Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 737

Search results for: calving interval

737 Genetic and Environmental Variation in Reproductive and Lactational Performance of Holstein Cattle

Authors: Ashraf Ward

Abstract:

Effect of calving interval on 305 day milk yield for first three lactations was studied in order to increase efficiency of selection schemes and to more efficiently manage Holstein cows that have been raised on small farms in Libya. Results obtained by processing data of 1476 cows, managed in 935 small scale farms, pointed out that current calving interval significantly affects on milk production for first three lactations (p<0.05). Preceding calving interval affected 305 day milk yield (p<0.05) in second lactation only. Linear regression model accounted for 20-25 % of the total variance of 305 day milk yield. Extension of calving interval over 420, 430, 450 days for first, second and third lactations respectively, did not increase milk production when converted to 305 day lactation. Stochastic relations between calving interval and calving age and month are moderated. Values of Pierson’s correlation coefficients ranged 0.38 to 0.69. Adjustment of milk production in order to reduce effect of calving interval on total phenotypic variance of milk yield is valid for first lactation only. Adjustment of 305 day milk yield for second and third lactations in order to reduce effects of factors “calving age and month” brings about, at the same time, elimination of calving interval effect.

Keywords: milk yield, Holstien, non genetic, calving

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
736 Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows at Different Parities: A Case Study in Enrekang Regency, Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Yusuf, Abdul Latief Toleng, Djoni Prawira Rahardja, Ambo Ako, Sahiruddin Sahiruddin, Abdi Eriansyah

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to know the reproductive performance of dairy cows at different parities. A total of 60 dairy Holstein-Friesian cows with parity one to three from five small farms raised by the farmers were used in the study. All cows were confined in tie stall barn with rubber on the concrete floor. The herds were visited twice for survey with the help of a questionnaire. Reproductive parameters used in the study were days open, calving interval, and service per conception (S/C). The results of this study showed that the mean (±SD) days open of the cows in parity 2 was slightly longer than those in parity 3 (228.2±121.5 vs. 205.5±144.5; P=0.061). None cows conceived within 85 days postpartum in parity 3 in comparison to 13.8% cows conceived in parity 2. However, total cows conceived within 150 days post partum in parity 2 and parity 3 were 30.1% and 36.4%, respectively. Likewise, after reaching 210 days after calving, number of cows conceived in parity 3 had higher than number of cows in parity 2 (72.8% vs. 44.8%; P<0.05). The mean (±SD) calving interval of the cows in parity 2 and parity 3 were 508.2±121.5 and 495.5±144.1, respectively. Number of cows with calving interval of 400 and 450 days in parity 3 was higher than those cows in parity 2 (23.1% vs. 17.2% and 53.9% vs. 31.0%). Cows in parity 1 had significantly (P<0.01) lower number of S/C in comparison to the cows with parity 2 and parity 3 (1.6±1.2 vs. 3.5±3.4 and 3.3±2.1). It can be concluded that reproductive performance of the cows is affected by different parities.

Keywords: dairy cows, parity, days open, calving interval, service per conception

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
735 Effect of Bull Exposure on Post-Partum Estrus Interval in Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

Authors: Muhammad Saleem Akhtar, Mushtaq Hussain Lashari, Ejaz Ahmad, Tanveer Ahmad, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi, Ijaz Ahmad, Masood Akhtar

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of bull exposure continuously or intermittently or its excretory products after calving on postpartum interval to estrus, in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Forty-eight buffaloes of Nili-Ravi breed were allocated one of the four treatments in a totally randomized plan using a 4 x 1 factorial design. The four treatment groups were BEC (Bull Exposed Continuously), BEI (Bull Exposed Intermittently), EPB (Excretory Products of Bull) and BNE (Bull Not Exposed). BEC; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed continuously to the physical presence of a bull whereas in BEI; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed intermittently to the physical presence of bull. EPB; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed to discharge waste (urine and feces) of bull and BNE buffaloes (n = 12) were not exposed to a bull or discharge waste of bulls. Buffaloes were exposed on day 15 after parturition. Day 15 postpartum represented d 0 for each treatment. The postpartum interval from calving to first behavioural estrus was 66.88 days in BEC, 75.12 days in BEI, 77.28 days in EPB and 76.5 days in BNE treatments. Postpartum interval to first behavioural estrus was shorter in BEC than BEI, EPB, and BNE treatments. There was no significant difference in postpartum interval to estrus between BEI, EPB and BNE treatments. In present study, the percentage of buffaloes showing estrus during experimental period was 75.0%, 66.66%, 66.66% and 58.33% in BEC, BEI, EPB and BNE treatments, respectively. The mean serum progesterone concentration did not differ significantly between BEC and other (BEI, EPB, and BNE) treatments. It was concluded that presence of bull has positive effect in reducing calving interval in Nili Ravi buffalo.

