Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7322

Search results for: body size

7322 A Comparison Study: Infant and Children’s Clothing Size Charts in South Korea and UK

Authors: Hye-Won Lim, Tom Cassidy, Tracy Cassidy

Abstract:

Infant and children’s body shapes are changing constantly while they are growing up into adults and are also distinctive physically between countries. For this reason, optimum size charts which can represent body sizes and shapes of infants and children are required. In this study, investigations of current size charts in South Korea and UK (n=50 each) were conducted for understanding and figuring out the sizing perspectives of the clothing manufacturers. The size charts of the two countries were collected randomly from online shopping websites and those size charts’ average measurements were compared with both national sizing surveys (SizeKorea and Shape GB). The size charts were also classified by age, gender, clothing type, fitting, and other factors. In addition, the key measurement body parts of size charts of each country were determined and those will be suggested for new size charts and sizing system development.

Keywords: infant clothing, children’s clothing, body shapes, size charts

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7321 Body Composition Analysis of Wild Labeo Bata in Relation to Body Size and Condition Factor from Chenab, Multan, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Amina Zubari, Abdus Salam, Syed Ali Ayub Bukhari, Naveed Ahmad Khan

Abstract:

Seventy three wild Labeo bata of different body sizes, ranging from 8.20-16.00 cm total length and 7.4-86.19 g body weight, were studied for the analysis of body composition parameters (Water content, ash content, fat content, protein content) in relation to body size and condition factor. Mean percentage is found as for water 77.71 %, ash 3.42 %, fat 2.20 % and protein content 16.65 % in whole wet body weight. Highly significant positive correlations were observed between condition factor and body weight (r = 0.243). Protein contents, organic content and ash (% wet body weight) increase with increasing percent water contents for Labeo bata while these constituents (% dry body weight) and fat contents (% wet and dry body weight) have no influence on percent water. It was observed that variations in the body constituents have no association to body weight or length.

Keywords: Labeo bata, body size, body composition, condition factor

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7320 Effect of Mesh Size on the Supersonic Viscous Flow Parameters around an Axisymmetric Blunt Body

Authors: Haoui Rabah

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to analyze a viscous flow around the axisymmetric blunt body taken into account the mesh size both in the free stream and into the boundary layer. The resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations is realized by using the finite volume method to determine the flow parameters and detached shock position. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. Here, adequate time stepping parameter, CFL coefficient and mesh size level are selected to ensure numerical convergence. The effect of the mesh size is significant on the shear stress and velocity profile. The best solution is obtained with using a very fine grid. This study enabled us to confirm that the determination of boundary layer thickness can be obtained only if the size of the mesh is lower than a certain value limits given by our calculations.

Keywords: supersonic flow, viscous flow, finite volume, blunt body

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7319 Body Types of Softball Players in the 39th National Games of Thailand

Authors: Nopadol Nimsuwan, Sumet Prom-in

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the body types, size, and body compositions of softball players in the 39th National Games of Thailand. The population of this study was 352 softball players who participated in the 39th National Games of Thailand from which a sample size of 291 was determined using the Taro Yamane formula and selection is made with stratified sampling method. The data collected were weight, height, arm length, leg length, chest circumference, mid-upper arm circumference, calf circumference, subcutaneous fat in the upper arm area, the scapula bone area, above the pelvis area, and mid-calf area. Keys and Brozek formula was used to calculate the fat quantity, Kitagawa formula to calculate the muscle quantity, and Heath and Carter method was used to determine the values of body dimensions. The results of the study can be concluded as follows. The average body dimensions of the male softball players were the endo-mesomorph body type while the average body dimensions of female softball players were the meso-endomorph body type. When considered according to the softball positions, it was found that the male softball players in every position had the endo-mesomorph body type while the female softball players in every position had the meso-endomorph body type except for the center fielder that had the endo-ectomorph body type. The endo-mesomorph body type is suitable for male softball players, and the meso-endomorph body type is suitable for female softball players because these body types are suitable for the five basic softball skills which are: gripping, throwing, catching, hitting, and base running. Thus, people related to selecting softball players to play in sports competitions of different levels should consider factors in terms of body type, size, and body components of the players.

Keywords: body types, softball players, national games of Thailand, social sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
7318 Morphometric Relationships of Length-Weight and Length-Length of Oreochromis aureus in Relation to Body Size and Condition Factor from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdus Salam, Sumera Yasmin, Abir Ishtiaq

Abstract:

In the present study, eighty-three wild Oreochromis aureus of different body size ranging 5.3-14.6 cm in total length were collected from the River Chenab, District Muzzafer Garh, Pakistan to investigate the parameters of length –weight, length-length relationships and condition factor in relation to size. Each fish was measured and weighed on arrival at laboratory. Log transformed regressions were used to test the allometric growth. Length-weight relationship was found highly significant (r = 0.964; P < 0.01). The values of exponent “ b” in Length–weight regression (W=aL^b), deviated from 3, showing isometric growth (b = 2.75). Results for LLRs indicated that these are highly correlated (P < 0.001). Condition factor (K) found constant with increasing body weight, however, showed negative influence with increasing total length.

