Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13079

Search results for: process shift

13079 An Alternative Proof for the Topological Entropy of the Motzkin Shift

Authors: Fahad Alsharari, Mohd Salmi Md. Noorani

Abstract:

A Motzkin shift is a mathematical model for constraints on genetic sequences. In terms of the theory of symbolic dynamics, the Motzkin shift is nonsofic, and therefore, we cannot use the Perron-Frobenius theory to calculate its topological entropy. The Motzkin shift M(M,N) which comes from language theory, is defined to be the shift system over an alphabet A that consists of N negative symbols, N positive symbols and M neutral symbols. For an x in the full shift AZ, x is in M(M,N) if and only if every finite block appearing in x has a non-zero reduced form. Therefore, the constraint for x cannot be bounded in length. K. Inoue has shown that the entropy of the Motzkin shift M(M,N) is log(M + N + 1). In this paper, we find a new method of calculating the topological entropy of the Motzkin shift M(M,N) without any measure theoretical discussion.

Keywords: entropy, Motzkin shift, mathematical model, theory

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13078 The Moment of the Optimal Average Length of the Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart for Equally Correlated Variables

Authors: Edokpa Idemudia Waziri, Salisu S. Umar

Abstract:

The Hotellng’s T^2 is a well-known statistic for detecting a shift in the mean vector of a multivariate normal distribution. Control charts based on T have been widely used in statistical process control for monitoring a multivariate process. Although it is a powerful tool, the T statistic is deficient when the shift to be detected in the mean vector of a multivariate process is small and consistent. The Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (MEWMA) control chart is one of the control statistics used to overcome the drawback of the Hotellng’s T statistic. In this paper, the probability distribution of the Average Run Length (ARL) of the MEWMA control chart when the quality characteristics exhibit substantial cross correlation and when the process is in-control and out-of-control was derived using the Markov Chain algorithm. The derivation of the probability functions and the moments of the run length distribution were also obtained and they were consistent with some existing results for the in-control and out-of-control situation. By simulation process, the procedure identified a class of ARL for the MEWMA control when the process is in-control and out-of-control. From our study, it was observed that the MEWMA scheme is quite adequate for detecting a small shift and a good way to improve the quality of goods and services in a multivariate situation. It was also observed that as the in-control average run length ARL0¬ or the number of variables (p) increases, the optimum value of the ARL0pt increases asymptotically and as the magnitude of the shift σ increases, the optimal ARLopt decreases. Finally, we use the example from the literature to illustrate our method and demonstrate its efficiency.

Keywords: average run length, markov chain, multivariate exponentially weighted moving average, optimal smoothing parameter

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13077 Occupational Heat Stress Condition According to Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index in Textile Processing Unit: A Case Study of Surat, Gujarat, India

Authors: Dharmendra Jariwala, Robin Christian

Abstract:

Thermal exposure is a common problem in every manufacturing industry where heat is used in the manufacturing process. In developing countries like India, a lack of awareness regarding the proper work environmental condition is observed among workers. Improper planning of factory building, arrangement of machineries, ventilation system, etc. play a vital role in the rise of temperature within the manufacturing areas. Due to the uncontrolled thermal stress, workers may be subjected to various heat illnesses from mild disorder to heat stroke. Heat stress is responsible for the health risk and reduction in production. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index and relative humidity are used to evaluate heat stress conditions. WBGT index is a weighted average of natural wet bulb temperature, globe temperature, dry bulb temperature, which are measured with standard instrument QuestTemp 36 area stress monitor. In this study textile processing units have been selected in the industrial estate in the Surat city. Based on the manufacturing process six locations were identified within the plant at which process was undertaken at 120°C to 180°C. These locations were jet dying machine area, stenter machine area, printing machine, looping machine area, washing area which generate process heat. Office area was also selected for comparision purpose as a sixth location. Present Study was conducted in the winter season and summer season for day and night shift. The results shows that average WBGT index was found above Threshold Limiting Value (TLV) during summer season for day and night shift in all three industries except office area. During summer season highest WBGT index of 32.8°C was found during day shift and 31.5°C was found during night shift at printing machine area. Also during winter season highest WBGT index of 30°C and 29.5°C was found at printing machine area during day shift and night shift respectively.

Keywords: relative humidity, textile industry, thermal stress, WBGT

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13076 Influence of Shift Work on Fasting Blood Sugar in Hospital Workers

Authors: Sheila R. Pai, N. K. Subbalakshmi, C. Vidya

Abstract:

Background: Accumulating evidence from prospective studies suggests an increased risk of type 2 diabetes associated with sleep deprivation and sleep disorders. Shift work by disrupting the circadian rhythm, could possibly cause metabolic disturbances. Objective: To investigate the influence of shift work on fasting blood glucose in hospital workers population. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 90 night shift workers (study group) and 90 day workers (controls) drawn from paramedical personnel. Night shift work was on a forward rotation basis, with an average of one night shift every 4 weeks. Each night shift rotation was for a period of 7 days, with a total of 8 hours of shift work per night. In the entire subjects body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) was measured. Statistical analysis included unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney ‘U’ test and Chi-square test. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Result: The study and control groups were comparable with regard to age, sex distribution and duration of employment. FBS was higher in study group compared to controls (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in BMI between control and study group. Conclusion: Shift work may adversely influence glucose metabolism.

