glomerolonephritis, renal fibrosis and hydronephrosis were found in 128 (36.3%) cases. Statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant association between results of MAT, PCR and interstitial nephritis.

Keywords: leptospiral infection, PCR, MAT, histopathology, river buffalo

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39 Miniaturized PVC Sensors for Determination of Fe2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+ in Buffalo-Cows’ Cervical Mucus Samples

Authors: Ahmed S. Fayed, Umima M. Mansour

Abstract:

Three polyvinyl chloride membrane sensors were developed for the electrochemical evaluation of ferrous, manganese and zinc ions. The sensors were used for assaying metal ions in cervical mucus (CM) of Egyptian river buffalo-cows (Bubalus bubalis) as their levels vary dependent on cyclical hormone variation during different phases of estrus cycle. The presented sensors are based on using ionophores, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and sulfocalix-4-arene (SCAL) for sensors 1, 2 and 3 for Fe2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+, respectively. Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) was used as the plasticizer in a polymeric matrix of polyvinylchloride (PVC). For increasing the selectivity and sensitivity of the sensors, each sensor was enriched with a suitable complexing agent, which enhanced the sensor’s response. For sensor 1, β-CD was mixed with bathophenanthroline; for sensor 2, porphyrin was incorporated with HP-β-CD; while for sensor 3, oxine was the used complexing agent with SCAL. Linear responses of 10-7-10-2 M with cationic slopes of 53.46, 45.01 and 50.96 over pH range 4-8 were obtained using coated graphite sensors for ferrous, manganese and zinc ionic solutions, respectively. The three sensors were validated, according to the IUPAC guidelines. The obtained results by the presented potentiometric procedures were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method (AAS). No significant differences for either accuracy or precision were observed between the two techniques. Successful application for the determination of the three studied cations in CM, for the purpose to determine the proper time for artificial insemination (AI) was achieved. The results were compared with those obtained upon analyzing the samples by AAS. Proper detection of estrus and correct time of AI was necessary to maximize the production of buffaloes. In this experiment, 30 multi-parous buffalo-cows were in second to third lactation and weighting 415-530 kg, and were synchronized with OVSynch protocol. Samples were taken in three times around ovulation, on day 8 of OVSynch protocol, on day 9 (20 h before AI) and on day 10 (1 h before AI). Beside analysis of trace elements (Fe2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+) in CM using the three sensors, the samples were analyzed for the three cations and also Cu2+ by AAS in the CM samples and blood samples. The results obtained were correlated with hormonal analysis of serum samples and ultrasonography for the purpose of determining of the optimum time of AI. The results showed significant differences and powerful correlation with Zn2+ composition of CM during heat phase and the ovulation time, indicating that the parameter could be used as a tool to decide optimal time of AI in buffalo-cows.

Keywords: PVC Sensors, buffalo-cows, cyclodextrins, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, artificial insemination, OVSynch protocol

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38 Efficiency for Enzyme Production of Fungi Isolated from the Stomach of Buffalo

Authors: Suphalucksana, Wichai, Sangsoponjit Settasit, Soytong Kasem

Abstract:

A study on the efficiency for enzyme production of fungi isolated from stomach of buffalo was conducted. The fungi were collected from 4 parts of stomach as rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasums. The objective to study the efficiency of fungi from stomach of buffalo had effected to produced enzyme and to selected fungi for their ability to produced enzyme cellulase, hemicellulase and ligninase. Results shown that the fungi isolated from rumen were: Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Rhyzopus stolonifer (B-RU-01-4) and Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2). From the reticulum, Aspergillus glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus orchraceus (B-RET-02-2) and Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4) were found. In the omasum Aspergillus fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA-01-4) and Rhizopus stolonifer (B-OMA-02-3) were isolated and in the abomasums Aspergillus flavas (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillus fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1), Aspergillus niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4) and Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G). Results of enzyme analysis revealed that cellulase was produced by isolated: Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4), Aspergillius glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus ochraceus (B-RET-02-2), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA-01-4), Aspergillius flavus (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1), Aspergillius niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4). Hemicellulase was produced Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Rhizopus stolonifer (B-RU-01-4), Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2), Aspergillius glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus ochraceus (B-RET-02-2), Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA -01-4), Aspergillius flavus (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1) Aspergillius niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4), Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G). For the enzyme ligninase, two isolates were found to produced this enzyme namely : Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2) and Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G).

Keywords: enzyme production from fungi, enzyme production, fungi, agricultural technology

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37 Ultrastructural Study of Surface Topography of Trematode Parasites of Domestic Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Udaipur, India

Authors: Gayatri Swarnakar

Abstract:

Paramphistomiasis and fascioliasis diseases have been prevalent due to presence of trematode parasites in the rumen and liver of domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Udaipur, India. The trematode parasites such as Paramphistomum cervi, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Orthocoelium scoliocoelium, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were collected from infected rumen and liver of the freshly slaughtered buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at local zoo abattoir in Udaipur. Live trematodes were washed in normal saline, fixed in 0.2M cacodylate fixative, post fixed in osmium tetraoxide, dehydrated, dried, coated with gold sputter and observed under scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The surface tegument of Paramphistomum cervi was spineless with transverse folds, discontinuous with ridges and grooves. Two types of sensory papillae such as knob like and button shaped were also observed. The oral opening of Cotylophoron cotylophorum was surrounded by wrinkled and ridged tegument which formed concentric elevated rings. Tegument of Cotylophoron cotylophorum in acetabulum region was observed to be rough and bee-comb like structure. Genital sucker of this worm was surrounded by a tyre- shaped elevation of the tegument. Orthocoelium scoliocoelium showed circular and concentric rings of tegumental folds around the oral sucker. Genital pore had knob like papillae with radial tegumental folds. Surface topography of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were found to be rough due to occurrence of different types of spines, three types of sensory papillae, transverse folds and grooves. Oral and ventral suckers were spineless and covered with thick rims of transverse folds. Genital pore showed small scattered spines. Present research work would provide knowledge for ultrastructural characteristics of trematode parasites for chemotherapeutic measures and help us to evolve suitable strategy for the eradication of trematode parasites from the domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