Keywords: calving interval, biostimulation, buffalo, bull exposure

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
734 The Effect of Cow Reproductive Traits on Lifetime Productivity and Longevity

Authors: Lāsma Cielava, Daina Jonkus, Līga Paura

Abstract:

The age of first calving (AFC) is one of the most important factors that have a significant impact on cow productivity in different lactations and its whole life. A belated AFC leads to reduced reproductive performance and it is one of the main reasons for reduced longevity. Cows that calved in time period from 2001-2007 and in this time finished at least four lactations were included in the database. Data were obtained from 68841 crossbred Holstein Black and White (HM), crossbred Latvian Brown (LB), and Latvian Brown genetic resources (LBGR) cows. Cows were distributed in four groups depending on age at first calving. The longest lifespan was conducted for LBGR cows, but they were also characterized with lowest lifetime milk yield and life day milk yield. HM breed cows had the shortest lifespan, but in the lifespan of 2862.2 days was obtained in average 37916.4 kg milk accordingly 13.2 kg milk in one life day. HM breed cows were also characterized with longer calving intervals (CI) in first four lactations, but LBGR cows had the shortest CI in the study group. Age at first calving significantly affected the length of CI in different lactations (p<0.05). HM cows that first time calved >30 months old in the fourth lactation had the longest CI in all study groups (421.4 days). The LBGR cows were characterized with the shortest CI, but there was slight increase in second and third lactation. Age at first calving had a significant impact on cows’ age in each calving time. In the analysis, cow group was conducted that cows with age at first calving <24 months or in average 580.5 days at the time of fifth calving were 2156.7 days (5.9 years) old, but cows with age at first calving >30 months (932.6 days) at the time of fifth calving were 2560.9 days (7.3 years) old.

Keywords: age at first calving, calving interval, longevity, milk yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
733 Rumination Time and Reticuloruminal Temperature around Calving in Eutocic and Dystocic Dairy Cows

Authors: Levente Kovács, Fruzsina Luca Kézér, Ottó Szenci

Abstract:

Prediction of the onset of calving and recognizing difficulties at calving has great importance in decreasing neonatal losses and reducing the risk of health problems in the early postpartum period. In this study, changes of rumination time, reticuloruminal pH and temperature were investigated in eutocic (EUT, n = 10) and dystocic (DYS, n = 8) dairy cows around parturition. Rumination time was continuously recorded using an acoustic biotelemetry system, whereas reticuloruminal pH and temperature were recorded using an indwelling and wireless data transmitting system. The recording period lasted from 3 d before calving until 7 days in milk. For the comparison of rumination time and reticuloruminal characteristics between groups, time to return to baseline (the time interval required to return to baseline from the delivery of the calf) and area under the curve (AUC, both for prepartum and postpartum periods) were calculated for each parameter. Rumination time decreased from baseline 28 h before calving both for EUT and DYS cows (P = 0.023 and P = 0.017, respectively). After 20 h before calving, it decreased onwards to reach 32.4 ± 2.3 and 13.2 ± 2.0 min/4 h between 8 and 4 h before delivery in EUT and DYS cows, respectively, and then it decreased below 10 and 5 min during the last 4 h before calving (P = 0.003 and P = 0.008, respectively). Until 12 h after delivery rumination time reached 42.6 ± 2.7 and 51.0 ± 3.1 min/4 h in DYS and EUT dams, respectively, however, AUC and time to return to baseline suggested lower rumination activity in DYS cows than in EUT dams for the 168-h postpartum observational period (P = 0.012 and P = 0.002, respectively). Reticuloruminal pH decreased from baseline 56 h before calving both for EUT and DYS cows (P = 0.012 and P = 0.016, respectively), but did not differ between groups before delivery. In DYS cows, reticuloruminal temperature decreased from baseline 32 h before calving by 0.23 ± 0.02 °C (P = 0.012), whereas in EUT cows such a decrease was found only 20 h before delivery (0.48 ± 0.05 °C, P < 0.01). AUC of reticuloruminal temperature calculated for the prepartum period was greater in EUT cows than in DYS cows (P = 0.042). During the first 4 h after calving, it decreased from 39.7 ± 0.1 to 39.00 ± 0.1 °C and from 39.8 ± 0.1 to 38.8 ± 0.1 °C in EUT and DYS cows, respectively (P < 0.01 for both groups) and reached baseline levels after 35.4 ± 3.4 and 37.8 ± 4.2 h after calving in EUT and DYS cows, respectively. Based on our results, continuous monitoring of changes in rumination time and reticuloruminal temperature seems to be promising in the early detection of cows with a higher risk of dystocia. Depressed postpartum rumination time of DYS cows highlights the importance of the monitoring of cows experiencing difficulties at calving.

