Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5503

Search results for: average run length

5503 Optimal Design for SARMA(P,Q)L Process of EWMA Control Chart

Authors: Yupaporn Areepong


The main goal of this paper is to study Statistical Process Control (SPC) with Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chart when observations are serially-correlated. The characteristic of control chart is Average Run Length (ARL) which is the average number of samples taken before an action signal is given. Ideally, an acceptable ARL of in-control process should be enough large, so-called (ARL0). Otherwise it should be small when the process is out-of-control, so-called Average of Delay Time (ARL1) or a mean of true alarm. We find explicit formulas of ARL for EWMA control chart for Seasonal Autoregressive and Moving Average processes (SARMA) with Exponential white noise. The results of ARL obtained from explicit formula and Integral equation are in good agreement. In particular, this formulas for evaluating (ARL0) and (ARL1) be able to get a set of optimal parameters which depend on smoothing parameter (λ) and width of control limit (H) for designing EWMA chart with minimum of (ARL1).

Keywords: average run length, optimal parameters, exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA), control chart

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5502 The Moment of the Optimal Average Length of the Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart for Equally Correlated Variables

Authors: Edokpa Idemudia Waziri, Salisu S. Umar


The Hotellng’s T^2 is a well-known statistic for detecting a shift in the mean vector of a multivariate normal distribution. Control charts based on T have been widely used in statistical process control for monitoring a multivariate process. Although it is a powerful tool, the T statistic is deficient when the shift to be detected in the mean vector of a multivariate process is small and consistent. The Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (MEWMA) control chart is one of the control statistics used to overcome the drawback of the Hotellng’s T statistic. In this paper, the probability distribution of the Average Run Length (ARL) of the MEWMA control chart when the quality characteristics exhibit substantial cross correlation and when the process is in-control and out-of-control was derived using the Markov Chain algorithm. The derivation of the probability functions and the moments of the run length distribution were also obtained and they were consistent with some existing results for the in-control and out-of-control situation. By simulation process, the procedure identified a class of ARL for the MEWMA control when the process is in-control and out-of-control. From our study, it was observed that the MEWMA scheme is quite adequate for detecting a small shift and a good way to improve the quality of goods and services in a multivariate situation. It was also observed that as the in-control average run length ARL0¬ or the number of variables (p) increases, the optimum value of the ARL0pt increases asymptotically and as the magnitude of the shift σ increases, the optimal ARLopt decreases. Finally, we use the example from the literature to illustrate our method and demonstrate its efficiency.

Keywords: average run length, markov chain, multivariate exponentially weighted moving average, optimal smoothing parameter

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5501 The Simulation of Superfine Animal Fibre Fractionation: The Strength Variation of Fibre

Authors: Sepehr Moradi


This study investigates the contribution of individual Australian Superfine Merino Wool (ASFW) and Inner Mongolia Cashmere (IMC) fibres strength behaviour to the breaking force variation (CVBF) and minimum fibre diameter (CVₘFD) induced by actual single fibre lengths and the combination of length and diameter groups. Mid-side samples were selected for the ASFW (n = 919) and IMC (n = 691) since it is assumed to represent the average of the whole fleece. The average (LₘFD) varied for ASFW and IMC by 36.6 % and 33.3 % from shortest to longest actual single fibre length and -21.2 % and -21.7 % between longest-coarsest and shortest-finest groups, respectively. The tensile properties of single animal fibres were characterised using Single Fibre Analyser (SIFAN 4). After normalising for diversity in fibre diameter at the position of breakage, the parameters, which explain the strength behaviour within actual fibre lengths and combination of length-diameter groups, were the Intrinsic Fibre Strength (IFS) (MPa), Min IFS (MPa), Max IFS (MPa) and Breaking force (BF) (cN). The average strength of single fibres varied extensively within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups. IFS ranged for ASFW and IMC from 419 to 355 MPa (-15.2 % range) and 353 to 319 (-9.6 % range) and BF from 2.2 to 3.6 (63.6 % range) and 3.2 to 5.3 cN (65.6 % range) from shortest to longest groups, respectively. Single fibre properties showed no differences within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups, or was there a strong interaction between the strength of single fibre (P > 0.05) within remaining and removing length-diameter groups. Longer-coarser fibre fractionation had a significant effect on BF and IFS and all of the length groups showed a considerable variance in single fibre strength that is accounted for by diversity in the diameter variation along the fibre. There are many concepts for the improvement of the stress-strain properties of animal fibres as a means of raising a single fibre strength by simultaneous changes in fibre length and diameter. Fibre fractionation over a given length directly for single fibre strength or using the variation traits of fibre diameter is an important process used to increase the strength of the single fibre.

