Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: MRSA

51 Clinico-Microbiological Study of S. aureus from Various Clinical Samples with Reference to Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA)

Authors: T. G. Pathrikar, A. D. Urhekar, M. P. Bansal

Abstract:

To find out S. aureus from patient samples on the basis of coagulase test. We have evaluated slide coagulase (n=46 positive), tube coagulase (n=48 positive) and DNase test (n=44, positive) , We have isolated and identified MRSA from various clinical samples and specimens by disc diffusion method determined the incidence of MRSA 50% in patients. Found out the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MRSA isolates and also the MIC of MRSA of oxacillin by E-Test.

Keywords: cefoxitin disc diffusion MRSA detection, e – test, S. aureus devastating pathogen, tube coagulase confirmation

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50 The Equality Test of Ceftriaxone Anti-Bacterial Effect and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant (Myermecodia pendens Merr. and L. M Perry) to MRSA

Authors: Rifa’ah Mahmudah Bulu’

Abstract:

MRSA is an important nosocomial pathogen in the world. Therefore, the prevention and effort to control MRSA is still very important to conduct. One of the preventions of MRSA, which have been reported by several studies, is Cefriaxone and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant. This research is an experimental test to determine the potency of MRSA’s anti-bacterial with Cefriaxone (30 μg) and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant (13 mg/ml) based on inhibition zone on LAB (Lempeng Agar Biasa). The size of inhibition zone that is formed on Cefriaxone is adjusted with CSLI criteria, which ≥ 21 mm of inhibition zone is called sensitive; ≤13 mm is called resistance and between 14-20 mm is called intermediate. This research is conducted three times. Comparative test between Cefriaxone and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant is analyzed by Maan Whitney’s statistic method. The Result of Cefriaxone anti-bacterial potency shows the variety of inhibition zone. Cefriaxone forms approximately 16,5-20 mm with average 18,22mm of inhibition zone that make Cefriaxone’s criteria to MRSA’s inhibition is intermediate. Anti-bacterial potency of Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant is about 0,5-2 mm with average 1,17 mm of inhibition zone that prove MRSA is sensitive to Ant Plant. The conclusion of this research shows that Cefriaxone is intermediate to MRSA’s inhibition, while MRSA is sensitive to Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant, which at the end; it creates different potency of anti-bacterial between Cefriaxone and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant.

Keywords: MRSA, cefriaxone, ant plant, CSLI, mann whitney

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49 Development of a Novel Nanobiosystem for the Selective Nanophotothermolysis of Meticilin Resistant Staphyloccocous Aureus Using Anti-MRSA Antibody Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Lucian Mocan, Cristian Matea, Flaviu A. Tabaran, Teodora Mocan, Cornel Iancu

Abstract:

Introduction: Due to antibiotic resistance, systemic infections caused by Meticilin resistant Staphyloccocous Aureus (MRSA) are the main cause of millions of deaths each year. Development of new active biomolecules that are highly effective and refractory to antibiotic resistance may open new avenues in the field of antimicrobial therapy. In this research, we have focused on the development of a novel nanobiosystem with high affinity for MRSA microorganism to mediate its selective laser thermal ablation. Materials and Methods: Gold nanoparticles (15nm in diameter) linked to a specific antibody against MRSA surface were selectively delivered (at various concentrations and incubation times) and internalized into MRSA microorganism following the treatment these multidrug-resistant bacteria were irradiated using a 2w, 808 nm LASER. Results and Discussions: The post-irradiation necrotic rate ranged from 51.2% (for 1 mg/L) to 87.3% (for 50 mg/L) at 60 seconds (p<0.001), while at 30 minute the necrotic rate increased from 64.3% (1 mg/L) to 92.1% (50 mg/L), p value<0.001. Significantly lower apoptotic rates were obtained in irradiated MRSA treated with GNPs only (control) treated for 60 seconds and 30 minutes at concentrations ranging from 1 mg/L to 50 mg/L. We show here that the optimal LASER mediated the necrotic effect of MRSA after incubation with anti-MRSA-Ab was obtained at a concentration of 50 mg/L. Conclusion: In the presented research, we obtained a very efficacious pulse laser mode treatment of individual MRSA agents with minimal effects on the surrounding medium, providing highly localized destruction only for MRSA microorganism.

Keywords: MRSA, photothermolysis, antibiotic resistance, gold nanoparticles

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48 Investigation of Clusters of MRSA Cases in a Hospital in Western Kenya

Authors: Lillian Musila, Valerie Oundo, Daniel Erwin, Willie Sang

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus infections are a major cause of nosocomial infections in Kenya. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections are a significant burden to public health and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. At a hospital in Western Kenya two clusters of MRSA cases emerged within short periods of time. In this study we explored whether these clusters represented a nosocomial outbreak by characterizing the isolates using phenotypic and molecular assays and examining epidemiological data to identify possible transmission patterns. Specimens from the site of infection of the subjects were collected, cultured and S. aureus isolates identified phenotypically and confirmed by APIStaph™. MRSA were identified by cefoxitin disk screening per CLSI guidelines. MRSA were further characterized based on their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and spa gene typing. Characteristics of cases with MRSA isolates were compared with those with MSSA isolated around the same time period. Two cases of MRSA infection were identified in the two week period between 21 April and 4 May 2015. A further 2 MRSA isolates were identified on the same day on 7 September 2015. The antibiotic resistance patterns of the two MRSA isolates in the 1st cluster of cases were different suggesting that these were distinct isolates. One isolate had spa type t2029 and the other had a novel spa type. The 2 isolates were obtained from urine and an open skin wound. In the 2nd cluster of MRSA isolates, the antibiotic susceptibility patterns were similar but isolates had different spa types: one was t037 and the other a novel spa type different from the novel MRSA spa type in the first cluster. Both cases in the second cluster were admitted into the hospital but one infection was community- and the other hospital-acquired. Only one of the four MRSA cases was classified as an HAI from an infection acquired post-operatively. When compared to other S. aureus strains isolated within the same time period from the same hospital only one spa type t2029 was found in both MRSA and non-MRSA strains. None of the cases infected with MRSA in the two clusters shared any common epidemiological characteristic such as age, sex or known risk factors for MRSA such as prolonged hospitalization or institutionalization. These data suggest that the observed MRSA clusters were multi strain clusters and not an outbreak of a single strain. There was no clear relationship between the isolates by spa type suggesting that no transmission was occurring within the hospital between these cluster cases but rather that the majority of the MRSA strains were circulating in the community. There was high diversity of spa types among the MRSA strains with none of the isolates sharing spa types. Identification of disease clusters in space and time is critical for immediate infection control action and patient management. Spa gene typing is a rapid way of confirming or ruling out MRSA outbreaks so that costly interventions are applied only when necessary.