Keywords: reticuloruminal pH, reticuloruminal temperature, rumination time, dairy cows, dystocia

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
732 Effect of Feed Supplement Optipartum C+ 200 (Alfa- Amylase and Beta-Glucanase) in In-Line Rumination Parameters

Authors: Ramūnas Antanaitis, Lina Anskienė, Robertas Stoškus

Abstract:

This study was conducted during 2021.05.01 – 2021.08.31 at the Lithuanian University of health sciences and one Lithuanian dairy farm with 500 dairy cows (55.911381565736, 21.881321760608195). Average calving – 50 cows per month. Cows (n=20) in the treatment group (TG) were fed with feed supplement Optipartum C+ 200 (Enzymes: Alfa- Amylase 57 Units; Beta-Glucanase 107 Units) from 21 days before calving till 30 days after calving with feeding rate 200g/cow/day. Cows in the control group (CG) were fed a feed ration without feed supplement. Measurements started from 6 days before calving and continued till 21 days after calving. The following indicators were registered: with the RumiWatch System: Rumination time; Eating time; Drinking time; Rumination chews; Eating chews; Drinking gulps; Bolus; Chews per minute; Chews per bolus. With SmaXtec system - the temperature, pH of the contents of cows' reticulorumens and cows' activity. According to our results, we found that feeding of cows, from 21 days before calving to 30 days after calving, with a feed supplement with alfa- amylase and beta-glucanase (Optipartum C+ 200) (with dose 200g/cow/day) can produce an increase in: 9% rumination time and eating time, 19% drinking time, 11% rumination chews, 16% eating chews,13% number of boluses per rumination, 5% chews per minute and 16% chews per bolus. We found 1.28 % lower reiticulorumen pH and 0.64% lower reticulorumen temperature in cows fed with the supplement compared with control group cows. Also, cows feeding with enzymes were 8.80% more active.

Keywords: Alfa-Amylase, Beta-Glucanase, cows, in-line, sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
731 A New Approach to Interval Matrices and Applications

Authors: Obaid Algahtani

Abstract:

An interval may be defined as a convex combination as follows: I=[a,b]={x_α=(1-α)a+αb: α∈[0,1]}. Consequently, we may adopt interval operations by applying the scalar operation point-wise to the corresponding interval points: I ∙J={x_α∙y_α ∶ αϵ[0,1],x_α ϵI ,y_α ϵJ}, With the usual restriction 0∉J if ∙ = ÷. These operations are associative: I+( J+K)=(I+J)+ K, I*( J*K)=( I*J )* K. These two properties, which are missing in the usual interval operations, will enable the extension of the usual linear system concepts to the interval setting in a seamless manner. The arithmetic introduced here avoids such vague terms as ”interval extension”, ”inclusion function”, determinants which we encounter in the engineering literature that deal with interval linear systems. On the other hand, these definitions were motivated by our attempt to arrive at a definition of interval random variables and investigate the corresponding statistical properties. We feel that they are the natural ones to handle interval systems. We will enable the extension of many results from usual state space models to interval state space models. The interval state space model we will consider here is one of the form X_((t+1) )=AX_t+ W_t, Y_t=HX_t+ V_t, t≥0, where A∈ 〖IR〗^(k×k), H ∈ 〖IR〗^(p×k) are interval matrices and 〖W 〗_t ∈ 〖IR〗^k,V_t ∈〖IR〗^p are zero – mean Gaussian white-noise interval processes. This feeling is reassured by the numerical results we obtained in a simulation examples.

Keywords: interval analysis, interval matrices, state space model, Kalman Filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
730 Effect of Prophylactic Oxytocin Therapy on Duration of Retained Fetal Membrane (RFM) in Periparturient Dairy Cows

Authors: Hamid Ghasemzadeh- Nava, Maziar Kaveh Baghbadorani, Amin Tamadon

Abstract:

Considering response of uterus to ecbolic effect of oxytocin near the time of parturition, this study was done for investigating the effect of prophylactic administration of this hormone on duration of fetal membrane retention, time interval to first detectable estrus, time interval to first service, and conception rate at first service in cases of both normal parturition and dystocia. For this reason cows with (n=18) and without (n=18) dystocia assigned randomly to treatment (n=12) or control (n=6) groups and received intramuscular injection of 100 IU of oxytocin or 10 mL of normal saline respectively. Further observations and investigations indicate that duration of fetal retention is significantly shorter in treatment group cows compared to control groups, regardless of having dystocia (P=0.002) or normal spontaneous calving (P=0.001). The same trend exists for conception rate at first service in which cows in treatment groups had significantly higher conception rate (CR) in comparison to cows in control groups with (P=0.0003) or without dystocia (P=0.017). The time interval to first detected heat and first service didn’t show any difference between groups.

Keywords: conception rate, oxytocin, RFM, time to first service

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
729 Effects of Rations with High Amount of Crude Fiber on Rumen Fermentation in Suckler Cows

Authors: H. Scholz, P. Kuehne, G. Heckenberger

Abstract:

Problems during the calving period (December until May) often are results in a high body condition score (BCS) at this time. At the end of the grazing period (frequently after early weaning), however, an increase of BCS can often be observed under German conditions. In the last eight weeks before calving, the body condition should be reduced or at least not increased. Rations with a higher amount of crude fiber can be used (rations with straw or late mowed grass silage). Fermentative digestion of fiber is slow and incomplete; that’s why the fermentative process in the rumen can be reduced over a long feeding time. Viewed in this context, feed intake of suckler cows (8 weeks before calving) in different rations and fermentation in the rumen should be checked by taking rumen fluid. Eight suckler cows (Charolais) were feeding a Total Mixed Ration (TMR) in the last eight weeks before calving and grass silage after calving. By the addition of straw (30 % [TMR1] vs. 60 % [TMR2] of dry matter) was varied the amount of crude fiber in the TMR (grass silage, straw, mineral) before calving. After calving of the cow's grass, silage [GS] was fed ad libitum, and the last measurement of rumen fluid took place on the pasture [PS]. Rumen fluid, plasma, body weight, and backfat thickness were collected. Rumen fluid pH was assessed using an electronic pH meter. Volatile fatty acids (VFA), sedimentation, methylene-blue, and amount of infusorians were measured. From these 4 parameters, an “index of rumen fermentation” [IRF] in the rumen was formed. Fixed effects of treatment (TMR1, TMR2, GS, and PS) and a number of lactations (3-7 lactations) were analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS Version 25.0 (significant by p ≤ 5 %). Rumen fluid pH was significantly influenced by variants (TMR 1 by 6.6; TMR 2 by 6.9; GS by 6.6 and PS by 6.9) but was not affected by other effects. The IRF showed disturbed fermentation in the rumen by feeding the TMR 1+2 with a high amount of crude fiber (Score: > 10.0 points) and a very good environment for fermentation during grazing the pasture (Score: 6.9 points). Furthermore, significant differences were found for VFA, methylene blue, and the number of infusorians. The use of rations with a high amount of crude fiber from weaning to calving may cause deviations from undisturbed fermentation in the rumen and adversely affect the utilization of the feed in the rumen.

Keywords: rumen fermentation, suckler cow, digestibility organic matter, crude fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
728 Effect of Amount of Crude Fiber in Grass or Silage to the Digestibility of Organic Matter in Suckler Cow Feeding Systems

Authors: Scholz Heiko, Kuhne Petra, Heckenberger Gerd

Abstract:

Problems during the calving period (December to May) often result in a high body condition score (BCS) at this time. At the end of the grazing period (frequently after early weaning), however, an increase of BCS can often be observed under German conditions. In the last eight weeks before calving, the body condition should be reduced or at least not increased. Rations with a higher amount of crude fiber can be used (rations with straw or late mowed grass silage). Fermentative digestion of fiber is slow and incomplete; that’s why the fermentative process in the rumen can be reduced over a long feeding time. Viewed in this context, feed intake of suckler cows (8 weeks before calving) in different rations and fermentation in the rumen should be checked by taking rumen fluid. Eight suckler cows (Charolais) were feeding a Total Mixed Ration (TMR) in the last eight weeks before calving and grass silage after calving. By the addition of straw (30 % [TMR1] vs. 60 % [TMR2] of dry matter) was varied the amount of crude fiber in the TMR (grass silage, straw, mineral) before calving. After calving of the cow's grass, silage [GS] was fed ad libitum, and the last measurement of rumen fluid took place on the pasture [PS]. Rumen fluid, plasma, body weight, and backfat thickness were collected. Rumen fluid pH was assessed using an electronic pH meter. Volatile fatty acids (VFA), sedimentation, methylene-blue and amount of infusorians were measured. From these 4 parameters, an “index of rumen fermentation” [IRF] in the rumen was formed. Fixed effects of treatment (TMR1, TMR2, GS and PS) and a number of lactations (3-7 lactations) were analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS Version 25.0 (significant by p ≤ 5 %). Rumen fluid pH was significant influenced by variants (TMR 1 by 6.6; TMR 2 by 6.9; GS by 6.6 and PS by 6.9) but was not affected by other effects. The IRF showed disturbed fermentation in the rumen by feeding the TMR 1+2 with a high amount of crude fiber (Score: > 10.0 points) and a very good environment for fermentation during grazing the pasture (Score: 6.9 points). Furthermore, significant differences were found for VFA, methylene blue and the number of infusorians. The use of rations with the high amount of crude fiber from weaning to calving may cause deviations from undisturbed fermentation in the rumen and adversely affect the utilization of the feed in the rumen.

Keywords: suckler cow, feeding systems, crude fiber, digestibilty of organic matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
727 Effect of Calving Season on the Economic and Production Efficiency of Dairy Production Breeds

Authors: Eman. K. Ramadan, Abdelgawad. S. El-Tahawy

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of calving season on the production and economic efficiency of dairy farms in Egypt. Our study was performed at dairy production farms in the Alexandria, Behera, and Kafr El-Sheikh provinces of Egypt from summer 2010 to winter 2013. The randomly selected dairy farms had herds consisting of Baladi, Holstein-Friesian, or cross-bred (Baladi × Holstein-Friesian) cows. The data were collected from production records and responses to a structured questionnaire. The average total return differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the different cattle breeds and calving seasons. The average total return was highest for the Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in the winter (29106.42 EGP/cow/year), and it was lowest for Baladi cows that calved in the summer (12489.79 EGP/cow/year). Differences in total returns between the cows that calved in the winter or summer or between the foreign and native breeds, as well as variations in calf prices, might have contributed to the differences in milk yield. The average net profit per cow differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the cattle breeds and calving seasons. The average net profit values for the Baladi cows that calved in the winter or summer were 2413 and 2994.96 EGP/cow/year, respectively, and those for the Holstein-Friesian cows were 10744.17 and 7860.56 EGP/cow/year, respectively, whereas those for the cross-bred cows were 10174.86 and 7571.33 EGP/cow/year, respectively. The variations in net profit might have resulted from variation in the availability or price of feed materials, milk prices, or sales volumes. Our results show that the breed and calving season of dairy cows significantly affected the economic efficiency of dairy farms in Egypt. The cows that calved in the winter produced more milk than those that calved in the summer, which may have been the result of seasonal influences, such as temperature, humidity, management practices, and the type of feed or green fodder available.