Keywords: single animal fibre fractionation, actual length groups, strength variation, length-diameter groups, diameter variation along fibre

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5500 Spawning Induction and Early Larval Development of the Giant Reef Clam Periglypta multicostata (Sowerby, 1835) under Controlled Conditions

Authors: Jose Melena, Rosa Santander, Tanya Gonzalez, Richard Duque, Juan Illanes


Ecuador is one of the countries with the greatest aquatic biodiversity worldwide. In particular, there are at least a dozen native marine species with great aquaculture potential locally. This research concerns one of those species. It has proposed to implement experimental protocols in order to induce spawning and to generate the early larval development of the giant reef clam P. multicostata under controlled conditions. Bioassays were carried out with one adult batch (n= 8) with an average valvar length of 118,4 ± 5,8 mm, which were collected near of the Puerto Santa Rosa (2° 12' 30'' S, 80° 58' 28'' W), Santa Elena Province. During a short acclimation stage, the eight adults of giant reef clam P. multicostata were exposed to thermal stress. Briefly, the experimental protocol for spawning induction was based on the application of 20°C for 1 h and 30°C for 1 h on P. multicostata broodstock at least three consecutive times by one day. After spawning, collected sexual material was released for external fertilization process. After the delivery of gametes, it was achieved 3,25 × 10⁶ viable zygotes. As results, fertilized eggs had 56 µm diameter; while first and second cell divisions were observed to 2,5 h post-fertilization, with individual average length of 68 ± 5 µm and polar body. Latter cell divisions, including gastrula stage, appeared at 9 h post-fertilization, with individual average length of 73 ± 4 µm and trochophore stage at 15 h post-fertilization with individual average length of 75 ± 4 µm. In addition, veliger stage was registered at 20 h post-fertilization with individual average length of 82 ± 6 µm. Umboned larvae appeared at day 8 post-fertilization, with individual average length of 148 ± 6 µm. These pioneering results worldwide can strengthen the local conservation process of the overexploited P. multicostata and to encourage its production for commercial purposes.

Keywords: Ecuador, larval development, Periglypta multicostata, spawning induction

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5499 Spawning Induction and Early Larval Development of the Penshell Atrina maura (Sowerby, 1835) under Controlled Conditions in Ecuador

Authors: Jose Melena, Rosa Santander, Tanya Gonzalez, Richard Duque, Juan Illanes


Ecuador is one of the countries with the greatest aquatic biodiversity worldwide. In particular, there are at least a dozen native marine species with great aquaculture potential locally. This research concerns one of those species. It has proposed to implement experimental protocols in order to induce spawning and to generate the early larval development of the penshell Atrina maura under controlled conditions. Bioassays were carried out with one adult batch (n= 26) with an average valvar length of 307,6 ± 9,4 mm, which were collected in the Puerto El Morro Mangrove (2° 42' 33'' S, 80° 14' 28'' W), Guayas Province. During a short acclimation stage, five adults of penshell A. maura were sacrificed in order to determine their sexual maturity degree and to estimate their sex ratio. Dissection showed that three were ripe females (60%) and two were ripe males (40%). Later, three groups (n= 7 by each) were tested with two treatments in order to induce the broodstock spawning: thermal stress, osmotic shock, and one control. Spawning induction was achieved by the immersion in water to 0 g L⁻¹ per 1 h and immersion in sea water to 34 g L⁻¹ per 1 h. After the delivery of gametes, it was achieved 1,35 × 10⁶ viable zygotes. As results, fertilized eggs had 60 µm diameter; while first and second cell divisions were observed to 1 h post-fertilization, with individual average length of 65 ± 4 µm and polar body. Latter cell divisions, including gastrula stage, appeared at 9 h post-fertilization, with individual average length of 71 ± 4 µm; and trochophore stage at 16 h post-fertilization with individual average length of 75 ± 5 µm. In addition, veliger stage was registered at 20 h post-fertilization with individual average length of 81 ± 5 µm. Umboned larvae appeared at day 8 post-fertilization, with individual average length of 145 ± 6 µm. These pioneering results in Ecuador can strengthen the local conservation process of the overexploited A. maura and to encourage its production for commercial purposes.

Keywords: Atrina maura, Ecuador, larval development, spawning induction

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5498 A New Bound on the Average Information Ratio of Perfect Secret-Sharing Schemes for Access Structures Based on Bipartite Graphs of Larger Girth

Authors: Hui-Chuan Lu


In a perfect secret-sharing scheme, a dealer distributes a secret among a set of participants in such a way that only qualified subsets of participants can recover the secret and the joint share of the participants in any unqualified subset is statistically independent of the secret. The access structure of the scheme refers to the collection of all qualified subsets. In a graph-based access structures, each vertex of a graph G represents a participant and each edge of G represents a minimal qualified subset. The average information ratio of a perfect secret-sharing scheme realizing a given access structure is the ratio of the average length of the shares given to the participants to the length of the secret. The infimum of the average information ratio of all possible perfect secret-sharing schemes realizing an access structure is called the optimal average information ratio of that access structure. We study the optimal average information ratio of the access structures based on bipartite graphs. Based on some previous results, we give a bound on the optimal average information ratio for all bipartite graphs of girth at least six. This bound is the best possible for some classes of bipartite graphs using our approach.

Keywords: secret-sharing scheme, average information ratio, star covering, deduction, core cluster

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5497 Length-Weight and Length-Length Relationships for 14 Sparidae Species, from the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea Coast of Turkey

Authors: Hacer Yeldan, Erhan Akamca, Sedat Gündogdu


Length-Weight and Length-length relationship were estimated of 14 species Sparidae (Boops boops, Diplodus annularis, Diplodus cervinus, Dipladus puntazzo, Diplodus sargus, Diplodus vulgaris, Lithognathus mormyrus, Oblada melanura, Pagellus acarne, Pagellus erythrinus, Pagrus auriga, Pagrus caeruleostictus, Sarpa salpa, Sparus aurata) sampled from in the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea coast of Turkey, Iskenderun Bay. Samples were collected from July 2014 to June 2015, using bottom trawl and trammel net into three different depth; 0-10 m, 10-20 m, 20-50m. Length-length relationships were determined size measurements: standard length (SL) and fork length (FL) to total length (TL) for fish species. The relationships between TL, FL and TL, SL were all linear. The values of the exponent b of the length-weight relationships ranged between 2.685 and 3.473. The type of growth for fish species was algometric growth.