Keywords: cluster, Kenya, MRSA, spa typing

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47 Characterization of Screening Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Harboring mecA Genes among Intensive Care Unit Patients from Tertiary Care Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Delly C. Lestari, Linosefa, Ardiana Kusumaningrum, Andi Yasmon, Anis Karuniawati

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) harboring mecA genes from screening isolates among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. All MRSA screening isolates from ICU’s patients of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital during 2011 and 2014 were included in this study. Identification and susceptibility test was performed using Vitek2 system (Biomereux®). PCR was conducted to characterize the SCCmec of S. aureus harboring the mecA gene on each isolate. Patient’s history of illness was traced through medical record. 24 isolates from 327 screening isolates were MRSA positive (7.3%). From PCR, we found 17 (70.8%) isolates carrying SCCmec type I, 3 (12.5%) isolates carrying SCCmec type III, and 2 (8.3%) isolates carrying SCCmec type IV. In conclusion, SCCmec type I is the most prevalent MRSA colonization among ICU patients in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital.

Keywords: MRSA, mecA genes, ICU, colonization

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46 Development of Gold Nanoparticles-Antibody System for the Selective Photothermal Destruction of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

Authors: Teodora Mocan, Lucian Mocan, Cornel Iancu, Flaviu A. Tabaran, Bartos Dana, Matea Cristian

Abstract:

Antimicrobial resistance, which threatens the efficacy of the existing antibiotics represents a worldwide public health issue. At the current time, vancomycin is the only responsive treatment although has significant cytotoxicity, is partially effective and it is poorly retained by infected tissues. From a clinical point of view, attractive alternative approaches for treating such Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) strains would be using agents that cause physical damage to the bacteria. Modular nanopharmaceuticals systems are being designed to address all of these multifunctional capabilities for the ideal bacterial treatment, with the ability to mix and match appropriate functions. Here we present a novel method of selective laser photothermal ablation of MRSA bacteria mediated by gold nanoparticles bound to PBP antibody against PBP protein located on the MRSA surface.

Keywords: MRSA, laser, nanoparticle, antibody

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45 Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Papain Hydrolysed Camel Milk Whey and Its Fractions

Authors: M. Abdel-Hamid, P. Saporito, R. V. Mateiu, A. Osman, E. Romeih, H. Jenssen

Abstract:

Camel milk whey (CMW) was hydrolyzed with papain from Carica papaya and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of the CMW, Camel milk whey hydrolysate (CMWH) and the obtained SEC-fractions was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). SEC-F2 (fraction 2) exhibited antibacterial effectiveness against MRSA and P. aeruginosa with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.31 and 0.156 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, SEC-F2 significantly decreased biofilm biomass by 71% and 83 % for MRSA and P. aeruginosa in a crystal violet microplate assay. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the SEC-F2 caused changes in the treated bacterial cells. Additionally, LC/MS analysis was used to characterize the peptides of SEC-F2. Two major peptides were detected in SEC-F2 having masses of 414.05 Da and 456.06 Da. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that hydrolysis of CMW with papain generates small and extremely potent antibacterial and anti-biofilm peptides against both MRSA and P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: camel milk, whey proteins, antibacterial peptide, anti-biofilm

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44 Emergence of Vancomycin Resistant and Methcillin Resistant Staphylococus aureus in Patients with Different Clinical Manifestations in Khartoum State, Sudan

Authors: Maimona A. E. Elimam, Suhair Rehan, Miskelyemen A. Elmekki, Mogahid M. Elhassan

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. aureus), a major cause of potentially life-threatening infections acquired in healthcare and community settings, has developed resistance to most classes of antimicrobial agents as determined by the dramatic increase. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of MRSA, and VRSA in patients with different clinical manifestations in Khartoum state. The study population (n, 426) were males and females with different age categories, suffering either from wound infections (105), ear infections (121), or UTI (101), in addition to nasal carriers of medical staff (100). Cultures, Gram staining, and other biochemical tests were performed for conventional identification. Modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was applied and DNA was extracted from MRSA and VRSA isolates and PCR was then performed for amplification of arc, mecA, VanA, and VanB genes. The results confirmed the existence of Staph. aureus in 49/426 (11.5%) cases among which MRSA were isolated from 34/49 (69.4%) when modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was applied. Ten out of these 34 MRSA were confirmed as VRSA by cultures on BHI agar containing 6μg/ml vancomycin according to NCCLS criteria. PCR revealed that out of the 34 MRSA isolates, 26 were mecA positive (76.5%) while 8 (23.5%) were arcC positive. No vanA or VanB genes were detected. Molecular method confirmed the results for MRSA through the presence of either arcC or mecA genes while it failed to approve the occurrence of VRSA since neither VanA or VanB genes were detected. Thus, VRSA may be attributed to other factors.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, Staphylococcus aureus, VRSA, MRSA, Khartoum, Sudan

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43 Inhibitory Attributes of Saudi Honey Against Hospital Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA) and Acinetobacter baumannii

Authors: Al-Hindi Rashad, Alotibi Ibrahim

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the antibacterial activity of the peroxide components of some locally produced honeys: Toran, Zaitoon (Olive), Shaflah, Saha, Jizan, Rabea Aja, Fakhira, Sedr Aljanoob, Tenhat, Karath and Bareq against two of the drug resistant bacteria; i.e., methicillin resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA, ATCC 43330) and Acinetobacter baumannii. Measurement of the antibacterial activity of honey samples by using the agar well diffusion method was adopted as follows: by using turbidity standard McFaraland 0.5, suspensions of bacterial strains MRSA ATCC 43330 and Acinetobacter baumannii were prepared. By the spreading plate method, 100 µl of the suspension was inoculated onto Muller-Hinton agar medium. On the inoculated agar medium, five wells were made using a sterile cork borer (diameter 5 mm).100 µl of honey dilutions (10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 100%) were used. The study indicated that the highly effective activity was in some local honey samples such as Toran honey against MRSA, and Shafalah honey against MRSA and Acinetobacter baumannii which showed bactericidal effects at concentrations 70 % to 100 % as well. The majority of local honey samples recorded bacteriostatic effects on MRSA and Acinetobacter baumannii at consternations 50 % and above. In conclusion this investigation indicated that in regard to the majority inhibitory effect on microorganisms, the existing of H2O2 in honey samples together with phenolic content greatly provide a strong antibacterial activities among different types of honey, because in some previous studies the H2O2 content of honey interacts with phenolic content and showed better inhibitory effect than in absent of H2O2.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, honey, hospital acquired, Saudi Arabia