Keywords: calving season, economic, production, efficiency, dairy

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
726 Computing Maximum Uniquely Restricted Matchings in Restricted Interval Graphs

Authors: Swapnil Gupta, C. Pandu Rangan

Abstract:

A uniquely restricted matching is defined to be a matching M whose matched vertices induces a sub-graph which has only one perfect matching. In this paper, we make progress on the open question of the status of this problem on interval graphs (graphs obtained as the intersection graph of intervals on a line). We give an algorithm to compute maximum cardinality uniquely restricted matchings on certain sub-classes of interval graphs. We consider two sub-classes of interval graphs, the former contained in the latter, and give O(|E|^2) time algorithms for both of them. It is to be noted that both sub-classes are incomparable to proper interval graphs (graphs obtained as the intersection graph of intervals in which no interval completely contains another interval), on which the problem can be solved in polynomial time.

Keywords: uniquely restricted matching, interval graph, matching, induced matching, witness counting

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
725 Reproductive Traits for Holstein Cattle

Authors: Ashraf M. Ward, Ruban S. Yu

Abstract:

Data consisting of 2757 records from tow Holstein herds made between 2000 and 2010 were used to examine environmental factors affecting age at first calving (AFC) and calving intervals (CI) and consequently estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends. The overall means and standard errors for AFC and CI were 39.4 ± 7.2 months and 487.5 ± 151.6 days respectively. The respective heritability estimates were 0.091 ± 0.05 and 0.044 ± 0.032, while the repeatability estimate for CI was 0.096 ± 0.001. The genetic trends for CI and AFC were -0.6 d/yr and -0.01 mo/yr respectively and were both significant (P < 0.001), indicating a decrease in mean breeding value over the study period. Phenotypic trends were -0.31 mo/yr and -0.35 d/yr for AFC and CI respectively though non-significant (P > 0.05). The low heritability for CI and AFC indicated that temporary environmental influences were much greater than genetic influences or permanent environmental influences on these traits.

Keywords: Holstein, reproductive, genetic parameters, heritability

Procedia PDF Downloads 641
724 A Fuzzy Nonlinear Regression Model for Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets

Authors: O. Poleshchuk, E. Komarov

Abstract:

This paper presents a regression model for interval type-2 fuzzy sets based on the least squares estimation technique. Unknown coefficients are assumed to be triangular fuzzy numbers. The basic idea is to determine aggregation intervals for type-1 fuzzy sets, membership functions of whose are low membership function and upper membership function of interval type-2 fuzzy set. These aggregation intervals were called weighted intervals. Low and upper membership functions of input and output interval type-2 fuzzy sets for developed regression models are considered as piecewise linear functions.

Keywords: interval type-2 fuzzy sets, fuzzy regression, weighted interval

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
723 Asymptotic Confidence Intervals for the Difference of Coefficients of Variation in Gamma Distributions

Authors: Patarawan Sangnawakij, Sa-Aat Niwitpong

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed two new confidence intervals for the difference of coefficients of variation, CIw and CIs, in two independent gamma distributions. These proposed confidence intervals using the close form method of variance estimation which was presented by Donner and Zou (2010) based on concept of Wald and Score confidence interval, respectively. Monte Carlo simulation study is used to evaluate the performance, coverage probability and expected length, of these confidence intervals. The results indicate that values of coverage probabilities of the new confidence interval based on Wald and Score are satisfied the nominal coverage and close to nominal level 0.95 in various situations, particularly, the former proposed confidence interval is better when sample sizes are small. Moreover, the expected lengths of the proposed confidence intervals are nearly difference when sample sizes are moderate to large. Therefore, in this study, the confidence interval for the difference of coefficients of variation which based on Wald is preferable than the other one confidence interval.

Keywords: confidence interval, score’s interval, wald’s interval, coefficient of variation, gamma distribution, simulation study

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
722 Effect of Irrigation Interval on Jojoba Plants under Circumstance of Sinai

Authors: E. Khattab, S. Halla

Abstract:

Jojoba plants are characterized by a tolerance of water stress, but due to the conditions of the Sinai in which the water is less, an irrigation interval study was carried out the jojoba plant from water stress without affecting the yield of oil. The field experiment was carried out at Maghara Research Station at North Sinai, Desert Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt, to study the effect of irrigation interval on five clones of jojoba plants S-L, S-610, S- 700, S-B and S-G on growth and yield characters. Results showed that the clone S-700 has increase of all growth and yield characters under all interval irrigation compare with other clones. All variable of studied confirmed that clones of jojoba had significant effect with irrigation interval at one week but decrease value with three weeks. Jojoba plants tolerance to water stress but irrigation interval every week increased seed yield.