Keywords: lenght-weight, Oreochromis aureus, morphometric study

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7317 Length-Weight and Length-Length Relationships of Oreochromis aureus in Relation to Body Size from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Amina Zubari, Abdus Salam, Summera Yasmeen, Syed Ali Ayub Bukhari, Abir Ishtiaq

Abstract:

In the present study, eighty three wild Oreochromis aureus of different body size ranging 5.3-14.6 cm in total length were collected from the River Chenab, District Muzzafer Garh, Pakistan to investigate the parameters of length –weight, length-length relationships and condition factor in relation to size. Each fish was measured and weighed on arrival at laboratory. Log transformed regressions were used to test the allometric growth. Length-weight relationship was found highly significant (r = 0.964; P < 0.01). The values of exponent “ b” in Length–weight regression (W=aLb), deviated from 3, showing isometric growth (b = 2.75). Results for LLRs indicated that these are highly correlated (P< 0.001). Condition factor (K) found constant with increasing body weight, however, showed negative influence with increasing total length.

Keywords: Oreochromis aureus, weight-length relationship, condition factor, predictive equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 566
7316 Consumer Experience of 3D Body Scanning Technology and Acceptance of Related E-Commerce Market Applications in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Moudi Almousa

Abstract:

This research paper explores Saudi Arabian female consumers’ experiences using 3D body scanning technology and their level of acceptance of possible market applications of this technology to adopt for apparel online shopping. Data was collected for 82 women after being scanned then viewed a short video explaining three possible scenarios of 3D body scanning applications, which include size prediction, customization, and virtual try-on, before completing the survey questionnaire. Although respondents have strong positive responses towards the scanning experience, the majority were concerned about their privacy during the scanning process. The results indicated that size prediction and virtual try on had greater market application potential and a higher chance of crossing the gap based on consumer interest. The results of the study also indicated a strong positive correlation between respondents’ concern with inability to try on apparel products in online environments and their willingness to use the 3D possible market applications.

Keywords: 3D body scanning, market applications, online, apparel fit

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7315 The "Street Less Traveled": Body Image and Its Relationship with Eating Attitudes, Influence of Media and Self-Esteem among College Students

Authors: Aditya Soni, Nimesh Parikh, R. A. Thakrar

Abstract:

Background: A cross-sectional study looked to focus body image satisfaction, heretofore under investigated arena in our setting. This study additionally examined the relationship of body mass index, influence of media and self-esteem. Our second objective was to assess whether there was any relationship between body image dissatisfaction and gender. Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI), influence of media, self-esteem and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Convenience sampling was used to select participants of both genders aged from 17 to 32 on a sample size of 303 participants. Results : The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with Body mass index (P<0.001), eating attitude (P<0.001), influence of media (P<0.001) and self-esteem (P<0.001). Students with low weight had a significantly higher prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students had a significantly higher prevalence of dissatisfaction (P<0.001). Females showed more concern about body image as compared to males. Conclusions: Generally, this study reveals that the eating attitude, influence of the media and self-esteem is significantly related to the body image. On an empowering note, this level needs to be saved for overall mental and sound advancement of people. Proactive preventive measures could be started in foundations on identity improvement, acknowledgement of self and individual contrasts while keeping up ideal weight and dynamic life style.

Keywords: body image, body mass index, media, self-esteem

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7314 Chemical and Vibrational Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Viscous Flow around an Axisymmetric Blunt Body

Authors: Rabah Haoui

Abstract:

Hypersonic flows around spatial vehicles during their reentry phase in planetary atmospheres are characterized by intense aerothermodynamics phenomena. The aim of this work is to analyze high temperature flows around an axisymmetric blunt body taking into account chemical and vibrational non-equilibrium for air mixture species and the no slip condition at the wall. For this purpose, the Navier-Stokes equations system is resolved by the finite volume methodology to determine the flow parameters around the axisymmetric blunt body especially at the stagnation point and in the boundary layer along the wall of the blunt body. The code allows the capture of shock wave before a blunt body placed in hypersonic free stream. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. CFL coefficient and mesh size level are selected to ensure the numerical convergence.

