Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Sīra Nabawiyya

4 Physician and Theologian: An Analysis of Ibn Rabban’s Approach on Sīra Nabawiyya

Authors: Ahmad Sanusi Azmi, Amiruddin Mohd Sobali, Zulhilmi Mohamed Nor, Mohd Yusuf Ismail, Amran Abdul Halim

Abstract:

The non-Muslim communities’ reactions to the denials of the prophethood of Muḥammad in the ninth century created an impact on the development of Islamic prophetology. Vigorous refutations from non-Muslim community, specifically the Jews, Christians and Brahmins urged Muslims to develop a solid mechanism in defense of the status of their beloved prophet. One of the works that has been recognized as an apparatus to defend the Prophet Muḥammad veracity is al-Dīn wa al-Dawla composed by Ibn Rabban, a physician of the Caliph’s court. This study analyses the novelty of his approaches in exploring Sīra Nabawiyya and defending the prophethood of Muḥammad. The study employed a descriptive, comparative and critical approach where it analyses and extracts the author original approach in explaining the legitimacy of Muḥammad’s prophethood and enlightening the Prophet’s biography. The study in its finding argues that most of Ibn Rabban arguments in this work are actually developed from the foundations of Biblical scripture. His style of interpreting Biblical passages indicates a possible dependence on Ibn al-Layth’s letter. However, the way in which he presents Qur’ānic references seems not to be in accordance with Ibn al-Layth’s perspective. This is where the novelty of his approach is distinguished. As a result, the study also affirms that Ibn Rabban imposes his own standards of selection and interpretation of Qur’ānic verses when he applies it as reference to the Prophet life.

Keywords: Sīra Nabawiyya, Ibn Rabban, al-Dīn wa al-Dawla, Christian, Dalāil Nubuwwa

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3 Thin and Flexible Zn-Air Battery by Inexpensive Screen Printing Technique

Authors: Sira Suren, Soorathep Kheawhom

Abstract:

This work focuses the development of thin and flexible zinc-air battery. The battery with an overall thickness of about 300 μm was fabricated by an inexpensive screen-printing technique. Commercial nano-silver ink was used as both current collectors and catalyst layer. Carbon black ink was used to fabricate cathode electrode. Polypropylene membrane was used as the cathode substrate and separator. 9 M KOH was used as the electrolyte. A mixture of Zn powder and ZnO was used to prepare the anode electrode. Types of conductive materials (Bi2O3, Na2O3Si and carbon black) for the anode and its concentration were investigated. Results showed that the battery using 29% carbon black showed the best performance. The open-circuit voltage and energy density observed were 1.6 V and 694 Wh/kg, respectively. When the battery was discharged at 10 mA/cm2, the potential voltage observed was 1.35 V. Furthermore, the battery was tested for its flexibility. Upon bending, no significant loss in performance was observed.

Keywords: flexible, Gel Electrolyte, screen printing, thin battery, Zn-Air battery

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
2 A Flexible High Energy Density Zn-Air Battery by Screen Printing Technique

Authors: Sira Suren, Soorathep Kheawhom

Abstract:

This work investigates the development of a high energy density zinc-air battery. Printed and flexible thin film zinc-air battery with an overall thickness of about 350 μm was fabricated by an inexpensive screen-printing technique. Commercial nano-silver ink was used as both current collectors and catalyst layer. Carbon black ink was used to fabricate cathode electrode. Polypropylene membrane was used as the cathode substrate and separator. 9 M KOH was used as the electrolyte. A mixture of Zn powder, ZnO, and Bi2O3 was used to prepare the anode electrode. The suitable concentration of Bi2O3 and types of binders (styrene-butadiene and sodium silicate) were investigated. Results showed that battery using 20% Bi2O3 and sodium silicate binder provided the best performance. The open-circuit voltage and energy density observed were 1.59 V and 690 Wh/kg, respectively. When the battery was discharged at 20 mA/cm2, the potential voltage observed was 1.3 V. Furthermore, the battery was tested for its flexibility. Upon bending, no significant loss in performance was observed.

Keywords: flexible, printed battery, screen printing, Zn-air

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
1 Estimating Visitor’s Willingness to Pay for the Conservation Fund: Sustainable Financing Approach in Protected Areas in Ethiopia

Authors: Sintayehu Aynalem Aseres, Raminder Kaur Sira

Abstract:

Increasingly, protected areas have been confronting with inadequate conservation funds that make it tough to antithesis the continuing of annihilation. The problem is even grave in developing countries, where Protected Areas (Pas) are mainly government-administered. Subsequently, it needs a strong effort to toughen the self-financing capability of PAs by ripening alternative sources of sustainable financing for realizing the conservation goals, in particular, to save the remaining natural planet. This study, therefore, designed to estimate visitors’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the additional conservation fees using a contingent valuation method. The effect relationship between WTP and both socio-demographic and non-economic factors was scrutinized by binary logistic regression. The mean WTP of foreign visitors has estimated at US$ 7.4 and for that of domestic visitors at US$1, with annual aggregate revenue of US$29, 200. The WTP was strongly influenced by income, satisfaction, environmental concern and attitude. The study has policy implications for the conservationists and park authorities to estimate the non-use values of PAs for developing market-based conservation instruments.

Keywords: conservation, ecotourism, sustainable financing, willingness to pay, protected areas, bale mountains national park

Procedia PDF Downloads 51