Keywords: shift work, fasting blood sugar, sleep disturbances, diabetes

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13075 The Construct of Personal Choice within Individual Language Shift: A Phenomenological Qualitative Study

Authors: Kira Gulko Morse

Abstract:

Choosing one’s primary language may not be as common as choosing an additional foreign language to study or use during travel. In some instances, however, it becomes a matter of internal personal struggle, as language is tied not only to specific circumstances but also to human background and identity. This phenomenological qualitative study focuses on the factors affecting the decision of a person to undergo a language shift. Specifically, it considers how these factors relate to identity negotiation and expression. The data for the study include the analysis of published autobiographical narratives and personal interviews conducted using the Responsive Interviewing model. While research participants come from a variety of geographical locations and have used different reasons for undergoing their individual language shift, the study identifies a number of common features shared by all the participants. Specifically, while all the participants have been able to maintain their first language to varying degrees of proficiency, they have all completed the shift to establish a primary language different from their first. Additionally, the process of self-identification is found to be directly connected to the phenomenon of language choice for each of the participants. The findings of the study further tie the phenomenon of individual language shift to a more comprehensive issue of individual life choices – ethnic revival, immigration, and inter-cultural marriage among others. The study discusses varying language roles and the data indicate that language shift may occur whether it is a symbolic driving force or a secondary means in fulfilling a set life goal. The concept of language addition is suggested as an alternative to the arbitrariness of language shift. Thus, instead of focusing on subtractive bilingualism or language loss, the emphasis becomes the integration of languages within the individual. The study emphasizes the importance of the construct of personal choice in its connection to individual language shift. It places the focus from society onto an individual and the ability of an individual to make decisions in matters of linguistic identification.

Keywords: choice theory, identity negotiation, language shift, psycholinguistics

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13074 Developing Variable Repetitive Group Sampling Control Chart Using Regression Estimator

Authors: Liaquat Ahmad, Muhammad Aslam, Muhammad Azam

Abstract:

In this article, we propose a control chart based on repetitive group sampling scheme for the location parameter. This charting scheme is based on the regression estimator; an estimator that capitalize the relationship between the variables of interest to provide more sensitive control than the commonly used individual variables. The control limit coefficients have been estimated for different sample sizes for less and highly correlated variables. The monitoring of the production process is constructed by adopting the procedure of the Shewhart’s x-bar control chart. Its performance is verified by the average run length calculations when the shift occurs in the average value of the estimator. It has been observed that the less correlated variables have rapid false alarm rate.

Keywords: average run length, control charts, process shift, regression estimators, repetitive group sampling

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13073 Impact of Climate Shift on Rainfall and Temperature Trend in Eastern Ganga Canal Command

Authors: Radha Krishan, Deepak Khare, Bhaskar R. Nikam, Ayush Chandrakar

Abstract:

Every irrigation project is planned considering long-term historical climatic conditions; however, the prompt climatic shift and change has come out with such circumstances which were inconceivable in the past. Considering this fact, scrutiny of rainfall and temperature trend has been carried out over the command area of Eastern Ganga Canal project for pre-climate shift period and post-climate shift periods in the present study. Non-parametric Mann-Kendall and Sen’s methods have been applied to study the trends in annual rainfall, seasonal rainfall, annual rainy day, monsoonal rainy days, average annual temperature and seasonal temperature. The results showed decreasing trend of 48.11 to 42.17 mm/decade in annual rainfall and 79.78 tSo 49.67 mm/decade in monsoon rainfall in pre-climate to post-climate shift periods, respectively. The decreasing trend of 1 to 4 days/decade has been observed in annual rainy days from pre-climate to post-climate shift period. Trends in temperature revealed that there were significant decreasing trends in annual (-0.03 ºC/yr), Kharif (-0.02 ºC/yr), Rabi (-0.04 ºC/yr) and summer (-0.02 ºC/yr) season temperature during pre-climate shift period, whereas the significant increasing trend (0.02 ºC/yr) has been observed in all the four parameters during post climate shift period. These results will help project managers in understanding the climate shift and lead them to develop alternative water management strategies.