Keywords: hypersonic flow, viscous flow, chemical kinetic, dissociation, finite volumes, frozen and non-equilibrium flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
7313 Influence of Season, Temperature, and Photoperiod on Growth of the Land Snail Helix aperta

Authors: S. Benbellil-Tafoughalt, J. M. Koene

Abstract:

Growth strategies are often plastic and influenced by environmental conditions. Terrestrial gastropods are particularly affected by seasonal and climatic variables, and growth rate and size at maturity are key traits in their life history. Therefore, we investigated juvenile growth of Helix aperta snails under four combinations of temperature and photoperiod using two sets of young snails, born in the laboratory from adults collected in either the autumn (aestivating snails) or spring (active snails). Parental snails were collected from Bakaro (Northeastern Algeria). Higher temperature increased adult size and reduced time to reproduction. Long day photoperiod also increased the final body weight, but had no effect on the length of the growth period. The season of birth had significant effects on length of the growth period and weight of hatchings, whereas this weight difference disappeared by adulthood. The spring snails took less time to develop and reached similar adult body weight as the autumn snails. These differences may be due to differences in egg size or quality between the snails from different seasons. More rapid growth in spring snails results in larger snails entering aestivation, a period with size-related mortality in this species.

Keywords: growth, Hélix aperta, photoperiod, temperature

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7312 Modeling and Controlling Nonlinear Dynamical Effects in Non-Contact Superconducting and Diamagnetic Suspensions

Authors: Sergey Kuznetsov, Yuri Urman

Abstract:

We present an approach to investigate non-linear dynamical effects occurring in the noncontact superconducting and diamagnetic suspensions, when levitated body has finite size. This approach is based on the calculation of interaction energy between spherical finite size superconducting or diamagnetic body with external magnetic field. Effects of small deviations from spherical shape may be also taken into account by introducing small corrections to the energy. This model allows investigating dynamical effects important for practical applications, such as nonlinear resonances, change of vibration plane, coupling of rotational and translational motions etc. We also show how the geometry of suspension affects various dynamical effects and how an inverse problem may be formulated to enforce or diminish various dynamical effects.

Keywords: levitation, non-linear dynamics, superconducting, diamagnetic stability

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7311 Perception of Reproductive Age Group Females of a Central University in India about Body Image

Authors: Rajani Vishal, C. P. Mishra

Abstract:

Background: Self-perception of an individual about own body has a strong influence on their food preference and thereby on their nutritional status. Body image is gaining importance in social theory. Globally, women in particular seem to be favour of one ideal body type (Viz A slim, tall and perfectly proportionate body). Beauty and body image ideals among research scholars can play a significant influence on their own actions. Objectives: 1) To assess perception of study subjects about body image; 2)To analyze the relationship between body image and residential status of study subjects. Material and Method: 176 female research scholars of Banaras Hindu University were selected through multistage sampling. They were interviewed with pre designed and pre-tested proforma about area of residence and perception about body image. Result: As much as 86.4% subjects were happy with the way they looked whereas 83.0% subjects considered themselves as attractive. In case of 13.6%, 27.3%, 31.8%, 14.2% and 13.1% subjects, best-described body shapes were thin, normal, curvy, athletic and overweight, respectively. Area of residence was significantly (p< o.o5) associated with perception of attractiveness and description of body shape. Conclusion: In spite of varied description of body image, majority of subjects had positive perception about their body image.

Keywords: attractiveness, body image, body shape, nutritional status

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7310 Finite Element Modeling of a Lower Limb Based on the East Asian Body Characteristics for Pedestrian Protection

Authors: Xianping Du, Runlu Miao, Guanjun Zhang, Libo Cao, Feng Zhu

Abstract:

Current vehicle safety standards and human body injury criteria were established based on the biomechanical response of Euro-American human body, without considering the difference in the body anthropometry and injury characteristics among different races, particularly the East Asian people with smaller body size. Absence of such race specific design considerations will negatively influence the protective performance of safety products for these populations, and weaken the accuracy of injury thresholds derived. To resolve these issues, in this study, we aim to develop a race specific finite element model to simulate the impact response of the lower extremity of a 50th percentile East Asian (Chinese) male. The model was built based on medical images for the leg of an average size Chinese male and slightly adjusted based on the statistical data. The model includes detailed anatomic features and is able to simulate the muscle active force. Thirteen biomechanical tests available in the literature were used to validate its biofidelity. Using the validated model, a pedestrian-car impact accident taking place in China was re-constructed computationally. The results show that the newly developed lower leg model has a good performance in predicting dynamic response and tibia fracture pattern. An additional comparison on the fracture tolerance of the East Asian and Euro-American lower limb suggests that the current injury criterion underestimates the degree of injury of East Asian human body.