Keywords: Sparidae, Iskenderun bay, length-length, length-weight relationships

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5496 Developing Variable Repetitive Group Sampling Control Chart Using Regression Estimator

Authors: Liaquat Ahmad, Muhammad Aslam, Muhammad Azam


In this article, we propose a control chart based on repetitive group sampling scheme for the location parameter. This charting scheme is based on the regression estimator; an estimator that capitalize the relationship between the variables of interest to provide more sensitive control than the commonly used individual variables. The control limit coefficients have been estimated for different sample sizes for less and highly correlated variables. The monitoring of the production process is constructed by adopting the procedure of the Shewhart’s x-bar control chart. Its performance is verified by the average run length calculations when the shift occurs in the average value of the estimator. It has been observed that the less correlated variables have rapid false alarm rate.

Keywords: average run length, control charts, process shift, regression estimators, repetitive group sampling

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5495 Genetic Variability and Principal Component Analysis in Eggplant (Solanum melongena)

Authors: M. R. Naroui Rad, A. Ghalandarzehi, J. A. Koohpayegani


Nine advanced cultivars and lines were planted in transplant trays on March, 2013. In mid-April 2014, nine cultivars and lines were taken from the seedling trays and were evaluated and compared in an experiment in form of a completely randomized block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Zahak. The results of the analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference between the studied cultivars in terms of average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, ratio of fruit length to its diameter, the relative number of seeds per fruit, and each plant yield. The total yield of Sohrab and Y6 line with and an average of 41.9 and 36.7 t/ ha allocated the highest yield respectively to themselves. The results of simple correlation between the analyzed traits showed the final yield was affected by the average fruit weight due to direct and indirect effects of fruit weight and plant yield on the final yield. The genotypic and heritability values were high for fruit weight, fruit length and number of seed per fruit. The first two principal components accounted for 81.6% of the total variation among the characters describing genotypes.

Keywords: eggplant, principal component, variation, path analysis

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5494 Performance Evaluation of Diverging Diamond Interchange Compared to Single Point Diamond Interchange in Riyadh City

Authors: Maged A. Mogalli, Abdullah I. Al-Mansour, Seongkwan Mark Lee


In the last decades, population growth has gradually exceeded transportation infrastructure growth, and today’s transportation professionals are facing challenge on how to meet the mobility needs of a rising population especially in the absence of adequate public transport, as is the case in Saudi Arabia. The traffic movement congestion can be decreased by carrying out some appropriate alternative designs of interchanges such as diverging diamond interchange (DDI) and single diamond interchange (SPDI). In this paper, evaluation of newly implemented DDIs at the interchange of Makkah road with Prince Turki road and the interchange of King Khaled road with Prince Saud Ibn Mohammed Ibn Mugrin road in Riyadh city was carried out. The comparison between the DDI and SPDI is conducted by evaluating different measures of effectiveness (MOE) such as stop delay, average queue length, and number of stops. In this connection, each interchange type was evaluated for traffic flow at peak hours using micro-simulation program namely 'Synchro/SimTarffic' to measure its effectiveness such as stop delay, average queue length, and number of stops. The results of this study show that DDI provides a better result when compared with SPDI in terms of stope delay, average queue length, and number of stops. The stop delay for the SPDI is greater than DDI by three times. Also, the average queue length is approximately twice that of the SPDI when compared to the DDI. Furthermore, the number of stops for the SPDI is about twice as the DDI.

Keywords: single point diamond interchange, diverging diamond interchange, measures of effectiveness, simulation

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5493 Empirical Analytical Modelling of Average Bond Stress and Anchorage of Tensile Bars in Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Maruful H. Mazumder, Raymond I. Gilbert


The design specifications for calculating development and lapped splice lengths of reinforcement in concrete are derived from a conventional empirical modelling approach that correlates experimental test data using a single mathematical equation. This paper describes part of a recently completed experimental research program to assess the effects of different structural parameters on the development length requirements of modern high strength steel reinforcing bars, including the case of lapped splices in large-scale reinforced concrete members. The normalized average bond stresses for the different variations of anchorage lengths are assessed according to the general form of a typical empirical analytical model of bond and anchorage. Improved analytical modelling equations are developed in the paper that better correlate the normalized bond strength parameters with the structural parameters of an empirical model of bond and anchorage.

Keywords: bond stress, development length, lapped splice length, reinforced concrete

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5492 Length-Weight and Length-Length Relationships of Oreochromis aureus in Relation to Body Size from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Amina Zubari, Abdus Salam, Summera Yasmeen, Syed Ali Ayub Bukhari, Abir Ishtiaq


In the present study, eighty three wild Oreochromis aureus of different body size ranging 5.3-14.6 cm in total length were collected from the River Chenab, District Muzzafer Garh, Pakistan to investigate the parameters of length –weight, length-length relationships and condition factor in relation to size. Each fish was measured and weighed on arrival at laboratory. Log transformed regressions were used to test the allometric growth. Length-weight relationship was found highly significant (r = 0.964; P < 0.01). The values of exponent “ b” in Length–weight regression (W=aLb), deviated from 3, showing isometric growth (b = 2.75). Results for LLRs indicated that these are highly correlated (P< 0.001). Condition factor (K) found constant with increasing body weight, however, showed negative influence with increasing total length.