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42 Minimum Biofilm Inhibitory Concentration of Lysostaphin on Clinical Isolates of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Authors: N. Nagalakshmi, Indira Bairy, M. Atulya, Jesil Mathew

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S. aureus has the ability to colonize and form biofilms on implanted biomaterials, which is difficult to disrupt, and current antimicrobial therapies for biofilms have largely proven unsuccessful in complete eradication of biofilm. The present study is aimed to determine the lysostaphin activity against biofilm producing MRSA clinical strains. The minimum biofilm inhibition activity of lysostaphin was studied against twelve strong biofilm producing isolates. The biofilm was produced in 96-wells micro-titer plate and biofilm was treated with lysostaphin (0.5 to 16 µg/ml), vancomycin (0.5 to 64 µg/ml) and linezolid (0.5 to 64 µg/ml). The biofilm inhibitory concentration of lysostaphin was found between 4 to 8 µg/ml whereas vancomycin and linezolid inhibited at concentration between 32 to 64 µg/ml. Results indicate that lysostaphin as potential antimicrobial activity against biofilm at lower concentration is comparable with routine antibiotics like vancomycin and linezolid.

Keywords: biofilm, lysostaphin, MRSA, minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration

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41 Anti-Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Compounds from Bauhinia kockiana Korth and Their Mechanism of Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Yik Ling Chew, Adlina Maisarah Mahadi, Joo Kheng Goh

Abstract:

Bauhinia kockiana originates from Peninsular Malaysia, and it is grown as a garden ornamental plant. However, it is used as medicinal plant by Malaysia ‘Kelabit’ ethic group in treating various diseases and illnesses. This study focused on the assessment of the antibacterial activity of B. kockiana towards MRSA, to purify and identify the antibacterial compounds, and to determine the mechanism of antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity of B. kockiana flower is evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using disc diffusion assay and microbroth dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of extracts. Phytochemical analysis is performed to determine the classes of phytochemicals in the extracts. Bioactivity-guided isolation is performed to purify the antibacterial agents and identified the chemical structures via various spectroscopy methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique is adopted to evaluate the antibacterial mechanism of extract and compounds isolated. B. kockiana flower is found to exhibit fairly strong antibacterial activity towards both strains of MRSA bacteria. Gallic acid and its ester derivatives are purified from ethyl acetate extract and the antibacterial activity is evaluated. SEM has revealed the mechanism of the extracts and compounds isolated.

Keywords: alkyl gallates, Bauhinia kockiana, MRSA, scanning electron microscopy

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40 Synthesis of a Hybrid of PEG-b-PCL and G1-PEA Dendrimer Based Six-Armed Star Polymer for Nano Delivery of Vancomycin

Authors: Calvin A. Omolo, Rahul S. Kalhapure, Mahantesh Jadhav, Sanjeev Rambharose, Chunderika Mocktar, Thirumala Govender

Abstract:

Treatment of infections is compromised by limitations of conventional dosage forms and drug resistance. Nanocarrier system is a strategy to overcome these challenges and improve therapy. Thus, the development of novel materials for drug delivery via nanocarriers is essential. The aim of the study was to synthesize a multi-arm polymer (6-mPEPEA) for enhanced activity of vancomycin (VM) against susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The synthesis steps of the star polymer followed reported procedures. The synthesized 6-mPEPEA was characterized by FTIR, ¹H and ¹³CNMR and MTT assays. VM loaded micelles were prepared from 6-mPEPEA and characterized for size, polydispersity index (PI) and surface charge (ZP) (Dynamic Light Scattering), morphology by TEM, drug loading (UV Spectrophotometry), drug release (dialysis bag), in vitro and in vivo efficacy against sensitive and resistant S. aureus. 6-mPEPEA was synthesized, and its structure was confirmed. MTT assays confirmed its nontoxic nature with a high cell viability (77%-85%). Unimolecular spherical micelles were prepared. Size, PI, and ZP was 52.48 ± 2.6 nm, 0.103 ± 0.047, -7.3 ± 1.3 mV, respectively and drug loading was 62.24 ± 3.8%. There was a 91% drug release from VCM-6-mPEPEA after 72 hours. In vitro antibacterial test revealed that VM-6-mPEPEA had 8 and 16-fold greater activity against S. aureus and MRSA when compared to bare VM. Further investigations using flow cytometry showed that VM-6-mPEPEA had 99.5% killing rate of MRSA at the MIC concentration. In vivo antibacterial activity revealed that treatment with VM-6-mPEPEA had a 190 and a 15-fold reduction in the MRSA load in untreated and VM treated respectively. These findings confirmed the potential of 6-mPEPEA as a promising bio-degradable nanocarrier for antibiotic delivery to improve treatment of bacterial infections.

Keywords: biosafe, MRSA, nanocarrier, resistance, unimolecular-micelles

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39 Antimicrobial Activity of Different Essential Oils in Synergy with Amoxicillin against Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Naheed Niaz, Nimra Naeem, Bushra Uzair, Riffat Tahira

Abstract:

Antibacterial activity of different traditional plants essential oils against clinical isolates of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) through disk diffusion method was evaluated. All the tested essential oils, in different concentrations, inhibited growth of S. aureus to varying degrees. Cinnamon and Thyme essential oils were observed to be the “best” against test pathogen. Even at lowest concentration of these essential oils i.e. 25 µl/ml, clear zone of inhibition was recorded 9+0.085mm and 8+0.051mm respectively, and at higher concentrations there was a total reduction in growth of MRSA. The study also focused on analyzing the synergistic effects of essential oils in combination with amoxicillin. Results showed that oregano and pennyroyal mint essential oils which were not very effective alone turned out to be strong synergistic enhancers. The activity increased with increase in concentration of the essential oils. It may be concluded from present results that cinnamon and thyme essential oils could be used as potential antimicrobial source for the treatment of infections caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, essential oils, antibiotics, combination therapy, minimum inhibitory concentration