Keywords: lower limb, East Asian body characteristics, traffic accident reconstruction, finite element analysis, injury tolerance

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7309 Male Oreochromis mossambica as Indicator for Water Pollution with Trace Elements in Relation to Condition Factor from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Syed M. Moeen-ud-Din Raheel, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Naeem Qaisar, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Zubair Ahmed, Muhammad Ashraf

Abstract:

Iron, Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium levels were estimated to study the risk of trace elements on human consumption. The area of collection was Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan and was evaluated by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The standards find in favor of the six heavy metals were in accordance with the threshold edge concentrations on behalf of fish meat obligatory by European and other international normative. Regressions were achieved for both size (length and weight) and condition factor with concentrations of metal present in the fish body.

Keywords: Oreochromis mossambica, toxic analysis, body size, condition factor

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7308 Identification of 332G>A Polymorphism in Exon 3 of the Leptin Gene and Partially Effects on Body Size and Tail Dimension in Sanjabi Sheep

Authors: Roya Bakhtiar, Alireza Abdolmohammadi, Hadi Hajarian, Zahra Nikousefat, Davood, Kalantar-Neyestanaki

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to determine the polymorphism in the leptin (332G>A) and its association with biometric traits in Sanjabi sheep. For this purpose, blood samples from 96 rams were taken, and tail length, width tail, circumference tail, body length, body width, and height were simultaneously recorded. PCR was performed using specific primer to amplify 463 bp fragment including exon 3 of leptin gene, and PCR products were digested by Cail restriction enzymes. The 332G>A (at 332th nucleotide of exon 3 leptin gene) that caused an amino acid change from Arg to Gln was detected by Cail (CAGNNNCTG) endonuclease, as the endonuclease cannot cut this region if G nucleotide is located in this position. Three genotypes including GG (463), GA (463, 360and 103 bp) and GG (360 bp and 103 bp) were identified after digestion by enzyme. The estimated frequencies of three genotypes including GG, GA, and AA for 332G>A locus were 0.68, 0.29 and 0.03 and those were 0.18 and 0.82 for A and G alleles, respectively. In the current study, chi-square test indicated that 332G>A positions did not deviate from the Hardy–Weinberg (HW) equilibrium. The most important reason to show HW equation was that samples used in this study belong to three large local herds with a traditional breeding system having random mating and without selection. Shannon index amount was calculated which represent an average genetic variation in Sanjabi rams. Also, heterozygosity estimated by Nei index indicated that genetic diversity of mutation in the leptin gene is moderate. Leptin gene polymorphism in the 332G>A had significant effect on body length (P<0.05) trait, and individuals with GA genotype had significantly the higher body length compared to other individuals. Although animals with GA genotype had higher body width, this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). This non-synonymous SNP resulted in different amino acid changes at codon positions111(R/Q). As leptin activity is localized, at least in part, in domains between amino acid residues 106-1406, it is speculated that the detected SNP at position 332 may affect the activity of leptin and may lead to different biological functions. Based to our results, due to significant effect of leptin gene polymorphism on body size traits, this gene may be used a candidate gene for improving these traits.

Keywords: body size, Leptin gene, PCR-RFLP, Sanjabi sheep

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7307 The Effect of Circuit Training on Aerobic Fitness and Body Fat Percentage

Authors: Presto Tri Sambodo, Suharjana, Galih Yoga Santiko

Abstract:

Having an ideal body shape healthy body are the desire of everyone, both young and old. The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) the effect of block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, (2) the effect of non-block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, and (3) differences in the effect of exercise on block and non-circuit training block against aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. This research is an experimental research with the prestest posttest design Two groups design. The population in this study were 57 members of fat loss at GOR UNY Fitness Center. The retrieval technique uses purposive random sampling with a sample of 20 people. The instruments with rockport test (1.6 KM) and body fat percentage with a scale of bioelectrical impedance analysis omron (BIA). So it can be concluded the circuit training between block and non-block has a significant effect on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. And for differences in the effect of circuit training between blocks and non-blocks, it is more influential on aerobic fitness than the percentage of body fat.