Keywords: climate shift, rainfall trend, temperature trend, Mann-Kendall test, sen slope estimator, eastern Ganga canal command

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13072 Application of the Best Technique for Estimating the Rest-Activity Rhythm Period in Shift Workers

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Soni

Abstract:

Under free living conditions, human biological clocks show a periodicity of 24 hour for numerous physiological, behavioral and biochemical variables. However, this period is not the original period; rather it merely exhibits synchronization with the solar clock. It is, therefore, most important to investigate characteristics of human circadian clock, essentially in shift workers, who normally confront with contrasting social clocks. Aim of the present study was to investigate rest-activity rhythm and to vouch for the best technique for the computation of periods in this rhythm in subjects randomly selected from different groups of shift workers. The rest-activity rhythm was studied in forty-eight shift workers from three different organizations, namely Newspaper Printing Press (NPP), Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) and Raipur Alloys (RA). Shift workers of NPP (N = 20) were working on a permanent night shift schedule (NS; 20:00-04:00). However, in CSEB (N = 14) and RA (N = 14), shift workers were working in a 3-shift system comprising of rotations from night (NS; 22:00-06:00) to afternoon (AS; 14:00-22:00) and to morning shift (MS; 06:00-14:00). Each subject wore an Actiwatch (AW64, Mini Mitter Co. Inc., USA) for 7 and/or 21 consecutive days, only after furnishing a certificate of consent. One-minute epoch length was chosen for the collection of wrist activity data. Period was determined by using Actiware sleep software (Periodogram), Lomb-Scargle Periodogram (LSP) and Spectral analysis software (Spectre). Other statistical techniques, such as ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple-range test were also used whenever required. A statistically significant circadian rhythm in rest-activity, gauged by cosinor, was documented in all shift workers, irrespective of shift work. Results indicate that the efficiency of the technique to determine the period (τ) depended upon the clipping limits of the τs. It appears that the technique of spectre is more reliable.

Keywords: biological clock, rest activity rhythm, spectre, periodogram

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13071 Creeping Control Strategy for Direct Shift Gearbox Based on the Investigation of Temperature Variation of the Wet Clutch

Authors: Biao Ma, Jikai Liu, Man Chen, Jianpeng Wu, Liyong Wang, Changsong Zheng

Abstract:

Proposing an appropriate control strategy is an effective and practical way to address the overheat problems of the wet multi-plate clutch in Direct Shift Gearbox under the long-time creeping condition. To do so, the temperature variation of the wet multi-plate clutch is investigated firstly by establishing a thermal resistance model for the gearbox cooling system. To calculate the generated heat flux and predict the clutch temperature precisely, the friction torque model is optimized by introducing an improved friction coefficient, which is related to the pressure, the relative speed and the temperature. After that, the heat transfer model and the reasonable friction torque model are employed by the vehicle powertrain model to construct a comprehensive co-simulation model for the Direct Shift Gearbox (DSG) vehicle. A creeping control strategy is then proposed and, to evaluate the vehicle performance, the safety temperature (250 ℃) is particularly adopted as an important metric. During the creeping process, the temperature of two clutches is always under the safety value (250 ℃), which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy in avoiding the thermal failures of clutches.

Keywords: creeping control strategy, direct shift gearbox, temperature variation, wet clutch

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13070 Mean Shift-Based Preprocessing Methodology for Improved 3D Buildings Reconstruction

Authors: Nikolaos Vassilas, Theocharis Tsenoglou, Djamchid Ghazanfarpour

Abstract:

In this work we explore the capability of the mean shift algorithm as a powerful preprocessing tool for improving the quality of spatial data, acquired from airborne scanners, from densely built urban areas. On one hand, high resolution image data corrupted by noise caused by lossy compression techniques are appropriately smoothed while at the same time preserving the optical edges and, on the other, low resolution LiDAR data in the form of normalized Digital Surface Map (nDSM) is upsampled through the joint mean shift algorithm. Experiments on both the edge-preserving smoothing and upsampling capabilities using synthetic RGB-z data show that the mean shift algorithm is superior to bilateral filtering as well as to other classical smoothing and upsampling algorithms. Application of the proposed methodology for 3D reconstruction of buildings of a pilot region of Athens, Greece results in a significant visual improvement of the 3D building block model.

Keywords: 3D buildings reconstruction, data fusion, data upsampling, mean shift

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13069 Statistical Modeling of Mobile Fading Channels Based on Triply Stochastic Filtered Marked Poisson Point Processes

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, J. P. Dubois

Abstract:

Understanding the statistics of non-isotropic scattering multipath channels that fade randomly with respect to time, frequency, and space in a mobile environment is very crucial for the accurate detection of received signals in wireless and cellular communication systems. In this paper, we derive stochastic models for the probability density function (PDF) of the shift in the carrier frequency caused by the Doppler Effect on the received illuminating signal in the presence of a dominant line of sight. Our derivation is based on a generalized Clarke’s and a two-wave partially developed scattering models, where the statistical distribution of the frequency shift is shown to be consistent with the power spectral density of the Doppler shifted signal.