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38 Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Various Isolates from Different Places

Authors: Kiran Fatima, Kashif Ali

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic human as well as animal pathogen that causes a variety of diseases. A total of 70 staphylococci isolates were obtained from soil, water, yogurt, and clinical samples. The likely staphylococci clinical isolates were identified phenotypically by different biochemical tests. Molecular identification was done by PCR using species-specific 16S rRNA primer pairs, and finally, 50 isolates were found to be positive as Staphylococcus aureus, sciuri, xylous and cohnii. Screened isolates were further analyzed by several microbiological diagnostics tests, including gram staining, coagulase, capsule, hemolysis, fermentation of glucose, lactose, maltose, and sucrose tests enzymatic reactions. It was found that 78%, 81%, and 51% of isolates were positive for gelatin hydrolysis, protease, and lipase activities, respectively. Antibiogram analysis of isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains with respect to different antimicrobial agents revealed resistance patterns ranging from 57 to 96%. Our study also shows 70% of strains to be MRSA, 54.3% as VRSA, and 54.3% as both MRSA and VRSA. All the identified isolates were subjected to detection of mecA, nuc, and hlb genes, and 70%, 84%, and 40% were found to harbour mecA, nuc, and hlb genes, respectively. The current investigation is highly important and informative for the high-level multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections inclusive also of methicillin and vancomycin.

Keywords: MRSA, VRSA, mecA, MSSA

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37 Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Specific Bacteriophage Isolation from Sewage Treatment Plant and in vivo Analysis of Phage Efficiency in Swiss Albino Mice

Authors: Pratibha Goyal, Nupur Mathur, Anuradha Singh

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Antibiotic resistance is the worldwide threat to human health in this century. Excessive use of antibiotic after their discovery in 1940 makes certain bacteria to become resistant against antibiotics. Most common antibiotic-resistant bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, E.coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Streptococcus pneumonia. Among all Staphylococcus resistant strain called Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for several lives threatening infection in human commonly found in the hospital environment. Our study aimed to isolate bacteriophage against MRSA from the hospital sewage treatment plant and to analyze its efficiency In Vivo in Swiss albino mice model. Sewage sample for the isolation of bacteriophages was collected from SDMH hospital sewage treatment plant in Jaipur. Bacteriophages isolated by the use of enrichment technique and after characterization, isolated phages used to determine phage treatment efficiency in mice. Mice model used to check the safety and suitability of phage application in human need which in turn directly support the use of natural bacteriophage rather than synthetic chemical to kill pathogens. Results show the plaque formation in-vitro and recovery of MRSA infected mice during the experiment. Favorable lytic efficiency determination of MRSA and Salmonella presents a natural way to treat lethal infections caused by Multidrug-resistant bacteria by using their natural host-pathogen relationship.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, bacteriophages, methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus, pathogens, phage therapy, Salmonella typhi

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36 Synthesis, Antibacterial Activities, and Synergistic Effects of Novel Juglone and Naphthazarin Derivatives Against Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains

Authors: Zohra Benfodda, Valentin Duvauchelle, Chaimae Majdi, David Bénimélis, Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Patrick Meffre

Abstract:

New antibiotics are necessary to treat microbial pathogens, especially ESKAPE pathogens that are becoming increasingly resistant to available treatment. Despite the medical need, the number of newly approved drugs continues to decline. The majority of antibiotics under clinical development are natural products or derivatives thereof. 43 juglone/naphthazarin derivatives were synthesized using Minisci-type direct C–H alkylation and evaluated for their antibacterial properties against various clinical and reference Gram-positive MSSA, clinical Gram-positive MRSA. Different compounds of the synthesized series showed promising activity against clinical and reference MSSA (MIC: 1–8 μg/ml) and good efficacy against clinical MRSA (MIC: 2–8 μg/ml) strains. The synergistic effects of active compounds were evaluated with reference antibiotics (vancomycin and cloxacillin), and it was found that the antibiotic combination with those active compounds efficiently enhanced the antimicrobial activity and consequently the MIC values of reference antibiotics were lowered up to 1/16th of the original MIC. These synthesized compounds did not present hemolytic activity on sheep red blood cells. In addition to the in silico prediction of ADME profile parameter which is promising and encouraging for further development.

Keywords: juglone, naphthazarin, antibacterial, clinical MRSA, synergistic studies, MIC determination

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35 Anti Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Action of Thermophilic Fungi Acrophialophora levis IBSD19 and Determination of Its Mode of Action Using Electron Microscopy

Authors: Shivankar Agrawal, Indira Sarangthem

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains one of the major causes of healthcare-associated and community-onset infections worldwide. Hence the search for non-toxic natural compounds having antibacterial activity has intensified for future drug development. The exploration of less studied niches of Earth can highly increase the possibility to discover novel bioactive compounds. Therefore, in this study, the cultivable fraction of fungi from the sediments of natural hot springs has been studied to mine potential fungal candidates with antibacterial activity against the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated diverse strains of thermophilic fungi from a collection of samples from sediment. Following a standard method, we isolated a promising thermophilic fungus strain IBSD19, identified as Acrophialophora levis, possessing the potential to produce an anti-Staphylococcus aureus agent. The growth conditions were optimized and scaled to fermentation, and its produced extract was subjected to chemical extraction. The ethyl acetate fraction was found to display significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.5 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml, respectively. The cell membrane integrity assay and SEM suggested that the fungal metabolites cause bacteria clustering and further lysis of the cell.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antioxidant, fungi, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, thermophiles

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34 Synthesis and in vitro Characterization of a Gel-Derived SiO2-CaO-P2O5-SrO-Li2O Bioactive Glass

Authors: Mehrnaz Aminitabar, Moghan Amirhosseinian, Morteza Elsa

Abstract:

Bioactive glasses (BGs) are a group of surface-reactive biomaterials used in clinical applications as implants or filler materials in the human body to repair and replace diseased or damaged bone. Sol-gel technique was employed to prepare a SiO2-CaO-P2O5 glass with nominal composition of 58S BG with the addition of Sr and Li modifiers which imparts special properties to the BG. The effect of simultaneous addition of Sr and Li on bioactivity and biocompatibility, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 and antibacterial property against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria were examined. BGs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy before and after soaking the samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF) for different time intervals to characterize the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) formed on the surface of BGs. Structural characterization indicated that the simultaneous presence of 5% Sr and 5% Li in 58S-BG composition not only did not retard HA formation because of opposite effect of Sr and Li of the dissolution of BG in the SBF but also, stimulated the differentiation and proliferation of MC3T3-E1s. Moreover, the presence of Sr and Li on dissolution of the ions resulted in an increase in the mean number of DAPI-labeled nuclei which was in good agreement with live/dead assay. The result of antibacterial tests revealed that Sr and Li-substituted 58S BG exhibited a potential antibacterial effect against MRSA bacteria. Because of optimal proliferation and ALP activity of MC3T3-E1cells, proper bioactivity and high antibacterial potential against MRSA, BG-5/5 is suggested as a multifunctional candidate for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, bioactive glass, sol-gel, strontium

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33 The Effect of Simultaneous Doping of Silicate Bioglass with Alkaline and Alkaline-Earth Elements on Biological Behavior

Authors: Tannaz Alimardani, Amirhossein Moghanian, Morteza Elsa

Abstract:

Bioactive glasses (BGs) are a group of surface-reactive biomaterials used in clinical applications as implants or filler materials in the human body to repair and replace diseased or damaged bone. Sol-gel technique was employed to prepare a SiO₂-CaO-P₂O₅ glass with a nominal composition of 58S BG with the addition of Sr and Li modifiers which imparts special properties to the BG. The effect of simultaneous addition of Sr and Li on bioactivity and biocompatibility, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 and antibacterial property against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria were examined. BGs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy before and after soaking the samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF) for different time intervals to characterize the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) formed on the surface of BGs. Structural characterization indicated that the simultaneous presence of 5% Sr and 5% Li in 58S-BG composition not only did not retard HA formation because of the opposite effect of Sr and Li of the dissolution of BG in the SBF, but also stimulated the differentiation and proliferation of MC3T3-E1s. Moreover, the presence of Sr and Li on the dissolution of the ions resulted in an increase in the mean number of DAPI-labeled nuclei which was in good agreement with the live/dead assay. The result of antibacterial tests revealed that Sr and Li-substituted 58S bioactive glass exhibited a potential antibacterial effect against MRSA bacteria. Because of optimal proliferation and ALP activity of MC3T3-E1cells, proper bioactivity and high antibacterial potential against MRSA, BG-5/5 is suggested as a multifunctional candidate for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: alkaline, alkaline earth, bioglass, co-doping, ion release

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32 Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Staphlyococci Isolated from Various Clinical Specimens

Authors: Recep Kesli, Merih Simsek, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

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Objective: Goal of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated at Medical Microbiology Laboratory of ANS Application and Research Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University, Turkey. Methods: S. aureus strains isolated between October 2012 and September 2016, from various clinical specimens were evaluated retrospectively. S. aureus strains were identified by both the conventional methods and automated identification system -VITEK 2 (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France), and Meticillin resistance was verified using oxacillin disk with disk-diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria, and intermediate susceptible strains were considered as resistant. Results: Seven hundred S.aureus strains which were isolated from various clinical specimens were included in this study. These strains were mostly isolated from blood culture, tissue, wounds and bronchial aspiration. All of 306 (43,7%) were oxacillin resistant. While all the S.aureus strains were found to be susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin and linezolid, 38 (9.6 %), 77 (19.5 %), 116 (29.4 %), 152 (38.6 %) and 28 (7.1 %) were found to be resistant aganist to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, retrospectively. Conclusions: Comparing to the Methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains, increased resistance rates of, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline were observed among the MRSA strains. In this study, the most effective antibiotic on the total of strains was found to be trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the least effective antibiotic on the total of strains was found to be tetracycline.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, VITEK 2

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31 The Effect of Substitution of CaO/MgO and CaO/SrO on in vitro Bioactivity of Sol-Gel Derived Bioactive Glass

Authors: Zeinab Hajifathali, Moghan Amirhosseinian

Abstract:

This study had two main aims: firstly, to determine how the individual substitution of CaO/MgO and CaO/SrO can affect the in vitro bioactivity of sol-gel derived substituted 58S bioactive glass (BG) and secondly to introduce a composition in the 60SiO2–(36-x)CaO–4P2O5–(x)MgO and 60SiO2–(36-x)CaO–4P2O5–(x)SrO quaternary systems (where x= 0, 5, 10 mol.%) with enhanced biocompatibility, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and more efficient antibacterial activity against MRSA bacteria. Results showed that both magnesium-substituted bioactive glasses (M-BGs) and strontium- substituted bioactive glasses (S-BGs) retarded the Hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. Meanwhile, magnesium had more pronounced effect. The 3-(4, 5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and ALP assays revealed that the presence of moderate amount (5 mol%) of Mg and Sr had a stimulating effect on increasing of both proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Live dead and Dapi/actin staining revealed both substitution of CaO/MgO and CaO/SrO resulted in more biocompatibility and stimulation potential of the MC3T3 cells compared with control. Taken together, among all of the synthesized magnesium substituted (MBGs) and strontium substituted (SBGs), the sample 58- BG with 5 mol% CaO/MgO substitution (BG-5M) was considered as a multifunctional biomaterial in bone tissue regeneration field with enhanced biocompatibility, ALP activity as well as the highest antibacterial efficiency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria.

Keywords: apatite, alkaline earth, bioactivity, biomedical applications, Sol-gel

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30 Antibacterial Activity of Melaleuca Cajuputi Oil against Resistant Strain Bacteria

Authors: R. M. Noah, N. M. Nasir, M. R. Jais, M. S. S. Wahab, M. H. Abdullah, A. S. S. Raj

Abstract:

Infectious diseases are getting more difficult to treat due to the resistant strains of bacteria. Current generations of antibiotics are most likely ineffective against multi-drug resistant strains bacteria. Thus, there is an urgent need in search of natural antibiotics in particular from medicinal plants. One of the common medicinal plants, Melaleuca cajuputi, has been reported to possess antibacterial properties. The study was conducted to evaluate and justify the presence of antibacterial activity of Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil (EO) against the multi-drug resistant bacteria. Clinical isolates obtained from the teaching hospital were re-assessed to confirm the exact identity of the bacteria to be tested, namely methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producer (ESBLs). A well diffusion method was done to observe the inhibition zones of the essential oil against the bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the microdilution method in 96-well flat microplate. The absorbance was measured using a microplate reader. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was performed using the agar medium method. The zones of inhibition produced by the EO against MRSA, CRE, and ESBL were comparable to that of generic antibiotics used, gentamicin and augmentin. The MIC and MBC results highlighted the antimicrobial efficacy of the EO. The outcome of this study indicated that the EO of Melaleuca cajuputi had antibacterial activity on the multi-drug resistant bacteria. This finding was eventually substantiated by electron microscopy work.