Keywords: interval irrigation, growth and yield characters, oil, jojoba, Sinai

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
721 Biological Organic or Inorganic Sulfur Sources Feeding Effects on Intake and Some Blood Metabolites of Close-Up Holstein Cows

Authors: Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari, Esmaeil Manidari, Vahid Keshavarz

Abstract:

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of increased level of sulfur by supplementing magnesium sulfate with or without biologically organic source in dairy cow close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI) and some blood metabolites. The 24 multiparous close-up Holstein cows averaging body weight 687.94 kg and days until expected calving date 21.89 d were allocated in three different treatments (8 cows per each) in a completely randomized design. The first treatment (T1) has contained 0.21% sulfur (DM basis), the second treatment (T2) has contained 0.41% sulfur which entirely supplied through magnesium sulfate and the third treatment (T3) has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied through combination of magnesium sulfate and an organic source of sulfur. All the cows were fed same diet after parturition until 21 d. The DMI for both pre-calving (P < 0.001) and post-calving was affected by treatments (P < 0.004) and T2 showed the lowest DMI among treatments. Among the blood metabolites, glucose, calcium, and copper were decreased in T2 (P < 0.05). However, blood concentrations of BHBA, NEFA, urea, CPK, and AST were increased in T2 (P < 0.05). The results of the present study indicate that although magnesium sulfate has negative effect on dairy cow health and performance, a combination of magnesium sulfate and biological organic source of sulfur in close-up diets could have positive effects on DMI and performance of Holstein dairy cows.

Keywords: organic sulfur, dairy cow, intake, blood metabolites

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
720 Classifying and Predicting Efficiencies Using Interval DEA Grid Setting

Authors: Yiannis G. Smirlis

Abstract:

The classification and the prediction of efficiencies in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is an important issue, especially in large scale problems or when new units frequently enter the under-assessment set. In this paper, we contribute to the subject by proposing a grid structure based on interval segmentations of the range of values for the inputs and outputs. Such intervals combined, define hyper-rectangles that partition the space of the problem. This structure, exploited by Interval DEA models and a dominance relation, acts as a DEA pre-processor, enabling the classification and prediction of efficiency scores, without applying any DEA models.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, interval DEA, efficiency classification, efficiency prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
719 Group Decision Making through Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Set TOPSIS Method Using New Hybrid Score Function

Authors: Syed Talib Abbas Raza, Tahseen Ahmed Jilani, Saleem Abdullah

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This paper presents interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets based TOPSIS method for group decision making. The interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft set is a mutation of an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set and soft set. In group decision making problems IVIFSS makes the process much more algebraically elegant. We have used weighted arithmetic averaging operator for aggregating the information and define a new Hybrid Score Function as metric tool for comparison between interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values. In an illustrative example we have applied the developed method to a criminological problem. We have developed a group decision making model for integrating the imprecise and hesitant evaluations of multiple law enforcement agencies working on target killing cases in the country.

Keywords: group decision making, interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft set, TOPSIS, score function, criminology

Procedia PDF Downloads 513
718 An Integrated Approach of Isolated and Combined Aerobic and Anaerobic Interval Training for Improvement of Stride Length and Stride Frequency of Soccer Players

Authors: K. A. Ramesh

Abstract:

Purpose: The study is to find out the effect of isolated and combined aerobic and anaerobic interval training on stride length and stride frequency of Soccer players. Method(s): To achieve this purpose, 45 women Soccer players who participated in the Anna University, Tamilnadu, India. Intercollegiate Tournament was selected as subjects and were randomly divided into three equal groups of fifteen each, such as an anaerobic interval training group (group-I), anaerobic interval training group (group-II) and combined aerobic-anaerobic interval training group (group-III). The training program was conducted three days per weeks for a period of six weeks. Stride length and Stride frequency was selected as dependent variables. All the subjects of the three groups were tested on selected criterion variables at prior to and immediately after the training program. The concepts of dependent test were employed to find out the significant improvement due to the influence of training programs on all the selected criterion variables. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was also used to analyze the significant difference, if, any among the experimental groups. Result(s): The result of the study revealed that combined group was higher than aerobic interval training and anaerobic interval training groups. Conclusion(s): It was concluded that when experimental groups were compared with each other, the combined aerobic – anaerobic interval training program was found to be greater than the aerobic and the anaerobic interval training programs on the development of stride length and stride frequency. High intensity, combined aerobic – anaerobic interval training program can be carried out in a more soccer specific way than plain running.