Keywords: Domestic buffalo, tegument, trematode parasites, ultrastructure

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36 Characterization of Bovine SERPIN- Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT)

Authors: Sharique Ahmed, Khushtar Anwar Salman

Abstract:

Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a major plasma serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN). Hereditary AAT deficiency is one of the common diseases in some part of the world. AAT is mainly produced in the liver and functions to protect the lung against proteolytic damage (e.g., from neutrophil elastase) acting as the major inhibitor for neutrophil elastase. α (1)-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an under recognized genetic condition that affects approximately 1 in 2,000 to 1 in 5,000 individuals and predisposes to liver disease and early-onset emphysema. Not only does α-1-antitrypsin deficiency lead to disabling syndrome of pulmonary emphysema, there are other disorders too which include ANCA (antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody) positive Wegener's granulomatosis, diffuse bronchiectasis, necrotizing panniculitis in α-1-antitrypsin phenotype (S), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and steroid dependent asthma. Augmentation therapy with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) from human plasma has been available for specific treatment of emphysema due to AAT deficiency. Apart from this several observations have also suggested a role for endogenous suppressors of HIV-1, alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) has been identified to be one of those. In view of its varied important role in humans, serum from a mammalian source was chosen for the isolation and purification. Studies were performed on the homogeneous fraction. This study suggests that the buffalo serum α-1-antritrypsin has characteristics close to ovine, dog, horse and more importantly to human α-1-antritrypsin in terms of its hydrodynamic properties such as molecular weight, carbohydrate content, etc. The similarities in the hydrodynamic properties of buffalo serum α-1-antitrypsin with other sources of mammalian α-1-antitrypsin mean that it can be further studied and be a potential source for "augmentation therapy", as well as a source of AAT replacement therapy to raise serum levels above the protective threshold. Other parameters like the amino acid sequence, the effect of denaturants, and the thermolability or thermostability of the inhibitor will be the interesting basis of future studies on buffalo serum alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT).

Keywords: α-1-antitrypsin, augmentation therapy , hydrodynamic properties, serine protease inhibitor

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35 Effect of Vermicompost and Vermitea on the Growth and Yield of Selected Vegetable Crops

Authors: Josephine R. Migalbin, Jurhamid C. Imlan, Evelyn P. Esteban

Abstract:

A study was conducted to determine the effect of vermicompost and vermitea as organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of selected vegetable crops specifically eggplant, tomatoes and sweet pepper. The study was laid-out in Randomized Complete Block Design with 4 treatments replicated 4 times. The treatments were as follows: Treatment I (control), Treatment II (vermitea), Treatment III (vermicompost with buffalo manure), and Treatment IV (vermicompost with goat and sheep manure). In all the vegetable crops, almost all parameters significantly increased compared with the control except for number of fruits in eggplant and plant height in tomatoes where no significant difference was observed among treatments. The highest marketable fruit yield (tons/ha) was obtained from plants applied with vermicompost with goat and sheep manure but comparable with plants applied with vermicompost with buffalo manure and vermitea while the control plots received the lowest yield. The 28 spotted beetle (Epilachna philippinensis), and shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) were the serious pests observed in the study on eggplant.

Keywords: marketable fruit yield, vermicompost, vermitea, vegetable crops

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34 Effect of Crude Flowers Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco Flowers on Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Cheddar Cheese

Authors: Usman Mir Khan, Ishtiaque Ahmad, Saima Inayat, H. M. Arslan Amin, Muhammad Ayaz, Nisar Ahmad

Abstract:

Citrus reticulata Blanco crude flowers extract (CFE) at four different concentration (1, 2, 3 and 4%, v/v) were used as natural milk coagulant instead of rennet to apply for Cheddar cheese making from buffalo milk. The physicochemical properties and nutrition composition of Cheddar cheeses were compared with cheese made with 0.002% (v/v) rennet (control cheese). Physico-chemical of Cheddar cheese showed that cheese made with 1% and 2% of CFE had a crumbly and slightly softer texture of cheese. While, cheeses containing 3 and 4% CFE had semi-hard textural properties of curd similar to rennet added cheese. The CFE made cheese had moisture 37 %, fat 45 % on dry basis similar to rennet made Cheddar cheese. Protein analysis shows that CFE made cheese had significant higher protein content than control. The Cheddar cheese with 3% and 1% CFE were preferred by consumers instead of 2% and 4% CFE for their taste, texture/appearance and overall acceptability. Conclusively, CFE coagulated Cheddar cheese fulfills the nutritional requirement with acceptable organoleptic characteristics and at the same time provides nutritional health benefits.

Keywords: cheddar cheese, Citrus reticulata Blanco, buffalo milk, milk coagulant

Procedia PDF Downloads 156