Keywords: melaleuca cajuputi, antibacterial, resistant bacteria, essential oil

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29 Exploratory Characterization of Antibacterial Efficacy of Synthesized Nanoparticles on Staphylococcus Isolates from Hospital Specimens in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Reham K. Sebaih, Afaf I. Shehata , Awatif A. Hindi, Tarek Gheith, Amal A. Hazzani Anas Al-Orjan

Abstract:

Staphylococci spp are ubiquitous gram-positive bacteria is often associated with infections, especially nosocomial infections, and antibiotic resistanceStudy pathogenic bacteria and its use as a tool in the technology of Nano biology and molecular genetics research of the latest research trends of modern characterization and definition of different multiresistant of bacteria including Staphylococci. The Staphylococci are widespread all over the world and particularly in Saudi Arabia The present work study was conducted to evaluate the effect of five different types of nanoparticles (biosynthesized zinc oxide, Spherical and rod of each silver and gold nanoparticles) and their antibacterial impact on the Staphylococcus species. Ninety-six isolates of Staphylococcus species. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, MRSA were collected from different sources during the period between March 2011G to June 2011G. All isolates were isolated from inpatients and outpatients departments at Royal Commission Hospital in Yanbu Industrial, Saudi Arabia. High percentage isolation from males(55%) than females (45%). Staphylococcus epidermidis from males was (47%), (28%), and(25%). For Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Isolates from females were Staphylococcus aureus with higher percent of (47%), (30%), and (23%) for MRSA, Staphylococcus epidermidis. Staphylococcus aureus from wound swab were the highest percent (51.42%) followed by vaginal swab (25.71%). Staphylococcus epidermidis were founded with higher percentage in blood (37.14%) and wound swab (34.21%) respectively related to other. The highest percentage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)(80.77%) were isolated from wound swab, while those from nostrils were (19.23%). Staphylococcus species were isolates in highest percentage from hospital Emergency department with Staphylococcus aureus (59.37%), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (28.13%)and Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.5%) respectively. Evaluate the antibacterial property of Zinc oxide, Silver, and Gold nanoparticles as an alternative to conventional antibacterial agents Staphylococci isolates from hospital sources we screened them. Gold and Silver rods Nanoparticles to be sensitive to all isolates of Staphylococcus species. Zinc oxide Nanoparticles gave sensitivity impact range(52%) and (48%). The Gold and Silver spherical nanoparticles did not showed any effect on Staphylococci species. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles gave bactericidal impact (25%) and bacteriostatic impact (75%) for of Staphylococci species. Detecting the association of nanoparticles with Staphylococci isolates imaging by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of some bacteriostatic isolates for Zinc Oxide nanoparticles on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA), showed some Overlapping Bacterial cells with lower their number and appearing some appendages with deformities in external shape. Molecular analysis was applied by Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) used for the identification of genes within Staphylococcal pathogens. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been developed using six primer pairs to detect different genes using 50bp and 100bp DNA ladder marker. The range of Molecular gene typing ranging between 93 bp to 326 bp for Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus by TSST-1,mecA,femA and eta, while the bands border were from 546 bp to 682 bp for Staphylococcus epidermidis using icaAB and atlE. Sixteen isolation of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were positive for the femA gene at 132bp,this allowed the using of this gene as an internal positive control, fifteen isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were positive for mecA gene at163bp.This gene was responsible for antibiotic resistant Methicillin, Two isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were positive for the TSST-1 gene at326bp which is responsible for toxic shock syndrome in some Staphylococcus species, None were positive for eta gene at 102bpto that was responsible for Exfoliative toxins. Six isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis were positive for atlE gene at 682 bp which is responsible for the initial adherence, three isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis were positive for icaAB gene at 546bp that are responsible for mediates the formation of the biofilm. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the ability of the detection of the genes to discriminate between infecting Staphylococcus strains and considered biological tests, they may potentiate the clinical criteria used for the diagnosis of septicemia or catheter-related infections.

Keywords: multiplex polymerase chain reaction, toxic shock syndrome, Staphylococcus aureus, nosocomial infections

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28 Comparative Study of Calcium Content on in vitro Biological and Antibacterial Properties of Silicon-Based Bioglass

Authors: Morteza Elsa, Amirhossein Moghanian

Abstract:

The major aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CaO content on in vitro hydroxyapatite formation, MC3T3 cells cytotoxicity and proliferation as well as antibacterial efficiency of sol-gel derived SiO2–CaO–P2O5 ternary system. For this purpose, first two grades of bioactive glass (BG); BG-58s (mol%: 60%SiO2–36%CaO–4%P2O5) and BG-68s (mol%: 70%SiO2–26%CaO–4%P2O5)) were synthesized by sol-gel method. Second, the effect of CaO content in their composition on in vitro bioactivity was investigated by soaking the BG-58s and BG-68s powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) for time periods up to 14 days and followed by characterization inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Additionally, live/dead staining, 3-(4,5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays were conducted respectively, as qualitatively and quantitatively assess for cell viability, proliferation and differentiations of MC3T3 cells in presence of 58s and 68s BGs. Results showed that BG-58s with higher CaO content showed higher in vitro bioactivity with respect to BG-68s. Moreover, the dissolution rate was inversely proportional to oxygen density of the BG. Live/dead assay revealed that both 58s and 68s increased the mean number live cells which were in good accordance with MTT assay. Furthermore, BG-58s showed more potential antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria. Taken together, BG-58s with enhanced MC3T3 cells proliferation and ALP activity, acceptable bioactivity and significant high antibacterial effect against MRSA bacteria is suggested as a suitable candidate in order to further functionalizing for delivery of therapeutic ions and growth factors in bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: antibacterial, bioactive glass, hydroxyapatite, proliferation, sol-gel processes