Keywords: stride length, stride frequency, interval training, soccer

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717 Effects of Organic Chromium and Propylene Glycol on Milk Yield and Some Serum Biochemical Parameters of Early Lactation Dairy Cows

Authors: Cangir Uyarlar, Ismail Bayram, Ibrahim Sadi Cetingul, Mustafa Kabu, Eyup Eren Gultepe

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This study was conducted to determine the effects of organic chromium and organic chromium+propylene glycol on milk yield and some blood parameters related with liver fatty acid metabolism in early lactation dairy cows. Thirty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used as study material. Cows assigned to three groups as control (C), chromium (Cr) and chromium+propylene glycol (CP). Live weight, parity and body condition score were used as covariates for statistical analyses. The study began at calving and finished at 3 weeks after calving. All cows were consumed same diet. Organic chromium and organic chromium+propylene glycol were orally administrated to cows in treatment groups shortly after the morning milking. Blood samples were collected from all cows on 0 (calving), 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th, 18th, 21th days after calving. Then, samples were analyzed for BHBA (Betahydroxybutiric acids), NEFA (Non Esterified Fatty Acids), urea, total protein (TP) and glucose concentrations. Weekly milk yields were calculated from daily milk data on farm. Organic chromium treatment had no significant differences on serum biochemical parameters and milk yields. However, administration of organic chromium and propylene glycol combination decreased serum urea and total protein concentration, helped to protection from subclinical metabolic diseases via decreasing serum NEFA and BHBA concentrations. Also, this combination decreased serum glucose levels of cows. Neither only chromium nor chromium and propylene glycol combination did not affect milk yield throughout the study. These findings were suggested that orally administrations of chromium and propylene glycol combination improved liver glucose and fatty acid metabolism, decreased serum parameters which are representing subclinical diseases in early lactation dairy cows.

Keywords: chromium, early lactation dairy cows, propylene glycol, milk yield

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716 Approximate Confidence Interval for Effect Size Base on Bootstrap Resampling Method

Authors: S. Phanyaem

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This paper presents the confidence intervals for the effect size base on bootstrap resampling method. The meta-analytic confidence interval for effect size is proposed that are easy to compute. A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to compare the performance of the proposed confidence intervals with the existing confidence intervals. The best confidence interval method will have a coverage probability close to 0.95. Simulation results have shown that our proposed confidence intervals perform well in terms of coverage probability and expected length.

Keywords: effect size, confidence interval, bootstrap method, resampling

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715 Solution of Nonlinear Fractional Programming Problem with Bounded Parameters

Authors: Mrinal Jana, Geetanjali Panda

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In this paper a methodology is developed to solve a nonlinear fractional programming problem in which the coefficients of the objective function and constraints are interval parameters. This model is transformed into a general optimization problem and relation between the original problem and the transformed problem is established. Finally the proposed methodology is illustrated through a numerical example.

Keywords: fractional programming, interval valued function, interval inequalities, partial order relation

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
714 The Effects of Eight Weeks of Interval Endurance Training on hs-CRP Levels and Anthropometric Parameters in Overweight Men

Authors: S. Khoshemehry, M. J. Pourvaghar

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Inflammatory markers are known as the main predictors of cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed at determining the effect of 8 weeks of interval endurance training on hs-CRP level and some anthropometric parameters in overweight men. Following the call for participation in research project in Kashan, 73 volunteers participated in it and constituted the statistical population of the study. Then, 28 overweight young men from the age of 22 to 25 years old were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control group (n=14). Anthropometric and the blood sample was collected before and after the termination of the program for measuring hs-CRP. The interval endurance program was performed at 60 to 75% of maximum heart rate in 2 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to test whether two samples come from the same distribution and T-test was used to assess the difference of two groups which were statistically significant at the level of 0.05. The result indicated that there was a significant difference between the hs-RP, weight, BMI and W/H ratio of overweight men in posttest in the exercise group (P≤0.05) but not in the control group. Interval endurance training program causes decrease in hs-CRP level and anthropometric parameters.

Keywords: interval endurance training program, HS-CRP, overweight, anthropometric

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713 Application of Interval Valued Picture Fuzzy Set in Medical Diagnosis

Authors: Palash Dutta

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More frequently uncertainties are encountered in medical diagnosis and therefore it is the most important and interesting area of applications of fuzzy set theory. In this present study, an attempt has been made to extend Sanchez’s approach for medical diagnosis via interval valued picture fuzzy sets and exhibit the technique with suitable case studies. In this article, it is observed that a refusal can be expressed in the databases concerning the examined objects. The technique is performing diagnosis on the basis of distance measures and as a result, this approach makes it possible to introduce weights of all symptoms and consequently patient can be diagnosed directly.

Keywords: medical diagnosis, uncertainty, fuzzy set, picture fuzzy set, interval valued picture fuzzy set

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712 Impact of Dietary Rumen Protected Choline on Transition Dairy Cows’ Productive Performance