Keywords: Doppler shift, filtered Poisson process, generalized Clark’s model, non-isotropic scattering, partially developed scattering, Rician distribution

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13068 Mitigation of Offshore Piling Noise Effects on Marine Mammals

Authors: Waled A. Dawoud, Abdelazim M. Negm, Nasser M. Saleh

Abstract:

Offshore piling generates underwater sound at level high enough to cause physical damage or hearing impairment to the marine mammals. Several methods can be used to mitigate the effect of underwater noise from offshore pile driving on marine mammals which can be divided into three main approaches. The first approach is to keep the mammal out of the high-risk area by using aversive sound waves produced by acoustic mitigation devices such as playing-back of mammal's natural predator vocalization, alarm or distress sounds, and anthropogenic sound. The second approach is to reduce the amount of underwater noise from pile driving using noise mitigation techniques such as bubble curtains, isolation casing, and hydro-sound dampers. The third approach is to eliminate the overlap of underwater waves by using prolonged construction process. To investigate the effectiveness of different noise mitigation methods; a pile driven with 235 kJ rated energy diesel hammer near Jeddah Coast, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was used. Using empirical sound exposure model based on Red Sea characteristics and limits of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; it was found that the aversive sound waves should extend to 1.8 km around the pile location. Bubble curtains can reduce the behavioral disturbance area up to 28%; temporary threshold shift up to 36%; permanent threshold shift up to 50%; and physical injury up to 70%. Isolation casing can reduce the behavioral disturbance range up to 12%; temporary threshold shift up to 21%; permanent threshold shift up to 29%; and physical injury up to 46%. Hydro-sound dampers efficiency depends mainly on the used technology and it can reduce the behavioral disturbance range from 10% to 33%; temporary threshold shift from 18% to 25%; permanent threshold shift from 32% to 50%; and physical injury from 46% to 60%. To prolong the construction process, it was found that the single pile construction, use of soft start, and keep time between two successive hammer strikes more than 3 seconds are the most effective techniques.

Keywords: offshore pile driving, sound propagation models, noise effects on marine mammals, Underwater noise mitigation

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13067 Off-Grid Sparse Inverse Synthetic Aperture Imaging by Basis Shift Algorithm

Authors: Mengjun Yang, Zhulin Zong, Jie Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, a new and robust algorithm is proposed to achieve high resolution for inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging in the compressive sensing (CS) framework. Traditional CS based methods have to assume that unknown scatters exactly lie on the pre-divided grids; otherwise, their reconstruction performance dropped significantly. In this processing algorithm, several basis shifts are utilized to achieve the same effect as grid refinement does. The detailed implementation of the basis shift algorithm is presented in this paper. From the simulation we can see that using the basis shift algorithm, imaging precision can be improved. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method are investigated by the simulation results.

Keywords: ISAR imaging, sparse reconstruction, off-grid, basis shift

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13066 Object Tracking in Motion Blurred Images with Adaptive Mean Shift and Wavelet Feature

Authors: Iman Iraei, Mina Sharifi

Abstract:

A method for object tracking in motion blurred images is proposed in this article. This paper shows that object tracking could be improved with this approach. We use mean shift algorithm to track different objects as a main tracker. But, the problem is that mean shift could not track the selected object accurately in blurred scenes. So, for better tracking result, and increasing the accuracy of tracking, wavelet transform is used. We use a feature named as blur extent, which could help us to get better results in tracking. For calculating of this feature, we should use Harr wavelet. We can look at this matter from two different angles which lead to determine whether an image is blurred or not and to what extent an image is blur. In fact, this feature left an impact on the covariance matrix of mean shift algorithm and cause to better performance of tracking. This method has been concentrated mostly on motion blur parameter. transform. The results reveal the ability of our method in order to reach more accurately tracking.

Keywords: mean shift, object tracking, blur extent, wavelet transform, motion blur

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13065 Using Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Mathematics (STEAM) Project-Based Learning Programs to Transition towards Whole School Pedagogical Shift

Authors: M. Richichi

Abstract:

Evidencing the learning and developmental needs of students in specific educational institutions is central to determining the type of whole school pedagogical shift required. Initiating this transition by designing and implementing STEAM (Science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics) project-based learning opportunities, in collaboration with industry, exposes teachers to new pedagogical and assessment practices. This experience instills confidence and a renewed sense of energy, which contributes to greater efficacy. Championing teachers in such learning environments leads to “bleeding” of inventive pedagogical understanding and skills as well as motivation. This contributes positively to collective teacher efficacy and the transition towards more cross-disciplinary initiatives and opportunities, and hence an innovative pedagogical shift. Evidence of skill and knowledge development in students, combined with greater confidence, work ethic and interest in STEAM areas, are further indicators of the success of the transitioning process.

Keywords: efficacy, pedagogy, transition, STEAM

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13064 Night Shift Work as an Oxidative Stressor: A Systematic Review

Authors: Madeline Gibson

Abstract:

Night shift workers make up an essential part of the modern workforce. However, night shift workers have higher incidences of late in life diseases and earlier mortality. Night shift workers are exposed to constant light and experience circadian rhythm disruption. Sleep disruption is thought to increase oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance of excess pro-oxidative factors and reactive oxygen species over anti-oxidative activity. Oxidative stress can damage cells, proteins and DNA and can eventually lead to varied chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s and dementia. This review aimed to understand whether night shift workers were at greater risk of oxidative stress and to contribute to a consensus on this relationship. Twelve studies published in 2001-2019 examining 2,081 workers were included in the review. Studies compared both the impact of working a single shift and in comparisons between those who regularly work night shifts and only day shifts. All studies had evidence to support this relationship across a range of oxidative stress indicators, including increased DNA damage, reduced DNA repair capacity, increased lipid peroxidation, higher levels of reactive oxygen species, and to a lesser extent, a reduction in antioxidant defense. This research supports the theory that melatonin and the sleep-wake cycle mediate the relationship between shift work and oxidative stress. It is concluded that night shift work increases the risk for oxidative stress and, therefore, future disease. Recommendations are made to promote the long-term health of shift workers considering these findings.