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27 Antimicrobial Activity of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using Different Bacteria

Authors: Malalage Mudara Peiris

Abstract:

Objectives of the study are: the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus, characterization of silver nanoparticles and determination of antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, MRSA, and C. Albicans. Methods: E. coli (ATCC 25922), A. baumanii (clinical strain), S. aureus (clinical strain) cultured in nutrient broth medium were used for biosynthesis of AgNPs. Culture conditions (AgNO3 concentration, pH, incubation time and temperature) were optimized. Characterization of synthesized NPs was done by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized NPs was studied using the good diffusion assay against E. coli, S. aureus, MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), P. aeruginosa and C. Albicans. Results: All the selected bacteria produced silver nanoparticles at alkaline pH above 0.3 g/L AgNO3 concentration. The optimum reaction temperature was 60oC. According to the UV-Visible spectroscopy, the maximum absorbance was found to be around 420 - 430 nm indicating the presence of AgNPs. According to the good diffusion results, AgNPs produced by S. aureus resulted in the larger zone of inhibition (ZOI) against the selected pathogens, while AgNPs produced by E. coli showed comparatively smaller ZOI. In general, biosynthesized AgNPs were highly effective against gram-negative bacteria compared to gram-positive bacterial and fungal species. Conclusions: Green AgNPs produced by each bacterium show antimicrobial activity against the selected pathogens. AgNPs produced by S. aureus are the most effective NPs among tested AgNPs, while AgNPs produced by E. coli are the least effective. Further characterization of NPs is required to study the physical properties of silver NPs.

Keywords: green nanotechnology, silver nanoparticles, bacteria, antimicrobial activity

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26 Comparative Evaluation on in vitro Bioactivity, Proliferation and Antibacterial Efficiency of Sol-Gel Derived Bioactive Glass Substituted by Li and Mg

Authors: Amirhossein Moghanian, Morteza Elsa, Mehrnaz Aminitabar

Abstract:

Modified bioactive glass has been considered as a promising multifunctional candidate in bone repair and regeneration due to its attractive properties. The present study mainly aims to evaluate how the individual substitution of lithium (L-BG) and magnesium (M-BG) for calcium can affect the in vitro bioactivity of sol-gel derived substituted 58S bioactive glass (BG); and to present one composition in both of the 60SiO2–(36-x)CaO–4P₂O₅–(x)Li₂O and 60SiO₂ –(36-x)CaO–4P₂O₅–(x)MgO quaternary systems (where x= 0, 5, 10 mol.%) with improved biocompatibility, enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the most efficient antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus bacteria. To address these aims, and study the effect of CaO/Li₂O and CaO/MgO substitution up to 10 mol % in 58S-BGs, the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy after immersion in simulated body fluid up to 14 days. Results indicated that substitution of either CaO/ Li₂O and CaO/ MgO had a retarding effect on in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) formation due to the lower supersaturation degree for nucleation of HA compared with 58s-BG. Meanwhile, magnesium had a more pronounced effect. The 3-(4,5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assays showed that both substitutions of CaO/ Li₂O and CaO/ MgO up to 5mol % in 58s-BGs led to increased biocompatibility and stimulated proliferation of the pre-osteoblast MC3T3 cells with respect to the control. On the other hand, the substitution of either Li or Mg for Ca in the 58s BG composition resulted in improved bactericidal efficiency against MRSA bacteria. Taken together, sample 58s-BG with 5 mol % CaO/Li₂O substitution (BG-5L) was considered as a multifunctional biomaterial in bone repair/regeneration with improved biocompatibility, enhanced ALP activity as well as significant antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria.

Keywords: alkaline, alkaline earth, bioactivity, biomedical applications, sol-gel processes

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25 Sol-Gel Derived 58S Bioglass Substituted by Li and Mg: A Comparative Evaluation on in vitro Bioactivity, MC3T3 Proliferation and Antibacterial Efficiency

Authors: Amir Khaleghipour, Amirhossein Moghanian, Elhamalsadat Ghaffari

Abstract:

Modified bioactive glass has been considered as a promising multifunctional candidate in bone repair and regeneration due to its attractive properties. The present study mainly aims to evaluate how the individual substitution of lithium (L-BG) and magnesium (M-BG) for calcium can affect the in vitro bioactivity of sol-gel derived substituted 58S bioactive glass (BG); and to present one composition in both of the 60SiO₂–(36-x)CaO–4P₂O₅–(x)Li₂O and 60SiO₂–(36-x)CaO–4P₂O₅–(x)MgO quaternary systems (where x= 0, 5, 10 mol.%) with improved biocompatibility, enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the most efficient antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. To address these aims, and study the effect of CaO/Li₂O and CaO/MgO substitution up to 10 mol % in 58S-BGs, the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy after immersion in simulated body fluid up to 14 days. Results indicated that substitution of either CaO/ Li₂O and CaO/ MgO had a retarding effect on in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) formation due to the lower supersaturation degree for nucleation of HA compared with 58s-BG. Meanwhile, magnesium had a more pronounced effect. The 3-(4, 5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assays showed that both substitutions of CaO/ Li₂O and CaO/ MgO up to 5mol % in 58s-BGs led to increased biocompatibility and stimulated proliferation of the pre-osteoblast MC3T3 cells with respect to the control. On the other hand, substitution of either Li or Mg for Ca in the 58s BG composition resulted in improved bactericidal efficiency against MRSA bacteria. Taken together, sample 58s-BG with 5 mol % CaO/Li₂O substitution (BG-5L) was considered as a multifunctional biomaterial in bone repair/regeneration with improved biocompatibility, enhanced ALP activity as well enhanced antibacterial efficiency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria among all of the synthesized L-BGs and M-BGs.