Keywords: Oreochromis aureus, weight-length relationship, condition factor, predictive equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 537
5491 Physiotherapy Program for Frozen Shoulder on Length of Follow up and Range of Motions

Authors: Orawan Vichiansan, J. Kraipoj, K.Phandech, P. Sirasaporn


Generally, frozen shoulder will improve over time, although it may take a long time up to year. The symptoms of frozen shoulder present by pain around shoulder and consequently limit range of motions. The effect of frozen shoulder leads to limit activities daily living life and high medical care cost. Physiotherapy is well known treatment for frozen shoulder but there was no data about the treatment of physiotherapy in frozen shoulder and length of follow up. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate physiotherapy program for frozen shoulder on range of motion and length of follow up. A retrospective study design was conducted. 469 medical records of patients with frozen shoulder were reviewed. These frozen shoulders were treated at physiotherapy unit, department of Rehabilitation last 3 years (January, 2014- December, 2016). The data consist of range of motions and length of follow up was recorded. The medical record of 183 males and 286 females with average aged 57.82±12.32 years were reviewed in this study. There was a statistically significant increase in shoulder flexion [mean difference 30.24 with 95%CI were [24.37-36.12], shoulder abduction [mean difference 34.93 with 95%CI were 27.8-42.0], shoulder internal rotation [mean difference 17.25 with 95%CI were 12.55-21.95] and shoulder external rotation [mean difference 17.71 with 95%CI were [13.07-22.36] respectively. In addition, the length of follow up averaged 84 days. In summary, the retrospective study show physiotherapy program likely to be benefit for patients with frozen shoulder in term of range of motion and short length of follow up.

Keywords: frozen shoulder, physiotherapy, range of motions, length of follow up

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5490 Growth Pattern, Condition Factor and Relative Condition Factor of Twenty Important Demersal Marine Fish Species in Nigerian Coastal Water

Authors: Omogoriola Hannah Omoloye


Fish is a key ingredient on the global menu, a vital factor in the global environment and an important basis for livelihood worldwide1. The length – weight relationships (LWRs) is of great importance in fishery assessment2,3. Its importance is pronounced in estimated the average weight at a given length group4 and in assessing the relative well being of a fish population5. Length and weight measurement in conjunction with age data can give information on the stock composition, age at maturity, life span, mortality, growth and production4,5,6,7. In addition, the data on length and weight can also provides important clues to climatic and environmental changes and the change in human consumption practices8,9. However, the size attained by the individual fish may also vary because of variation in food supply, and these in turn may reflect variation in climatic parameters and in the supply of nutrient or in the degree of competition for food. Environment deterioration, for example, may reduce growth rates and will cause a decrease in the average age of the fish. The condition factor and the relative condition factor10 are the quantitative parameters of the well being state of the fish and reflect recent feeding condition of the fish. It is based on the hypothesis that heavier fish of a given length are in better condition11. This factor varies according to influences of physiological factors, fluctuating according to different stages of the development. Condition factor has been used as an index of growth and feeding intensity12. Condition factor decrease with increase in length 12,13 and also influences the reproductive cycle in fish14. The objective here is to determine the length-weight relationships and condition factor for direct use in fishery assessment and for future comparisons between populations of the same species at different locations. To provide quantitative information on the biology of marine fish species trawl from Nigeria coastal water.

Keywords: condition factor, growth pattern, marine fish species, Nigerian Coastal water

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5489 Lateral Sural Artery Perforators: A Cadaveric Dissection Study to Assess Perforator Surface Anatomy Variability and Average Pedicle Length for Flap Reconstruction

Authors: L. Sun, O. Bloom, K. Anderson


The medial and lateral sural artery perforator flaps (MSAP and LSAP, respectively) are two recently described flaps that are less commonly used in lower limb trauma reconstructive surgeries compared to flaps such as the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap or the gastrocnemius flap. The LSAP flap has several theoretical benefits over the MSAP, including the ability to be sensate and being more easily manoeuvred into position as a local flap for coverage of lateral knee or leg defects. It is less commonly used in part due to a lack of documented studies of the anatomical reliability of the perforator, and an unquantified average length of the pedicle used for microsurgical anastomosis (if used as a free flap) or flap rotation (if used as a pedicled flap). It has been shown to have significantly lower donor site morbidity compared to other flaps such as the ALT, due to the decreased need for intramuscular dissection and resulting in less muscle loss at the donor site. 11 cadaveric lower limbs were dissected, with a mean of 1.6 perforators per leg, with an average pedicle length of 45mm to the sural artery and 70mm to the popliteal artery. While the majority of perforating arteries lay close to the midline (average of 19mm lateral to the midline), there were patients whose artery was significantly lateral and would have been likely injured by the initial incision during an operation. Adding to the literature base of documented LSAP dissections provides a greater understanding of the anatomical basis of these perforator flaps, and the authors hope this will establish them as a more commonly used and discussed option when managing complicated lower limb trauma requiring soft tissue reconstruction.