Keywords: circuit training, aerobic fitness, body fat percentage, healthy body

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7306 Characteristics of Rectus Femoris and Physical Performance Between Adults and Elderly

Authors: Sudarat Apibantaweesakul, Poonyanat Nualon, Piyasiri Ngamsangiam, Vinitha Puengtanom, Plaiwan Suttanon

Abstract:

The rectus femoris (RF) is important as a biomarker for physical disability and capacity related to age decline. Sarcopenia in elderly people is typically defined with essential criteria of low muscle mass, low muscle strength, and poor physical performance. Characteristics of muscle ultrasound image provide the qualitative and quantitative features of muscle, including muscle thickness (MT), cross-sectional area (CSA), echo intensity (EI) for early diagnosis of sarcopenia. Understanding the coverage of RF morphological characteristics and physical performance from young adults to older people may gain a better understanding of degenerative change. The present study aimed to examine RF characteristics and physical performance changes induced by the advanced age. The study employed a cross-sectional design. A total of 45 healthy participants were recruited to the study (30 adults and 15 elderly). The RF morphological characteristics, including MT, CSA, and EI, were measured using a B-mode ultrasonographic apparatus (Toshiba, Xario 100 MX EDITION). Physical performances, including knee extension strength (KES), five times sit to stand test (FTSST), and timed up and go test (TUG) also assessed. Then statistical analyses for correlation analyses and comparisons among groups were performed. Body height, RF size (thickness and cross-sectional area), and KES were negatively correlated with age. While EI, FTSST, and TUG were positively correlated with age. Body mass showed a positive association with RF size (MT and CSA) and KES. The correlation between MT and CSA was found in RF. Additionally, MT and CSA were negatively correlated with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), EI, FTSST, and TUG, while positive correlations between RF size and KES were found. For comparison results, there were significant differences of body height; RF morphological characteristics (including normalized MT and CSA, and EI); normalized KES; and physical performance (FTSST, and TUG) between young adults and elderly. These parameters were found to be significantly decreased in the elderly than young adults except EI. Age-related RF morphological features and physical performances could represent the degenerative changes in the elderly. These findings supported that body mass is a crucial body dimension parameter for the normalization of RF size and its strength. Moreover, subcutaneous adipose tissue should be considered for declining RF size with Increasing age. These could help for monitoring health and performance as well as for emphasizing the related RF exercise in the elderly.

Keywords: aging, echo intensity, physical performance, ultrasonography

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7305 Investigation of the Effect of Grid Size on External Store Separation Trajectory Using CFD

Authors: Alaa A. Osman, Amgad M. Bayoumy Aly, Ismail El baialy, Osama E. Abdellatif, Essam E. Khallil

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical simulation of a finned store separating from a wing-pylon configuration has been studied and validated. A dynamic unstructured tetrahedral mesh approach is accomplished by using three grid sizes to numerically solving the discretized three dimensional, inviscid and compressible Navier-stokes equations. The method used for computations of separation of an external store assuming quasi-steady flow condition. Computations of quasi-steady flow have been directly coupled to a six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) rigid-body motion code to generate store trajectories. The pressure coefficients at four different angular cuts and time histories of various trajectory parameters during the store separation are compared for every grid size with published experimental data.

Keywords: CFD modelling, transonic store separation, quasi-steady flow, moving-body trajectories

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7304 Rim Size Optimization Using Mathematical Modelling

Authors: M. Tan, N. N. Wan, N. Ramli, N. H. Hassan

Abstract:

Car drivers would always like to have custom wheel on their car for two reasons; to improve their car's aesthetic beauty and to improve their car handling. As the size of the rims or wheels played an important role in influencing the way of car handles around turns, this paper aims to present the optimality of rim size that drivers should have known while changing their rim. There are three factors that drivers should have considered while changing their rim: rim size, its weight and material of which they are made. Using mathematical analysis, this paper will focus on only one factor, which is rim size. Factors that are considered in calculating the optimum rim size are the vehicle rim radius, tire height and weight, and aspect ratio. This paper has found that there are limitations in percentage change in rim size from the original tire size. Failure to have the right offset size may cause problems in maneuvering the vehicle.

Keywords: mathematical analysis, optimum wheel size, percentage change, custom wheel

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7303 Investigating Relationship between Body Size and Physical Fitness Factors among University Students

Authors: Allahyar Arabmomeni, Hojjatollah Alaei

Abstract:

Background: The objectives of this study was to investigate effect of anthropometric variables and body composition on physical capabilities among male and female students. Materials and Methods: The study had a descriptive correlation method. The statistical population consisted of all students of Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch, from 2011 to 2013, which was about 7000 students. The statistical sample included 300 male and 300 female students who were randomly selected from among university students in proportion to frequency of students in each faculty. Descriptive statistical methods, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Results: Results of this research showed that body size of male students in the studied variables was more than that of female students (p<0.05). Moreover, there was significant difference between all the variables based on significance level of the table. Also, the results taken from the Pearson correlation of this study's variables showed a positive relationship between height and leg and hand length and sit-up, full-ups bar and vertical jump tests (p<0/01). Besides, there was a positive correlation between hand length, sit-up, full-ups bar and vertical jump tests. As far as tests of length of legs and vertical jump were concerned, a highly positive correlation was observed between them. Additionally, results of this study indicated a significant correlation at alpha level of 0.05 between age and height of the students; but, there was a negative correlation between age, sit-up and 1600-m tests (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated a relationship between size of weight, height, length of hands and legs and some physical fitness tests. Therefore, it is required to consider anthropometric factors in addition to gender and age while preparing norms of physical fitness since variables of height and length of hands also affect physical fitness evaluation.