Keywords: night shift work, coxidative stress, circadian rhythm, melatonin, disease, circadian rhythm disruption

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13063 Water Gas Shift Activity of PtBi/CeO₂ Catalysts for Hydrogen Production

Authors: N. Laosiripojana, P. Tepamatr

Abstract:

The influence of bismuth on the water gas shift activities of Pt on ceria was studied. The flow reactor was used to study the activity of the catalysts in temperature range 100-400°C. The feed gas composition contains 5%CO, 10% H₂O and balance N₂. The total flow rate was 100 mL/min. The outlet gas was analyzed by on-line gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detector. The catalytic activities of bimetallic 1%Pt1%Bi/CeO₂ catalyst were greatly enhanced when compared with the activities of monometallic 2%Pt/CeO₂ catalyst. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR) and surface area analysis. X-ray diffraction pattern of Pt/CeO₂ and PtBi/CeO₂ indicated slightly shift of diffraction angle when compared with pure ceria. This result was due to strong metal-support interaction between platinum and ceria solid solution, causing conversion of Ce⁴⁺ to larger Ce³⁺. The distortions inside ceria lattice structure generated strain into the oxide lattice and facilitated the formation of oxygen vacancies which help to increase water gas shift performance. The H₂-Temperature Programmed Reduction indicated that the reduction peak of surface oxygen of 1%Pt1%Bi/CeO₂ shifts to lower temperature than that of 2%Pt/CeO₂ causing the enhancement of the water gas shift activity of this catalyst. Pt played an important role in catalyzing the surface reduction of ceria and addition of Bi alter the reduction temperature of surface ceria resulting in the improvement of the water gas shift activity of Pt catalyst.

Keywords: bismuth, platinum, water gas shift, ceria

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13062 Multi-Band Frequency Conversion Scheme with Multi-Phase Shift Based on Optical Frequency Comb

Authors: Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Yufu Yin, Zihang Zhu, Wei Jiang, Xuan Li, Qiurong Zheng

Abstract:

A simple operated, stable and compact multi-band frequency conversion and multi-phase shift is proposed to satisfy the demands of multi-band communication and radar phase array system. The dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) modulator is employed to support the LO sideband and the optical frequency comb simultaneously. Meanwhile, the fiber is also used to introduce different phase shifts to different sidebands. The simulation result shows that by controlling the DC bias voltages and a C band microwave signal with frequency of 4.5 GHz can be simultaneously converted into other signals that cover from C band to K band with multiple phases. It also verifies that the multi-band and multi-phase frequency conversion system can be stably performed based on current manufacturing art and can well cope with the DC drifting. It should be noted that the phase shift of the converted signal also partly depends of the length of the optical fiber.

Keywords: microwave photonics, multi-band frequency conversion, multi-phase shift, conversion efficiency

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13061 Multi-Criteria Evolutionary Algorithm to Develop Efficient Schedules for Complex Maintenance Problems

Authors: Sven Tackenberg, Sönke Duckwitz, Andreas Petz, Christopher M. Schlick

Abstract:

This paper introduces an extension to the well-established Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP) to apply it to complex maintenance problems. The problem is to assign technicians to a team which has to process several tasks with multi-level skill requirements during a work shift. Here, several alternative activities for a task allow both, the temporal shift of activities or the reallocation of technicians and tools. As a result, switches from one valid work process variant to another can be considered and may be selected by the developed evolutionary algorithm based on the present skill level of technicians or the available tools. An additional complication of the observed scheduling problem is that the locations of the construction sites are only temporarily accessible during a day. Due to intensive rail traffic, the available time slots for maintenance and repair works are extremely short and are often distributed throughout the day. To identify efficient working periods, a first concept of a Bayesian network is introduced and is integrated into the extended RCPSP with pre-emptive and non-pre-emptive tasks. Thereby, the Bayesian network is used to calculate the probability of a maintenance task to be processed during a specific period of the shift. Focusing on the domain of maintenance of the railway infrastructure in metropolitan areas as the most unproductive implementation process at construction site, the paper illustrates how the extended RCPSP can be applied for maintenance planning support. A multi-criteria evolutionary algorithm with a problem representation is introduced which is capable of revising technician-task allocations, whereas the duration of the task may be stochastic. The approach uses a novel activity list representation to ensure easily describable and modifiable elements which can be converted into detailed shift schedules. Thereby, the main objective is to develop a shift plan which maximizes the utilization of each technician due to a minimization of the waiting times caused by rail traffic. The results of the already implemented core algorithm illustrate a fast convergence towards an optimal team composition for a shift, an efficient sequence of tasks and a high probability of the subsequent implementation due to the stochastic durations of the tasks. In the paper, the algorithm for the extended RCPSP is analyzed in experimental evaluation using real-world example problems with various size, resource complexity, tightness and so forth.