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Tony, Fayez Abaza

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The effects of a dietary supplement of rumen-protected choline on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition and some blood metabolites were evaluated in transition dairy cows. Forty multiparous cows were blocked into 20 pairs and then randomly allocated to either one of 2 treatments. The treatments were supplementation either with or without (control) rumen-protected choline. Treatments were applied from 2 weeks before and until 8 weeks after calving. Both groups received the same basal diet as total mixed ration. Additionally, 50 g of a rumen-protected choline supplement (25% rumen protected choline chloride) was added individually in the feed. Individual feed intake, milk yield, and body weight were recorded daily. Milk samples were analyzed weekly for fat, protein, and lactose content. Blood was sampled at week 2 before calving, d 1, d 4, d 7, d 10, week 2, week 3, and week 8 after calving. Glucose, triglycerids, nonesterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyric acid in blood were analysed. The results revealed that choline supplementation increased DM intake from 16.5 to 18.0 kg/d and, hence, net energy intake from 99.2 to 120.5 MJ/d at the intercept of the lactation curve at 1 day in milk. Choline supplementation had no effect on milk yield, milk fat yield, or lactose yield. Milk protein yield was increased from 1.11 to 1.22 kg/d at the intercept of the lactation curve. Choline supplementation was associated with decreased milk fat concentration at the intercept of the lactation curve at 1 day in milking, but the effect of choline on milk fat concentration gradually decreased as lactation progressed. Choline supplementation decreased the concentration of blood triglycerids during the first 4 wk after parturition. Choline supplementation had no effect on energy-corrected milk yield, energy balance, body weight and body condition score. Results from this study suggest that fat metabolism in periparturient dairy cows is improved by choline supplementation during the transition period and this may potentially decrease the risk for metabolic disorders in the periparturient dairy cow.

Keywords: choline, dairy cattle, transition cow, triglycerids

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711 Synthesis of the Robust Regulators on the Basis of the Criterion of the Maximum Stability Degree

Authors: S. A. Gayvoronsky, T. A. Ezangina

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The robust control system objects with interval-undermined parameters is considers in this paper. Initial information about the system is its characteristic polynomial with interval coefficients. On the basis of coefficient estimations of quality indices and criterion of the maximum stability degree, the methods of synthesis of a robust regulator parametric is developed. The example of the robust stabilization system synthesis of the rope tension is given in this article.

Keywords: interval polynomial, controller synthesis, analysis of quality factors, maximum degree of stability, robust degree of stability, robust oscillation, system accuracy

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710 Effects of Irrigation Intervals on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Black Carrot Leaves (Daucus carota L.)

Authors: Hakan Arslan, Deniz Ekinci, Alper Gungor, Gurkan Bilir, Omer Tas, Mehmet Altun

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Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting the agricultural production worldwide. In this study, Leaf samples were taken from the carrot plants grown under drought stress conditions during the harvesting period. The plants were irrigated in three irrigation interval (4, 6 and 8 days) and Irrigation water regime was set up in pots. The changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione s-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in leaves of black carrot were investigated. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, SOD) were varied significantly with irrigation intervals. The highest value of GR, GST and SOD were determined in the irrigation interval of 6 days. All antioxidant activity values were decreased in 8 days of irrigation interval. As a result of the study, it has been suggested that optimum irrigation intervals for plants can be used in antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: antioxidant enzyme, carrot, drought, irrigation interval

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
709 The Effects of Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercises with Moderate Intensity on Serum Levels of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Aerobic Capacity in Obese Children

Authors: Ali Golestani, Vahid Naseri, Hossein Taheri

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Recently, some of studies examined the effect of exercise on neurotrophic factors influencing the growth, protection, plasticity and function in central and peripheral nerve cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous and interval aerobic exercises with moderate intensity on serum levels of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and aerobic capacity in obese children. 21 obese students with an average age of 13.6 ± 0.5 height 171 ± 5 and BMI 32 ± 1.2 were divided randomly to control, continuous aerobic and interval aerobic groups. Training protocol included continuous or interval aerobic exercises with moderate intensity 50-65%MHR, three times per week for 10 weeks. 48 hours before and after executing of protocol, blood samples were taken from the participants and their GDNF serum levels were measured by ELISA. Aerobic power was estimated using Shuttle-run test. T-test results indicated a small increase in their GDNF serum levels, which was not statistically significant (p =0.11). In addition, the results of ANOVA did not show any significant difference between continuous and interval aerobic training on the serum levels of their GDNF but their aerobic capacity significantly increased (p =0.012). Although continuous and interval aerobic exercise improves aerobic power in obese children, they had no significant effect on their serum levels of GDNF.

Keywords: aerobic power, continuous aerobic training, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), interval aerobic training, obese children

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708 Progressive Type-I Interval Censoring with Binomial Removal-Estimation and Its Properties

Authors: Sonal Budhiraja, Biswabrata Pradhan

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This work considers statistical inference based on progressive Type-I interval censored data with random removal. The scheme of progressive Type-I interval censoring with random removal can be described as follows. Suppose n identical items are placed on a test at time T0 = 0 under k pre-fixed inspection times at pre-specified times T1 < T2 < . . . < Tk, where Tk is the scheduled termination time of the experiment. At inspection time Ti, Ri of the remaining surviving units Si, are randomly removed from the experiment. The removal follows a binomial distribution with parameters Si and pi for i = 1, . . . , k, with pk = 1. In this censoring scheme, the number of failures in different inspection intervals and the number of randomly removed items at pre-specified inspection times are observed. Asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) are established under some regularity conditions. A β-content γ-level tolerance interval (TI) is determined for two parameters Weibull lifetime model using the asymptotic properties of MLEs. The minimum sample size required to achieve the desired β-content γ-level TI is determined. The performance of the MLEs and TI is studied via simulation.

Keywords: asymptotic normality, consistency, regularity conditions, simulation study, tolerance interval

Procedia PDF Downloads 157