Keywords: cadaveric, dissection, lateral, perforator flap, sural artery, surface anatomy

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5488 Morphometric Relationships of Length-Weight and Length-Length of Oreochromis aureus in Relation to Body Size and Condition Factor from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdus Salam, Sumera Yasmin, Abir Ishtiaq


In the present study, eighty-three wild Oreochromis aureus of different body size ranging 5.3-14.6 cm in total length were collected from the River Chenab, District Muzzafer Garh, Pakistan to investigate the parameters of length –weight, length-length relationships and condition factor in relation to size. Each fish was measured and weighed on arrival at laboratory. Log transformed regressions were used to test the allometric growth. Length-weight relationship was found highly significant (r = 0.964; P < 0.01). The values of exponent “ b” in Length–weight regression (W=aL^b), deviated from 3, showing isometric growth (b = 2.75). Results for LLRs indicated that these are highly correlated (P < 0.001). Condition factor (K) found constant with increasing body weight, however, showed negative influence with increasing total length.

Keywords: lenght-weight, Oreochromis aureus, morphometric study

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
5487 A Study on the False Alarm Rates of MEWMA and MCUSUM Control Charts When the Parameters Are Estimated

Authors: Umar Farouk Abbas, Danjuma Mustapha, Hamisu Idi


It is now a known fact that quality is an important issue in manufacturing industries. A control chart is an integrated and powerful tool in statistical process control (SPC). The mean µ and standard deviation σ parameters are estimated. In general, the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) and multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) are used in the detection of small shifts in joint monitoring of several correlated variables; the charts used information from past data which makes them sensitive to small shifts. The aim of the paper is to compare the performance of Shewhart xbar, MEWMA, and MCUSUM control charts in terms of their false rates when parameters are estimated with autocorrelation. A simulation was conducted in R software to generate the average run length (ARL) values of each of the charts. After the analysis, the results show that a comparison of the false alarm rates of the charts shows that MEWMA chart has lower false alarm rates than the MCUSUM chart at various levels of parameter estimated to the number of ARL0 (in control) values. Also noticed was that the sample size has an advert effect on the false alarm of the control charts.

Keywords: average run length, MCUSUM chart, MEWMA chart, false alarm rate, parameter estimation, simulation

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5486 Phenotypic Characterization of Desi Naked Neck Chicken and Its Association with Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) Gene Polymorphism in Pakistan

Authors: Akbar Nawaz Khan, Abdul Ghaffar, Muhammad Naeem Riaz


The study was conducted to investigate the phenotypic features, morphometry and production potentialities of indigenous naked neck chicken (NN) of Pakistan under intensive management condition. A total of 35 NN chicks were randomly selected, and the experiment was performed at Poultry and wildlife research section NARC Islamabad for a period of 22 weeks. The predominant plumage color was black and golden while skin color was observed white. The average shank length, leg length, thigh length, keel length, chest breadth, head width, wing space, wing length, body length, body girth, body height and pubic bone width in adult males and females were 69.19 ± 3.34mm, 117.93 ± 4.42mm, 117.93 ± 4.42mm, 90.87 ± 6.53mm, 95.03 ± 4.56mm, 49.77 ± 2.53mm, 30.63 ± 1.50cm, 27.24 ± 2.71cm, 18.88 ± 0.65cm, 17.77 ± 1.01cm, 25.96 ± 0.56cm, 47.81 ± 1.41cm and 35.69 ± 4.09mm respectively. The average age and live body weight of NN chicken at sexual maturity were recorded as 165.85 days and 1269.38 g. While hen-day egg production of NN was recorded as 45%. The present study was aimed to investigate the existence of polymorphism at IGF-I gene in indigenous naked neck chicken through PCR based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Based on restriction analysis using Hinf I restriction enzyme, three genotypes were detected designated as AA, AC, and CC. Restriction analysis of PCR amplified product showed the presence of DNA fragments of 622, 378, 244 and 191, (genotypes). The PCR-RFLP analysis is easy, cost effective method which permits the easy characterization of IGF-I gene. This showed the investigated IGF-I genes can serve as good molecular markers for marker assisted selection (MAS) concerning growth related traits in chicken.

Keywords: Desi chicken, naked neck, morphology, morphometry, production potential, egg traits, egg geometry, IGF-I, growth, PCR- RFLP, chicken

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5485 Landmark Based Catch Trends Assessment of Gray Eel Catfish (Plotosus canius) at Mangrove Estuary in Bangladesh