Keywords: maintenance management, scheduling, resource constrained project scheduling problem, genetic algorithms

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13060 Shift Work and Its Consequences

Authors: Parastoo Vasli

Abstract:

In today's society, more and more people work during ‘non-standard’ working hours, including shift and night work, which are perceived danger factors for health, safety and social prosperity. Appropriate preventive and protective measures are needed to reduce side effects and ensure that the worker can adapt sufficiently. Of the many health effects associated with shift work, sleep disorders are the most widely recognized. The most troubling acute symptoms are difficulty falling asleep, short sleep, and drowsiness during working hours that last for days on end. The outcomes checked on plainly exhibit that shift work is related to expanded mental, social, and physiological drowsiness. Apparently, the effects are due to circadian and hemostatic compounds (sleep loss). Drowsiness is especially evident during night shifts and may lead to drowsiness in real workplace accidents. In some occupations, this is clearly a risk that could endanger human lives and has enormous financial outcomes. These dangers clearly affect a large number of people and should be of great importance to society. In particular, safety in night shifts is consistently reduced.

Keywords: shift work, night work, safety, health, drowsiness

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13059 Frequency-Dependent and Full Range Tunable Phase Shifter

Authors: Yufu Yin, Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Zihang Zhu, Xuan Li, Wei Jiang, Qiurong Zheng, Hui Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, a frequency-dependent and tunable phase shifter is proposed and numerically analyzed. The key devices are the dual-polarization binary phase shift keying modulator (DP-BPSK) and the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The phase-frequency response of the FBG is employed to determine the frequency-dependent phase shift. The simulation results show that a linear phase shift of the recovered output microwave signal which depends on the frequency of the input RF signal is achieved. In addition, by adjusting the power of the RF signal, the full range phase shift from 0° to 360° can be realized. This structure shows the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 70.90 dB·Hz2/3 and 72.11 dB·Hz2/3 under different RF powers.

Keywords: microwave photonics, phase shifter, spurious free dynamic range, frequency-dependent

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13058 Managing the Cloud Procurement Process: Findings from a Case Study

Authors: Andreas Jede, Frank Teuteberg

Abstract:

Cloud computing (CC) has already gained overall appreciation in research and practice. Whereas the willingness to integrate cloud services in various IT environments is still unbroken, the previous CC procurement processes run mostly in an unorganized and non-standardized way. In practice, a sufficiently specific, yet applicable business process for the important acquisition phase is often lacking. And research does not appropriately remedy this deficiency yet. Therefore, this paper introduces a field-tested approach for CC procurement. Based on an extensive literature review and augmented by expert interviews, we designed a model that is validated and further refined through an in-depth real-life case study. For the detailed process description, we apply the event-driven process chain notation (EPC). The gained valuable insights into the case study may help CC research to shift to a more socio-technical area. For practice, next to giving useful organizational instructions we will provide extended checklists and lessons learned.

Keywords: cloud procurement process, IT-organization, event-driven process chain, in-depth case study

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13057 Paradigm Shift of the World Is Globalization: Identity Crisis, Violence and Cultural War

Authors: Shahla Bukhtair

Abstract:

A paradigm presents a consensus view of a particular or collective community, accepted into by the members of that community, either consciously pronounced or, more likely, simply assumed and not intentionally acknowledged but is articulated. Paradigm shift is based on the behavioral attitude of the community. Change is inexorable. The world is suffering with the innovative creation of globalization. Media boosted this paradigm shift all over the world. Globalization is a vigorous process which impacts differentially on various cultures around the world. The outcome of the globalization is permeates cultural boundaries and in the process results in the spread of Western ideologies and values across the world. The term flourished in 20th century. Globalization is regarded as having substantial impact on such crises through its encouragement of conflicts rather than conciliation; through opportunities of expression, various groups get benefit with it. Identity crisis refers to inflexible mechanism i.e. cultural and political conflicts among polarized groups, which struggle with each other over the definition of a national identity. Violence is not only a kind of physical but it also psychological as well. Due to identity crisis, a person is having an issue of fear, anxiety, and lack of security. Everything has negative and positive aspects. Newspaper columns, magazine articles, films, made-for-TV movies, television special reports, and talk shows are all public arenas where images of political agenda of their own interest are constructed, debated, and reproduced. From these resources, individuals construct their own conceptions of what is normal and acceptable. This bias affects images in the media, and in turn has a negative effect on public development in a society. This paper investigates the relationship between globalization and cultural war, identity crisis and the role of violence. Objectives: - To determine which type of media plays an important role in shaping perceptions and attitudes of public negatively; - To analyze the impact of globalization on identity crisis, violence and global culture (positive and negative).