Keywords: anthropometric variables, physical fitness factors, students, body composition

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7302 The Investigation of Correlation between Body Composition and Physical Activity in University Students

Authors: Ferruh Taspinar, Gulce K. Seyyar, Gamze Kurt, Eda O. Okur, Emrah Afsar, Ismail Saracoglu, Betul Taspinar

Abstract:

Alterations of physical activity can effect body composition (especially body fat ratio); however body mass index may not sufficient to indicate these minimal differences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition and physical activity in university students. In this study, 132 university students (mean age; 21.21±1.51) were included. Tanita BC-418 and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were used to evaluate participants. The correlation between the parameters was analysed via Spearman correlation analysis. Significance level in statistical analyses was accepted is 0.05. The results showed that there was no correlation between body mass index and physical activity (p>0.05). There was a positive correlation between body muscle ratio and physical activity, whereas a negative correlation between body fat ratio and physical activity (p<0.05). This study showed that body fat and muscle ratio affects the level of physical activity in healthy university students. Therefore, we thought that physical activity might reduce effects of the diseases caused by disturbed body composition. Further studies are required to support this idea.

Keywords: body composition, body mass index, physical activity, university student

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7301 Developing Structured Sizing Systems for Manufacturing Ready-Made Garments of Indian Females Using Decision Tree-Based Data Mining

Authors: Hina Kausher, Sangita Srivastava

Abstract:

In India, there is a lack of standard, systematic sizing approach for producing readymade garments. Garments manufacturing companies use their own created size tables by modifying international sizing charts of ready-made garments. The purpose of this study is to tabulate the anthropometric data which covers the variety of figure proportions in both height and girth. 3,000 data has been collected by an anthropometric survey undertaken over females between the ages of 16 to 80 years from some states of India to produce the sizing system suitable for clothing manufacture and retailing. This data is used for the statistical analysis of body measurements, the formulation of sizing systems and body measurements tables. Factor analysis technique is used to filter the control body dimensions from a large number of variables. Decision tree-based data mining is used to cluster the data. The standard and structured sizing system can facilitate pattern grading and garment production. Moreover, it can exceed buying ratios and upgrade size allocations to retail segments.

Keywords: anthropometric data, data mining, decision tree, garments manufacturing, sizing systems, ready-made garments

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7300 Differentiating Morphological Patterns of the Common Benthic Anglerfishes from the Indian Waters

Authors: M. P. Rajeeshkumar, K. V. Aneesh Kumar, J. L. Otero-Ferrer, A. Lombarte, M. Hashim, N. Saravanane, V. N.Sanjeevan, V. M. Tuset

Abstract:

The anglerfishes are widely distributed from shallow to deep-water habitats and are highly diverse in morphology, behaviour, and niche occupancy patterns. To understand this interspecific variability and degree of niche overlap, we performed a functional analysis of five species inhabiting Indian waters where diversity of deep-sea anglerfishes is very high. The sensory capacities (otolith shape and eye size) were also studied to improve the understanding of coexistence of species. The analyses of fish body and otolith shape clustered species in two morphotypes related to phylogenetic lineages: i) Malthopsis lutea, Lophiodes lugubri and Halieutea coccinea were characterized by a dorso-ventrally flattened body with high swimming ability and relative small otoliths, and ii) Chaunax spp. were distinguished by their higher body depth, lower swimming efficiency, and relative big otoliths. The sensory organs did not show a pattern linked to depth distribution of species. However, the larger eye size in M. lutea suggested a nocturnal feeding activity, whereas Chaunax spp. had a large mouth and deeper body in response to different ecological niches. Therefore, the present study supports the hypothesis of spatial and temporal segregation of anglerfishes in the Indian waters, which can be explained from a functional approach and understanding from sensory capabilities.

Keywords: functional traits, otoliths, niche overlap, fishes, Indian waters

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7299 A Study of Parameters That Have an Influence on Fabric Prints in Judging the Attractiveness of a Female Body Shape

Authors: Man N. M. Cheung

Abstract:

In judging the attractiveness of female body shape, visual sense is one of the important means. The ratio and proportion of body shape influence the perception of female physical attractiveness. This study aims to examine visual perception of digital textile prints on a virtual 3D model in judging the attractiveness of the body shape. Also, investigate the influences when using different shape parameters and their relationships. Participants were asked to conduct a set of questionnaires with images to rank the attractiveness of the female body shape. Results showed that morphing the fabric prints with a certain ratio and combination of shape parameters - waist and hip, can enhance the attractiveness of the female body shape.