Authors: Ahmad Rabby


The present study emphasizing the catch trends assessment of Gray eel catfish (Plotosus canius) that was scrutinized on the basis of monthly length frequency data collected from mangrove estuary, Bangladesh during January 2017 to December 2018. A total amount of 1298 specimens were collected to estimate the total length (TL) and weight (W) of P. canius ranged from 13.3 cm to 87.4 cm and 28 g to 5200 g, respectively. The length-weight relationship was W=0.006 L2.95 with R2=0.972 for both sexes. The von Bertalanffy growth function parameters were L∞=93.25 cm and K=0.28 yr-1, hypothetical age at zero length of t0=0.059 years and goodness of the fit of Rn=0.494. The growth performances indices for L∞ and W∞ were computed as Φ'=3.386 and Φ=1.84, respectively. The size at first sexual maturity was estimated in TL as 48.8 cm for pool sexes. The natural mortality was 0.51 yr-1 at average annual water surface temperature as 22 0C. The total instantaneous mortality was 1.24 yr-1 at CI95% of 0.105–1.42 (r2=0.986). While fishing mortality was 0.73 yr-1 and the current exploitation ratio as 0.59. The recruitment was continued throughout the year with one major peak during May-June was 17.20-17.96%. The Beverton-Holt yield per recruit model was analyzed by FiSAT-II, when tc was at 1.43 yr, the Fmax was estimated as 0.6 yr-1 and F0.1 was 0.33 yr-1. Current age at the first capture was approximately 0.6 year, however Fcurrent = 0.73 yr-1 which is beyond the F0.1 indicated that the current stock of P. canius of Bangladesh was overexploited.

Keywords: Plotosus canius, mangrove estuary, asymptotic length, FiSAT-II

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5484 Experimental Study Analyzing the Similarity Theory Formulations for the Effect of Aerodynamic Roughness Length on Turbulence Length Scales in the Atmospheric Surface Layer

Authors: Matthew J. Emes, Azadeh Jafari, Maziar Arjomandi


Velocity fluctuations of shear-generated turbulence are largest in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) of nominal 100 m depth, which can lead to dynamic effects such as galloping and flutter on small physical structures on the ground when the turbulence length scales and characteristic length of the physical structure are the same order of magnitude. Turbulence length scales are a measure of the average sizes of the energy-containing eddies that are widely estimated using two-point cross-correlation analysis to convert the temporal lag to a separation distance using Taylor’s hypothesis that the convection velocity is equal to the mean velocity at the corresponding height. Profiles of turbulence length scales in the neutrally-stratified ASL, as predicted by Monin-Obukhov similarity theory in Engineering Sciences Data Unit (ESDU) 85020 for single-point data and ESDU 86010 for two-point correlations, are largely dependent on the aerodynamic roughness length. Field measurements have shown that longitudinal turbulence length scales show significant regional variation, whereas length scales of the vertical component show consistent Obukhov scaling from site to site because of the absence of low-frequency components. Hence, the objective of this experimental study is to compare the similarity theory relationships between the turbulence length scales and aerodynamic roughness length with those calculated using the autocorrelations and cross-correlations of field measurement velocity data at two sites: the Surface Layer Turbulence and Environmental Science Test (SLTEST) facility in a desert ASL in Dugway, Utah, USA and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) wind tower in a rural ASL in Jemalong, NSW, Australia. The results indicate that the longitudinal turbulence length scales increase with increasing aerodynamic roughness length, as opposed to the relationships derived by similarity theory correlations in ESDU models. However, the ratio of the turbulence length scales in the lateral and vertical directions to the longitudinal length scales is relatively independent of surface roughness, showing consistent inner-scaling between the two sites and the ESDU correlations. Further, the diurnal variation of wind velocity due to changes in atmospheric stability conditions has a significant effect on the turbulence structure of the energy-containing eddies in the lower ASL.

Keywords: aerodynamic roughness length, atmospheric surface layer, similarity theory, turbulence length scales

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5483 Determination of Agricultural Characteristics of Smooth Bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) Lines under Konya Regional Conditions

Authors: Abdullah Özköse, Ahmet Tamkoç


The present study was conducted to determine the yield and yield components of smooth bromegrass lines under the environmental conditions of the Konya region during the growing seasons between 2011 and 2013. The experiment was performed in the randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. It was found that the selected lines had a statistically significant effect on all the investigated traits, except for the main stem length and the number of nodes in the main stem. According to the two-year average calculated for various parameters checked in the smooth bromegrass lines, the main stem length ranged from 71.6 cm to 79.1 cm, the main stem diameter from 2.12 mm from 2.70 mm, the number of nodes in the main stem from 3.2 to 3.7, the internode length from 11.6 cm to 18.9 cm, flag leaf length from 9.7 cm to 12.7 cm, flag leaf width from 3.58 cm to 6.04 mm, herbage yield from 221.3 kg da–1 to 354.7 kg da–1 and hay yield from 100.4 kg da–1 to 190.1 kg da–1. The study concluded that the smooth bromegrass lines differ in terms of yield and yield components. Therefore, it is very crucial to select suitable varieties of smooth bromegrass to obtain optimum yield.

Keywords: semiarid region, smooth bromegrass, yield, yield components

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5482 Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Germination and Early Growth of Onion (Allium cepa)