Keywords: paradigm shift, globalization, identity crisis, cultural war

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13056 An Image Segmentation Algorithm for Gradient Target Based on Mean-Shift and Dictionary Learning

Authors: Yanwen Li, Shuguo Xie

Abstract:

In electromagnetic imaging, because of the diffraction limited system, the pixel values could change slowly near the edge of the image targets and they also change with the location in the same target. Using traditional digital image segmentation methods to segment electromagnetic gradient images could result in lots of errors because of this change in pixel values. To address this issue, this paper proposes a novel image segmentation and extraction algorithm based on Mean-Shift and dictionary learning. Firstly, the preliminary segmentation results from adaptive bandwidth Mean-Shift algorithm are expanded, merged and extracted. Then the overlap rate of the extracted image block is detected before determining a segmentation region with a single complete target. Last, the gradient edge of the extracted targets is recovered and reconstructed by using a dictionary-learning algorithm, while the final segmentation results are obtained which are very close to the gradient target in the original image. Both the experimental results and the simulated results show that the segmentation results are very accurate. The Dice coefficients are improved by 70% to 80% compared with the Mean-Shift only method.

Keywords: gradient image, segmentation and extract, mean-shift algorithm, dictionary iearning

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
13055 Material Detection by Phase Shift Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

Authors: Rana Muhammad Armaghan Ayaz, Yigit Uysallı, Nima Bavili, Berna Morova, Alper Kiraz

Abstract:

Traditional optical methods for example resonance wavelength shift and cavity ring-down spectroscopy used for material detection and sensing have disadvantages, for example, less resistance to laser noise, temperature fluctuations and extraction of the required information can be a difficult task like ring downtime in case of cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy is not only easy to use but is also capable of overcoming the said problems. This technique compares the phase difference between the signal coming out of the cavity with the reference signal. Detection of any material is made by the phase difference between them. By using this technique, air, water, and isopropyl alcohol can be recognized easily. This Methodology has far-reaching applications and can be used in air pollution detection, human breath analysis and many more.

Keywords: materials, noise, phase shift, resonance wavelength, sensitivity, time domain approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
13054 The Effects of Shift Work on Neurobehavioral Performance: A Meta Analysis

Authors: Thomas Vlasak, Tanja Dujlociv, Alfred Barth

Abstract:

Shift work is an essential element of modern labor, ensuring ideal conditions of service for today’s economy and society. Despite the beneficial properties, its impact on the neurobehavioral performance of exposed subjects remains controversial. This meta-analysis aims to provide first summarizing the effects regarding the association between shift work exposure and different cognitive functions. A literature search was performed via the databases PubMed, PsyINFO, PsyARTICLES, MedLine, PsycNET and Scopus including eligible studies until December 2020 that compared shift workers with non-shift workers regarding neurobehavioral performance tests. A random-effects model was carried out using Hedge’s g as a meta-analytical effect size with a restricted likelihood estimator to summarize the mean differences between the exposure group and controls. The heterogeneity of effect sizes was addressed by a sensitivity analysis using funnel plots, egger’s tests, p-curve analysis, meta-regressions, and subgroup analysis. The meta-analysis included 18 studies resulting in a total sample of 18,802 participants and 37 effect sizes concerning six different neurobehavioral outcomes. The results showed significantly worse performance in shift workers compared to non-shift workers in the following cognitive functions with g (95% CI): processing speed 0.16 (0.02 - 0.30), working memory 0.28 (0.51 - 0.50), psychomotor vigilance 0.21 (0.05 - 0.37), cognitive control 0.86 (0.45 - 1.27) and visual attention 0.19 (0.11 - 0.26). Neither significant moderating effects of publication year or study quality nor significant subgroup differences regarding type of shift or type of profession were indicated for the cognitive outcomes. These are the first meta-analytical findings that associate shift work with decreased cognitive performance in processing speed, working memory, psychomotor vigilance, cognitive control, and visual attention. Further studies should focus on a more homogenous measurement of cognitive functions, a precise assessment of experience of shift work and occupation types which are underrepresented in the current literature (e.g., law enforcement). In occupations where shift work is fundamental (e.g., healthcare, industries, law enforcement), protective countermeasures should be promoted for workers.

Keywords: meta-analysis, neurobehavioral performance, occupational psychology, shift work

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
13053 Inclusive Education in Jordanian Double-Shift Schools: Attitudes of Teacher and Students

Authors: David Ross Cameron

Abstract:

In an attempt to alleviate the educational planning problem, double-shift schools have been created throughout various regions in Jordan, namely communities closer to the Syrian border, where a large portion of the refugee population settled, allowing Jordanians to attend the morning-shift and Syrians to attend the afternoon-shift. Subsequently, overcrowded classrooms have added a significant amount of stress on school facilities and teacher capacities. Established national policies and the implementation of inclusive educational practices have been jeopardized. In particular, teachers’ and student’s attitudes of the importance of inclusive education provisions in the classroom have deteriorated. To have a more comprehensive understanding of the current situation and possible plan for intervention, a focus study was carried out at a double-shift Jordanian/Syrian girls’ public school in Irbid, Jordan. Interviews and surveys of 29 students with physical, learning, emotional and behavioral disabilities, 33 students without any special needs and nine teachers were included with a mixed-method social research approach to highlight the current attitudes that students and teachers held and factors that contributed to shaping their inclinations and beliefs of inclusive education.