Keywords: alkaline, alkaline earth, bioactivity, biomedical applications, sol-gel processes

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24 Antibacterial Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) and Murraya koenigii (Curry Leaves) against Multidrug Resistant S. aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus Species

Authors: Asma Naim, Warda Mushtaq

Abstract:

Staphylococcus species are the most versatile and adaptive organism. They are widespread and naturally found on the skin, mucosa and nose in humans. Among these, Staphylococcus aureus is the most important species. These organisms act as opportunistic pathogens and can infect various organs of the host, causing minor skin infection to severe toxin mediated diseases, and life threatening nosocomial infections. Staphylococcus aureus has acquired resistance against β-lactam antibiotics by the production of β-lactamase, and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have also been reported with increasing frequency. MRSA strains have been associated with nosocomial as well as community acquired infections. Medicinal plants have enormous potential as antimicrobial substances and have been used in traditional medicine. Search for medicinally valuable plants with antimicrobial activity is being emphasized due to increasing antibiotic resistance in bacteria. In the present study, the antibacterial potential of Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) and Murraya koenigii (curry leaves) was evaluated. These are common household herbs used in food as enhancer of flavor and aroma. The crude aqueous infusion, decoction and ethanolic extracts of curry leaves and rosemary and essential oil of rosemary were investigated in the present study for antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus strains using well diffusion method. In the present study, 60 Multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of S. aureus (43) and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) (17) were screened against different concentrations of crude extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Murraya koenigii. Out of these 60 isolates, 43 were sensitive to the aqueous infusion of rosemary; 23 to aqueous decoction and 58 to ethanolic extract whereas, 24 isolates were sensitive to the essential oil. In the case of the curry leaves, no antibacterial activity was observed in aqueous infusion and decoction while only 14 isolates were sensitive to the ethanolic extract. The aqueous infusion of rosemary (50% concentration) exhibited a zone of inhibition of 21(±5.69) mm. against CoNS and 17(±4.77) mm. against S. aureus, the zone of inhibition of 50% concentration of aqueous decoction of rosemary was also larger against CoNS 17(±5.78) mm. then S. aureus 13(±6.91) mm. and the 50% concentrated ethanolic extract showed almost similar zone of inhibition in S. aureus 22(±3.61) mm. and CoNS 21(±7.64) mm. whereas, the essential oil of rosemary showed greater zone of inhibition against S. aureus i.e., 16(±4.67) mm. while CoNS showed 15(±6.94) mm. These results show that ethanolic extract of rosemary has significant antibacterial activity. Aqueous infusion and decoction of curry leaves revealed no significant antibacterial potential against all Staphylococcal species and ethanolic extract also showed only a weak response. Staphylococcus strains were susceptible to crude extracts and essential oil of rosemary in a dose depend manner, where the aqueous infusion showed highest zone of inhibition and ethanolic extract also demonstrated antistaphylococcal activity. These results demonstrate that rosemary possesses antistaphylococcal activity.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, curry leaves, multidrug resistant, rosemary, S. aureus

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23 Gold Nanoprobes Assay for the Identification of Foodborn Pathogens Such as Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis

Authors: D. P. Houhoula, J. Papaparaskevas, S. Konteles, A. Dargenta, A. Farka, C. Spyrou, M. Ziaka, S. Koussisis, E. Charvalos

Abstract:

Objectives: Nanotechnology is providing revolutionary opportunities for the rapid and simple diagnosis of many infectious diseases. Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis are important human pathogens. Diagnostic assays for bacterial culture and identification are time consuming and laborious. There is an urgent need to develop rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive diagnostic tests. In this study, a gold nanoprobe strategy developed and relies on the colorimetric differentiation of specific DNA sequences based approach on differential aggregation profiles in the presence or absence of specific target hybridization. Method: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were purchased from Nanopartz. They were conjugated with thiolated oligonucleotides specific for the femA gene for the identification of members of Staphylococcus aureus, the mecA gene for the differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Staphylococcus aureus, hly gene encoding the pore-forming cytolysin listeriolysin for the identification of Listeria monocytogenes and the invA sequence for the identification of Salmonella enteritis. DNA isolation from Staphylococcus aureus Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis cultures was performed using the commercial kit Nucleospin Tissue (Macherey Nagel). Specifically 20μl of DNA was diluted in 10mMPBS (pH5). After the denaturation of 10min, 20μl of AuNPs was added followed by the annealing step at 58oC. The presence of a complementary target prevents aggregation with the addition of acid and the solution remains pink, whereas in the opposite event it turns to purple. The color could be detected visually and it was confirmed with an absorption spectrum. Results: Specifically, 0.123 μg/μl DNA of St. aureus, L.monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis was serially diluted from 1:10 to 1:100. Blanks containing PBS buffer instead of DNA were used. The application of the proposed method on isolated bacteria produced positive results with all the species of St. aureus and L. monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis using the femA, mecA, hly and invA genes respectively. The minimum detection limit of the assay was defined at 0.2 ng/μL of DNA. Below of 0.2 ng/μL of bacterial DNA the solution turned purple after addition of HCl, defining the minimum detection limit of the assay. None of the blank samples was positive. The specificity was 100%. The application of the proposed method produced exactly the same results every time (n = 4) the evaluation was repeated (100% repeatability) using the femA, hly and invA genes. Using the gene mecA for the differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Staphylococcus aureus the method had a repeatability 50%. Conclusion: The proposed method could be used as a highly specific and sensitive screening tool for the detection and differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis. The use AuNPs for the colorimetric detection of DNA targets represents an inexpensive and easy-to-perform alternative to common molecular assays. The technology described here, may develop into a platform that could accommodate detection of many bacterial species.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, pathogens, nanotechnology, bacteria

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22 Bioinformatics and Molecular Biological Characterization of a Hypothetical Protein SAV1226 as a Potential Drug Target for Methicillin/Vancomycin-Staphylococcus aureus Infections

Authors: Nichole Haag, Kimberly Velk, Tyler McCune, Chun Wu

Abstract:

Methicillin/multiple-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are infectious bacteria that are resistant to common antibiotics. A previous in silico study in our group has identified a hypothetical protein SAV1226 as one of the potential drug targets. In this study, we reported the bioinformatics characterization, as well as cloning, expression, purification and kinetic assays of hypothetical protein SAV1226 from methicillin/vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Mu50 strain. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis revealed a low degree of structural similarity with known proteins. Kinetic assays demonstrated that hypothetical protein SAV1226 is neither a domain of an ATP dependent dihydroxyacetone kinase nor of a phosphotransferase system (PTS) dihydroxyacetone kinase, suggesting that the function of hypothetical protein SAV1226 might be misannotated on public databases such as UniProt and InterProScan 5.

Keywords: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, dihydroxyacetone kinase, essential genes, drug target, phosphoryl group donor

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