Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: phytoplasma

3 Study on Developmental and Pathogenesis Related Genes Expression Deregulation in Brassica compestris Infected with 16Sr-IX Associated Phytoplasma

Authors: Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad, Samia Yasin, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Tahir, Jam Nazeer Ahmad

Abstract:

Phytoplasmas are phloem-inhibited plant pathogenic bacteria that are transferred by insect vectors. Among biotic factors, Phytoplasma infection induces abnormality influencing the physiology as well as morphology of plants. In 16Sr-IX group phytoplasma-infected brassica compestris, flower abnormalities have been associated with changes in the expression of floral development genes. To determine whether methylation was involved in down-regulation of flower development, the process of DNA methylation and Demethylation was investigated as a possible mechanism for regulation of floral gene expression in phytoplasma infected Brassica transmitted by Orosious orientalis vector by using RT-PCR, MSRE-PCR, Southern blotting, Bisulfite Sequencing, etc. Transcriptional expression of methylated genes was found to be globally down-regulated in plants infected with phytoplasma, but not severely in those infested by insect vectors and variation in expression was found in genes involved in methylation. These results also showed that genes particularly orthologous to Arabidopsis APETALA3 involved in petal formation and flower development was down-regulated severely in phytoplasma-infected brassica and with the fact that phytoplasma and insect induce variation in developmental gene expression. The DNA methylation status of flower developmental gene in phytoplasma infected plants with 5-azacytidine restored gene expression strongly suggesting that DNA methylation was involved in down-regulation of floral development genes in phytoplasma infected brassica.

Keywords: genes expression, phytoplasma, DNA methylation, flower development

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
2 Climatic and Environmental Variables Do Not Affect the Diversity of Possible Phytoplasmic Vector Insects Associated with Quercus humboltii Oak Trees in Bogota, Colombia

Authors: J. Lamilla-Monje, C. Solano-Puerto, L. Franco-Lara

Abstract:

Trees play an essential role in cities due to their ability to provide multiple ecosystem goods and services. Bogota trees are threatened by factors such as pests, pathogens, contamination, among others. Among the pathogens, phytoplasmas are a potential risk for urban trees, generating symptoms that affect the ecosystem services that these trees provide in Bogota, an example of this is the affectation of Q. humboldtii by phytoplasmas, these bacteria are transmitted for insects of the order Hemiptera, this is why the objective of this work was to know if the climatic variables (humidity, precipitation, and temperature) and environmental variables (PM10 and PM2.5) could be related to the distribution of the Oak Quercus entomofauna and specifically with the phytoplasma vector insects in Bogota. For this study, the sampling points were distributed in areas of the city with contrasting variables in two types of locations: parks and streets. A total of 68 trees were sampled in which the associated insects were collected using two methodologies: jameo and agitation traps. The results show that insects of the order Hemiptera were the most abundant, including a total of 1682 individuals represented by 29 morphotypes, within this order individuals from eight families were collected (Aphidae, Aradidae, Berytidae, Cicadellidae, Issidae, Membracidae, Miridae, and Psyllidae), finding as possible vectors the families Cicadellidae, Membracidae, and Psyllidae with 959, 8 and 14 individuals respectively. Within the Cicadellidae family, 21 morphotypes were found, being reported as vectors in the literature: Amplicephalus, Exitianus atratus, Haldorus sp., Xestocephalus desertorum, Idiocerinae sp., Scaphytopius sp., the Membracidae family was represented by two morphotypes and the Psyllidae by one. Results that suggest that there is no correlation between climatic and environmental variables with the diversity of insects associated with oak. Knowing the vector insects of phytoplasmas in oak trees will complete the pathosystem and generate effective vector control.

Keywords: vector insects, diversity, phytoplasmas, Cicadellidae

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
1 Profiling the Volatile Metabolome in Pear Leaves with Different Resistance to the Pear Psylla Cacopsylla bidens (Sulc) and Characterization of Phenolic Acid Decarboxylase

Authors: Mwafaq Ibdah, Mossab, Yahyaa, Dor Rachmany, Yoram Gerchman, Doron Holland, Liora Shaltiel-Harpaz

Abstract:

Pear Psylla is the most important pest of pear in all pear-growing regions, in Asian, European, and the USA. Pear psylla damages pears in several ways: high-density populations of these insects can cause premature leaf and fruit drop, diminish plant growth, and reduce fruit size. In addition, their honeydew promotes sooty mold on leaves and russeting on fruit. Pear psyllas are also considered vectors of pear pathogens such as Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri causing pear decline that can lead to loss of crop and tree vigor, and sometimes loss of trees. Psylla control is a major obstacle to efficient integrated pest management. Recently we have identified two naturally resistance pear accessions (Py.760-261 and Py.701-202) in the Newe Ya’ar live collection. GC-MS volatile metabolic profiling identified several volatile compounds common in these accessions but lacking, or much less common, in a sensitive accession, the commercial Spadona variety. Among these volatiles were styrene and its derivatives. When the resistant accessions were used as inter-stock, the volatile compounds appear in commercial Spadona scion leaves, and it showed reduced susceptibility to pear psylla. Laboratory experiments and applications of some of these volatile compounds were very effective against psylla eggs, nymphs, and adults. The genes and enzymes involved in the specific reactions that lead to the biosynthesis of styrene in plant are unknown. We have identified a phenolic acid decarboxylase that catalyzes the formation of p-hydroxystyrene, which occurs as a styrene analog in resistant pear genotypes. The His-tagged and affinity chromatography purified E. coli-expressed pear PyPAD1 protein could decarboxylate p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid to p-hydroxystyrene and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxystyrene. In addition, PyPAD1 had the highest activity toward p-coumaric acid. Expression analysis of the PyPAD gene revealed that its expressed as expected, i.e., high when styrene levels and psylla resistance were high.

Keywords: pear Psylla, volatile, GC-MS, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 38