Keywords: capacity building, development, double-shift, Irbid, inclusive education, Jordan, pedagogy, planning, policy, refugee, special education, special needs, vulnerable population

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
13052 Peculiarities of the Clinical Course of the Osteoarthritis in Shift-Workers: Analysis of Clinical Data and Questionnaries

Authors: Oksana Mykytyuk

Abstract:

Chronic desynchronosis is an important factor of progression of osteoarthritis in shift workers. 80 patients with primary osteoarthritis (female:male ratio = 3:1, average age: 57.6 years, average disease duration: 6.4 years, radiological stage: II-III) were examined, 42% reported systematic night shift-work for more than two years. Full clinical examination was performed, all patients filled in SF-36, WOMAC questonnaries, marked visual analog scales for estimation of pain intensity and general well-being. Patients who had been exposed to night work had significantly worse clinical course of osteoarthritis marked by more (27.5%, p < 0.05) extensive pain syndrome, especially at night hours, (10.00 pm-2.00 am period) and estimated life quality as poorer comparing those working at day time. Osteoarthritis initiation occurred at earlier age in them comparing those who worked in non-shifted regimen. They showed a trend to generalized affliction of bigger quantity of joint groups, higher frequency of synovitis as well. Shift-workers administered higher doses of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and estimated their effect as lower (39.6% average daily relief vs 62.5% in non-shift workers after 10 days of regular application of therapy). Frequency of chronic NSAID-induced gastropathy was 25% higher among night-workers. Shift-workers are predisposed to worse course of osteoarthritis with marked clinical symptoms, requiring higher doses on NSAIDs and with inclination towards bigger frequency of complication. That should be kept in mind while developing individual treatment and secondary prophylaxis strategy.

Keywords: desynchronosis, osteoarthritis, questionnaries, shift-work

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13051 Evaluation of PV Orientation Effect on Mismatch between Consumption Load and PV Power Profiles

Authors: Iyad M. Muslih, Yehya Abdellatif, Sara Qutishat

Abstract:

Renewable energy and in particular solar photovoltaic energy is emerging as a reasonable power generation source. The intermittent and unpredictable nature of solar energy can represent a serious challenge to the utility grids, specifically at relatively high penetration. To minimize the impact of PV power systems on the grid, self-consumption is encouraged. Self-consumption can be improved by matching the PV power generation with the electrical load consumption profile. This study will focus in studying different load profiles and comparing them to typical solar PV power generation at the selected sites with the purpose of analyzing the mismatch in consumption load profile for different users; residential, commercial, and industrial versus the solar photovoltaic output generation. The PV array orientation can be adjusted to reduce the mismatch effects. The orientation shift produces a corresponding shift in the energy production curve. This shift has a little effect on the mismatch for residential loads due to the fact the peak load occurs at night due to lighting loads. This minor gain does not justify the power production loss associated with the orientation shift. The orientation shift for both commercial and industrial cases lead to valuable decrease in the mismatch effects. Such a design is worth considering for reducing grid penetration. Furthermore, the proposed orientation shift yielded better results during the summer time due to the extended daylight hours.

Keywords: grid impact, HOMER, power mismatch, solar PV energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 524
13050 Prevalence of Shift Work Disorders among Mongolian Nurses

Authors: Davaakhuu Vandannyam, Amarsaikhan Dashtseren, Oyungoo Badamdorj

Abstract:

Background: Shift work and extended working hours are increasing in many industries and organization's in the world. Over a 24 hour period, the circadian clock regulates sleep/wake patterns, body temperature, hormone levels, digestion and many other functions. Depending on the time of day or night, the human body is programmed for periods of wakefulness and sleep, high and low body temperature, high and low digestive activity and so on. Shift work is highly prevalent in industrialized societies (>20%) but, when it includes night work, it has pronounced negative effects on sleep, subjective and physiological sleepiness, performance, accident risk, as well as on health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and certain forms of cancer. Method: In this cross-sectional field study, 634 shift work and day work nurses from a plant were involved, with participation rate of 100% (634 nurses). The general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) and RLS, ESS, ISI, FSS were used to evaluate the level of insomnia, sleepiness, fatigue and restless legs syndrome, respectively. Results: As a result of research on some indicators of health risks caused from work shift, it was proven that prevalence of restless legs syndrome was at 5.5% and 25.9% are in risk of becoming sick, 42.3% are in fatigue, 3.5% in high stage of insomnia and 27.4% are sleepy on duty. Insomnia of nurses mainly affected from long-hour shift, dissatisfaction, workload, lose of focus and use of coffee. There is sleepiness lies in the workplace due to number of shifts, unsatisfactory performance and emergency calls between shifts. It has been determined that risk of sickness influenced by number of shifts in a month and long hour shift, dissatisfaction and use of coffee and divisions are causing restless legs syndrome. Conclusions: Among the nurses, it was found that the prevalence of insomnia is 31.6%, sleepiness 27.4%, fatigue 42.3%, restless legs syndrome 35% and stress 25.9%. These factors of shift work affecting health tend to go up as working hours increase and more common among shift work nurses.

Keywords: shiftwork, insomnia, sleepiness, restless

Procedia PDF Downloads 176