Keywords: digital printing, 3D body modeling, fashion print design, body shape attractiveness

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7298 Classification for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Based on Random Forest

Authors: Cheng-Yu Tsai, Wen-Te Liu, Shin-Mei Hsu, Yin-Tzu Lin, Chi Wu

Abstract:

Background: Obstructive Sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common respiratory disorder during sleep. In addition, Body parameters were identified high predictive importance for OSAS severity. However, the effects of body parameters on OSAS severity remain unclear. Objective: In this study, the objective is to establish a prediction model for OSAS by using body parameters and investigate the effects of body parameters in OSAS. Methodologies: Severity was quantified as the polysomnography and the mean hourly number of greater than 3% dips in oxygen saturation during examination in a hospital in New Taipei City (Taiwan). Four levels of OSAS severity were classified by the apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) with American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) guideline. Body parameters, including neck circumference, waist size, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained from questionnaire. Next, dividing the collecting subjects into two groups: training and testing groups. The training group was used to establish the random forest (RF) to predicting, and test group was used to evaluated the accuracy of classification. Results: There were 3330 subjects recruited in this study, whom had been done polysomnography for evaluating severity for OSAS. A RF of 1000 trees achieved correctly classified 79.94 % of test cases. When further evaluated on the test cohort, RF showed the waist and BMI as the high import factors in OSAS. Conclusion It is possible to provide patient with prescreening by body parameters which can pre-evaluate the health risks.

Keywords: apnea and hypopnea index, Body parameters, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, Random Forest

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7297 Muscle Activation Comparisons in a Lat Pull down Exercise with Machine Weights, Resistance Bands and Body Weight Exercises

Authors: Trevor R. Higgins

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to compare muscle activation of the latissimus dorsi between pin-loaded machine (Lat Pull Down), resistance band (Lat Pull Down) and body-weight (Chin Up) exercises. A convenient sample of male college students with >2 years resistance training experience volunteered for the study. A paired t-test with repeated measures designs was carried out on results from EMG analysis. EMG analysis was conducted with Trigno wireless sensors (Delsys) placed laterally on the latissimus dorsi (left and right) of each participant. By conventional criteria the two-tailed P value suggested that differences between pin-loaded and body-weight was not significantly different (p = 0.93) and differences between pin-loaded and resistance band was not significantly different (p = 0.17) in muscle activity. In relation to conventional criteria the two-tailed P value suggested differences between body-weight and resistance band was not quite significantly different (p = 0.06) in muscle activity. However, effect size trends indicated that both body-weight and pin-loaded exercises where more effective in stimulating muscle electrical activity than a resistance band with male college athletes with >2 years resistance training experience. Although, resistance bands have increased in popularity in health and fitness centres, that for well-trained participants, they may not be effective in stimulating muscles of the latissimus dorsi. Therefore, when considering equipment and exercise selection for experienced resistance training participants pin-loaded machines and body-weight should be prescribed.

Keywords: pin-loaded, resistance bands, body weight, EMG analysis

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7296 The Effects of Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) towards Male Skeletal Muscle Mass

Authors: Mohd Faridz Ahmad, Amirul Hakim Hasbullah

Abstract:

Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) has been introduced to the world in the 19th and 20th centuries and has globally gained increasing attention on its usefulness. EMS is known as the application of electrical current transcutaneous to muscles through electrodes to induce involuntary contractions that can lead to the increment of muscle mass and strength. This study can be used as an alternative to help people especially those living a sedentary lifestyle to improve their muscle activity without having to go through a heavy workout session. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the effectiveness of EMS training in 5 weeks interventions towards male body composition. It was a quasi-experimental design, held at the Impulse Studio Bangsar, which examined the effects of EMS training towards skeletal muscle mass among the subjects. Fifteen subjects (n = 15) were selected to assist in this study. The demographic data showed that, the average age of the subjects was 43.07 years old ± 9.90, height (173.4 cm ± 9.09) and weight was (85.79 kg ± 18.07). Results showed that there was a significant difference on the skeletal muscle mass (p = 0.01 < 0.05), upper body (p = 0.01 < 0.05) and lower body (p = 0.00 < 0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis has been rejected in this study. As a conclusion, the application of EMS towards body composition can increase the muscle size and strength. This method has been proven to be able to improve athlete strength and thus, may be implemented in the sports science area of knowledge.