Authors: Dragana R. Stamenov, Simonida S. Djuric, Timea Hajnal Jafari


Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a heterogeneous group of bacteria that can be found in the rhizosphere, at root surfaces and in association with roots, enhancing the growth of the plant either directly and/or indirectly. Increased crop productivity associated with the presence of PGPR has been observed in a broad range of plant species, such as raspberry, chickpeas, legumes, cucumber, eggplant, pea, pepper, radish, tobacco, tomato, lettuce, carrot, corn, cotton, millet, bean, cocoa, etc. However, until now there has not been much research about influences of the PGPR on the growth and yield of onion. Onion (Allium cepa L.), of the Liliaceae family, is a species of great economic importance, widely cultivated all over the world. The aim of this research was to examine the influence of plant growth promoting bacteria Pseudomonas sp. Dragana, Pseudomonas sp. Kiš, Bacillus subtillis and Azotobacter sp. on the seed germination and early growth of onion (Allium cepa). PGPR Azotobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas sp. Dragana, Pseudomonas sp. Kiš, from the collection of the Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad, Serbia, were used as inoculants. The number of cells in 1 ml of the inoculum was 10⁸ CFU/ml. The control variant was not inoculated. The effect of PGPR on seed germination and hypocotyls length of Allium cepa was evaluated in controlled conditions, on filter paper in the dark at 22°C, while effect on the plant length and mass in semicontrol conditions, in 10 l volume vegetative pots. Seed treated with fungicide and untreated seed were used. After seven days the percentage of germination was determined. After seven and fourteen days hypocotil length was measured. Fourteen days after germination, length and mass of plants were measured. Application of Pseudomonas sp. Dragana and Kiš and Bacillus subtillis had a negative effect on onion seed germination, while the use of Azotobacter sp. gave positive results. On average, application of all investigated inoculants had a positive effect on the measured parameters of plant growth. Azotobacter sp. had the greatest effect on the hypocotyls length, length and mass of the plant. In average, better results were achieved with untreated seeds in compare with treated. Results of this study have shown that PGPR can be used in the production of onion.

Keywords: germination, length, mass, microorganisms, onion

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5481 An EWMA P-Chart Based on Improved Square Root Transformation

Authors: Saowanit Sukparungsee


Generally, the traditional Shewhart p chart has been developed by for charting the binomial data. This chart has been developed using the normal approximation with condition as low defect level and the small to moderate sample size. In real applications, however, are away from these assumptions due to skewness in the exact distribution. In this paper, a modified Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chat for detecting a change in binomial data by improving square root transformations, namely ISRT p EWMA control chart. The numerical results show that ISRT p EWMA chart is superior to ISRT p chart for small to moderate shifts, otherwise, the latter is better for large shifts.

Keywords: number of defects, exponentially weighted moving average, average run length, square root transformations

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5480 Optimization of Multi-Zone Unconventional (Shale) Gas Reservoir Using Hydraulic Fracturing Technique

Authors: F. C. Amadi, G. C. Enyi, G. G. Nasr


Hydraulic fracturing is one of the most important stimulation techniques available to the petroleum engineer to extract hydrocarbons in tight gas sandstones. It allows more oil and gas production in tight reservoirs as compared to conventional means. The main aim of the study is to optimize the hydraulic fracturing as technique and for this purpose three multi-zones layer formation is considered and fractured contemporaneously. The three zones are named as Zone1 (upper zone), Zone2 (middle zone) and Zone3 (lower zone) respectively and they all occur in shale rock. Simulation was performed with Mfrac integrated software which gives a variety of 3D fracture options. This simulation process yielded an average fracture efficiency of 93.8%for the three respective zones and an increase of the average permeability of the rock system. An average fracture length of 909 ft with net height (propped height) of 210 ft (average) was achieved. Optimum fracturing results was also achieved with maximum fracture width of 0.379 inches at an injection rate of 13.01 bpm with 17995 Mscf of gas production.

Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, optimisation, shale, tight reservoir

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5479 Effect of Genotype and Sex on Morphometric Traits of Turkey

Authors: I. O. Dudusola, I. Ogunjimi


This study was carried out to determine the effect of sex and genotype on morphometric traits of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in a turkey population. Linear body measurements were taken on 150 turkeys. 70 exotic turkeys which include both males (20) and Females (50) and 80 locally adapted turkeys which include males (30) and females (50). The study was conducted at the Turkey Unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. The linear body measurements taken and recorded were the beak length, head length, neck length, body length, keel length, wingspan, wing length, drumstick, Shank length, toe length, tail length and body girth all taken in centimetres (cm). The recorded variables were analyzed with SAS (2008). Duncan multiple range test was used to detect differences among means. Variation was noted between male and female turkeys in favour of the male turkeys as an expression of sexual dimorphism for all studied traits. The male is found to be significantly higher (p <0.05) than the females for all the morphometric traits measured both for the local and exotic type. The exotic type is found to be significantly higher (p <0.05) than the local type for all the morphometric traits measured. The interaction is higher significantly (p <0.05) in the exotic genotype and in the male sex in relation with the morphometric trait especially in the beak length, neck length, body length, keel length, drumstick, shank length and the toe length.

Keywords: exotic type, linear measurement, local type, morphometric traits, Meleagris gallopavo

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5478 Prediction Model of Body Mass Index of Young Adult Students of Public Health Faculty of University of Indonesia