Keywords: body composition, EMS, skeletal muscle mass, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
7295 Experimental Investigation of On-Body Channel Modelling at 2.45 GHz

Authors: Hasliza A. Rahim, Fareq Malek, Nur A. M. Affendi, Azuwa Ali, Norshafinash Saudin, Latifah Mohamed

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental investigation of on-body channel fading at 2.45 GHz considering two effects of the user body movement; stationary and mobile. A pair of body-worn antennas was utilized in this measurement campaign. A statistical analysis was performed by comparing the measured on-body path loss to five well-known distributions; lognormal, normal, Nakagami, Weibull and Rayleigh. The results showed that the average path loss of moving arm varied higher than the path loss in sitting position for upper-arm-to-left-chest link, up to 3.5 dB. The analysis also concluded that the Nakagami distribution provided the best fit for most of on-body static link path loss in standing still and sitting position, while the arm movement can be best described by log-normal distribution.

Keywords: on-body channel communications, fading characteristics, statistical model, body movement

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7294 Physical Education and Bodily Practices as an Alternative for Body Design and Acceptance in LGBTI Students

Authors: Aline Giardin, Maria Rosa Chitolina

Abstract:

In the last decades, there have been changes in the organization of society. It is not by chance that in our schools we have witnessed a growing interest in actions to address violence, prejudice, and discrimination against gays, lesbians, bisexuals, transvestites, and transsexuals. Considering that gender is a category that is present in the broad scope of relations that physical education covers, it seems that the theme has not aroused due attention. The body is not just a body. It is also their environment. Society forms not only personality and behavior, but also, how the body appears. In order to problematize gender in the field of physical education, it makes sense to put the body in focus because it is of bodily practices, that body's movement, which is spoken. The sports are part of the cultural manifestations of the most different social groups. Through workshops and interviews, we will investigate the role of Sports in the process of conception and acceptance of the body in LGBTTI students. From this work we intend to work towards a greater inclusion of these students in physical education classes, as well as a better understanding of their body and their sexuality. We hope that our work will enable greater acceptance and better body design of LGBTTI students.

Keywords: body, conception, LGBTTI students, physical education

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
7293 Assessment of the Impact of Regular Pilates Exercises on Static Balance in Healthy Adult Women: Preliminary Report

Authors: Anna Słupik, Krzysztof Jaworski, Anna Mosiołek, Dariusz Białoszewski

Abstract:

Background: Maintaining the correct body balance is essential in the prevention of falls in the elderly, which is especially important for women because of postmenopausal osteoporosis and the serious consequences of falls. One of the exercise methods which is very popular among adults, and which may affect body balance in a positive way is the pilates method. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of regular pilates exercises on the ability to maintain body balance in static conditions in adult healthy women. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 20 healthy women attending pilates twice a week for at least 1 year. The control group consisted of 20 healthy women physically inactive. Women in the age range from 35 to 50 years old without pain in musculoskeletal system or other pain were only qualified to the groups. Body balance was assessed using MatScan VersaTek platform with Sway Analysis Module based on Matscan Clinical 6.7 software. The balance was evaluated under the following conditions: standing on both feet with eyes open, standing on both feet with eyes closed, one-leg standing (separately on the right and left foot) with eyes open. Each test lasted 30 seconds. The following parameters were calculated: estimated size of the ellipse of 95% confidence, the distance covered by the Center of Gravity (COG), the size of the maximum shift in the sagittal and frontal planes and load distribution between the left and right foot, as well as between rear- and forefoot. Results: It was found that there is significant difference between the groups in favor of the study group in the size of the confidence ellipse and maximum shifts of COG in the sagittal plane during standing on both feet, both with the eyes open and closed (p < 0.05). While standing on one leg both on the right and left leg, with eyes opened there was a significant difference in favor of the study group, in terms of the size of confidence ellipse, the size of the maximum shifts in the sagittal and in the frontal plane (p < 0.05). There were no differences between the distribution of load between the right and left foot (standing with both feet), nor between fore- and rear foot (in standing with both feet or one-leg). Conclusions: 1. Static balance in women exercising regularly by pilates method is better than in inactive women, which may in the future prevent falls and their consequences. 2. The observed differences in maintaining balance in frontal plane in one-leg standing may indicate a positive impact of pilates exercises on the ability to maintain global balance in terms of the reduced support surface. 3. Pilates method can be used as a form preventive therapy for all people who are expected to have problems with body balance in the future, for example in chronic neurological disorders or vestibular problems. 4. The results have shown that further prospective randomized research on a larger and more representative group is needed.

Keywords: balance exercises, body balance, pilates, pressure distribution, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 204