Authors: Yuwaratu Syafira, Wahyu K. Y. Putra, Kusharisupeni Djokosujono


Background/Objective: Body Mass Index (BMI) serves various purposes, including measuring the prevalence of obesity in a population, and also in formulating a patient’s diet at a hospital, and can be calculated with the equation = body weight (kg)/body height (m)². However, the BMI of an individual with difficulties in carrying their weight or standing up straight can not necessarily be measured. The aim of this study was to form a prediction model for the BMI of young adult students of Public Health Faculty of University of Indonesia. Subject/Method: This study used a cross sectional design, with a total sample of 132 respondents, consisted of 58 males and 74 females aged 21- 30. The dependent variable of this study was BMI, and the independent variables consisted of sex and anthropometric measurements, which included ulna length, arm length, tibia length, knee height, mid-upper arm circumference, and calf circumference. Anthropometric information was measured and recorded in a single sitting. Simple and multiple linear regression analysis were used to create the prediction equation for BMI. Results: The male respondents had an average BMI of 24.63 kg/m² and the female respondents had an average of 22.52 kg/m². A total of 17 variables were analysed for its correlation with BMI. Bivariate analysis showed the variable with the strongest correlation with BMI was Mid-Upper Arm Circumference/√Ulna Length (MUAC/√UL) (r = 0.926 for males and r = 0.886 for females). Furthermore, MUAC alone also has a very strong correlation with BMI (r = 0,913 for males and r = 0,877 for females). Prediction models formed from either MUAC/√UL or MUAC alone both produce highly accurate predictions of BMI. However, measuring MUAC/√UL is considered inconvenient, which may cause difficulties when applied on the field. Conclusion: The prediction model considered most ideal to estimate BMI is: Male BMI (kg/m²) = 1.109(MUAC (cm)) – 9.202 and Female BMI (kg/m²) = 0.236 + 0.825(MUAC (cm)), based on its high accuracy levels and the convenience of measuring MUAC on the field.

Keywords: body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, prediction model, ulna length

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5477 Statistical Description of Counterpoise Effective Length Based on Regressive Formulas

Authors: Petar Sarajcev, Josip Vasilj, Damir Jakus


This paper presents a novel statistical description of the counterpoise effective length due to lightning surges, where the (impulse) effective length had been obtained by means of regressive formulas applied to the transient simulation results. The effective length is described in terms of a statistical distribution function, from which median, mean, variance, and other parameters of interest could be readily obtained. The influence of lightning current amplitude, lightning front duration, and soil resistivity on the effective length has been accounted for, assuming statistical nature of these parameters. A method for determining the optimal counterpoise length, in terms of the statistical impulse effective length, is also presented. It is based on estimating the number of dangerous events associated with lightning strikes. Proposed statistical description and the associated method provide valuable information which could aid the design engineer in optimising physical lengths of counterpoises in different grounding arrangements and soil resistivity situations.

Keywords: counterpoise, grounding conductor, effective length, lightning, Monte Carlo method, statistical distribution

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5476 Changing Trends of Population in Nashik District, Maharashtra, India

Authors: Pager Mansaram Pandit


The present paper aims to changing trends of population in Nashik district. The spatial variation of changing trends of population from 1901 to 2011. Nasik, lying between 19° 33’ and 20° 53’ north latitude and 73° 16’ and 75° 16’, with an area of 15530 Sq. K.M.North South length is 120 km. East West length is 200 km. Nashik has a population of 6,109,052 of which 3,164,261 are males and 2,944,791 and females. Average literacy rate of Nashik district in 2011 was 82.91 compared to 80.96 in 2001. In 1901 the density was 52 and in 2011 the density was 393 per sq. km. The progressive growth rate from 1901 to 2012 was 11.25 to 642.22 percent, respectively. The population trend is calculated with the help of time series. In 1901 population was 45.44% more and less in 1941 i.e. -13.86. From 1921 to 1981 the population was below the population trend but after 1991 population it gradually increased. The average rainfall it receives is 1034 mm. In the present times, because of advances in good climate, industrialization, development of road, University level educational facilities, religious importance, cargo services, good quality of grapes, pomegranates and onions, more and more people are being attracted towards Nashik districts. Another cause for the increase in the population is the main attraction of Ramkund, Muktidham Temple, Kalaram Temple, Coin Museum, and Trimbakeshwar.

Keywords: density, growth, population, population trend

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5475 Prediction of the Tunnel Fire Flame Length by Hybrid Model of Neural Network and Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Behzad Niknam, Kourosh Shahriar, Hassan Madani


This paper demonstrates the applicability of Hybrid Neural Networks that combine with back propagation networks (BPN) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for predicting the flame length of tunnel fire A hybrid neural network model has been developed to predict the flame length of tunnel fire based parameters such as Fire Heat Release rate, air velocity, tunnel width, height and cross section area. The network has been trained with experimental data obtained from experimental work. The hybrid neural network model learned the relationship for predicting the flame length in just 3000 training epochs. After successful learning, the model predicted the flame length.

Keywords: tunnel fire, flame length, ANN, genetic algorithm

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5474 Constructing Orthogonal De Bruijn and Kautz Sequences and Applications

Authors: Yaw-Ling Lin


A de Bruijn graph of order k is a graph whose vertices representing all length-k sequences with edges joining pairs of vertices whose sequences have maximum possible overlap (length k−1). Every Hamiltonian cycle of this graph defines a distinct, minimum length de Bruijn sequence containing all k-mers exactly once. A Kautz sequence is the minimal generating sequence so as the sequence of minimal length that produces all possible length-k sequences with the restriction that every two consecutive alphabets in the sequences must be different. A collection of de Bruijn/Kautz sequences are orthogonal if any two sequences are of maximally differ in sequence composition; that is, the maximum length of their common substring is k. In this paper, we discuss how such a collection of (maximal) orthogonal de Bruijn/Kautz sequences can be made and use the algorithm to build up a web application service for the synthesized DNA and other related biomolecular sequences.

Keywords: biomolecular sequence synthesis, de Bruijn sequences, Eulerian cycle, Hamiltonian cycle, Kautz sequences, orthogonal sequences

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