Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 155

Search results for: Mubashir Iqbal

155 Iqbal's Philosophy of Action in the Light of Contemporary Philosophy of Action

Authors: Sevcan Ozturk

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to analyze the twentieth-century Muslim philosopher Muhammad Iqbal’s philosophy of action in the light of the main issues of contemporary philosophy of action. Iqbal is one of the most celebrated and eminent figures of modern Islamic thought. However, a review of the works on Iqbal shows that most of the central concepts of his philosophy have not received enough attention. His notion of ‘action’ in its philosophical context is one of these concepts. One of the main characteristics of Iqbal’s approach is that he develops his discussion around the main themes of contemporary philosophy of action, which includes ontological and conceptual questions regarding the nature of human actions. He also discusses that action is the only way to develop human personality, and that the human being can only achieve immortality promised by Islam through his actions. Therefore, while presenting an approach that can be read in the light of contemporary philosophy of action, which has become one of the significant parts of modern philosophical discussions in the west particularly since the nineteenth century, he, at the same time, develops his own philosophy of action in the light of Islamic resources. Consequently, these two main characteristics of his discussion of the notion of action make his philosophy of action an important contribution to contemporary philosophy of action, a field that ignores the discussions of Muslim philosophers on action. Therefore, this paper aims at highlighting Iqbal’s contribution to the modern debate of action by analysing Iqbal’s notion of action in the light of the contemporary issues of philosophy of action. This will, first of all, include an examination of contemporary action theory. Although the main discussions of contemporary philosophy of action will provide the methodology of this study, the main paradigms of Iqbal’s approach to the notion of action will also be considered during the examination of the discussions of philosophy of action. Then, Iqbal’s own philosophy of action will be established in the light of the contemporary philosophy of action. It is hoped that this paper will cultivate a dialogue between Iqbal scholars and those working in the field of philosophy of action, and that it will be a contribution to the fields of Iqbal studies, philosophy of action, and intercultural philosophy.

Keywords: action, development of personality, Muhammad Iqbal, philosophy of action

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154 A Kierkegaardian Reading of Iqbal's Poetry as a Communicative Act

Authors: Sevcan Ozturk

Abstract:

The overall aim of this paper is to present a Kierkegaardian approach to Iqbal’s use of literature as a form of communication. Despite belonging to different historical, cultural, and religious backgrounds, the philosophical approaches of Soren Kierkegaard, ‘the father of existentialism,' and Muhammad Iqbal ‘the spiritual father of Pakistan’ present certain parallels. Both Kierkegaard and Iqbal take human existence as the starting point for their reflections, emphasise the subject of becoming genuine religious personalities, and develop a notion of the self. While doing these they both adopt parallel methods, employ literary techniques and poetical forms, and use their literary works as a form of communication. The problem is that Iqbal does not provide a clear account of his method as Kierkegaard does in his works. As a result, Iqbal’s literary approach appears to be a collection of contradictions. This is mainly because despite he writes most of his works in the poetical form, he condemns all kinds of art including poetry. Moreover, while attacking on Islamic mysticism, he, at the same time, uses classical literary forms, and a number of traditional mystical, poetic symbols. This paper will argue that the contradictions found in Iqbal’s approach are actually a significant part of Iqbal’s way of communicating his reader. It is the contention of this paper that with the help of the parallels between the literary and philosophical theories of Kierkegaard and Iqbal, the application of Kierkegaard’s method to Iqbal’s use of poetry as a communicative act will make it possible to dispel the seeming ambiguities in Iqbal’s literary approach. The application of Kierkegaard’s theory to Iqbal’s literary method will include an analysis of the main principles of Kierkegaard’s own literary technique of ‘indirect communication,' which is a crucial term of his existentialist philosophy. Second, the clash between what Iqbal’s says about art and poetry and what he does will be highlighted in the light of Kierkegaardian theory of indirect communication. It will be argued that Iqbal’s literary technique can be considered as a form of ‘indirect communication,' and that reading his technique in this way helps on dispelling the contradictions in his approach. It is hoped that this paper will cultivate a dialogue between those who work in the fields of comparative philosophy Kierkegaard studies, existentialism, contemporary Islamic thought, Iqbal studies, and literary criticism.

Keywords: comparative philosophy, existentialism, indirect communication, intercultural philosophy, literary communication, Muhammad Iqbal, Soren Kierkegaard

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153 Trapping Efficiency of Highly Effective Slow Released Formulations of Biodegradable Waxes with Methyl Eugenol Against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq, Faisal Munir

Abstract:

Experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of highly effective Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax, Candellila wax, Bee-wax, Carnauba wax and paraffin wax in the orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. The waxes were mixed with methyl eugenol in 1:9 ratio. The results revealed that SRF of Candellila, Paraffin, Bees and Carnauba wax attracted 13.77, 11, 8.15 and 7.23 flies/day/trap which was 2.6, 2, 1.5 and 1.4 times higher than standard respectively and exhibited 41.42%, 32.05%, 20.98% and 12.87% attractive index respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulation to B. zonata and was catagorized as Class-II slow-released formulation (AI = 11-50%). However, SRF of Lanolin wax trapped 1.81 flies/day/trap which was 3 times less than standard and exhibited -61.86% attractive index proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: biodegradable waxes, slow-released formulation, Bactrocera zonata, methyl euginol

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152 Assesment of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Euginol with Carnauba Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashir Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Waqas Amjad, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq

Abstract:

Present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of methyl eugenol with Carnauba wax in orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Carnauba wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFCN-9 trapped 35.3 flies/day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 50.35%, proved strongly attractive SRFCN for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (Attractive Index > 50%). The SRFCN-1, SRFCN-2, SRFCN-3, SRFCN-4, SRFCN-5, SRFCN-6, SRFCN-7 and SRFCN-8 trapped 2.0, 5.3, 3.3, 4.0, 5.7, 12.0, 9.7 and 14.3 flies/day/trap respectively exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of -70.73%, -37.25%, -55.55%, -48.93%, -34.61%, 1.40%, -9.37% and 10.25% Attractive Index respectively, proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (Attractive Index < 11%). Results revealed that the Slow-Released Formulation containing 10% Carnauba wax with 90% methyl eugenol trapped maximum number of flies of over 30 days.

Keywords: slow-released formulation, Bactrocera zonata, Carnauba wax, methyl euginol

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151 Assessment of Toxic Impact of Metals on Different Instars of Silkworm, Bombyx Mori

Authors: Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ahsan Khan, M. Sufian, Ahmad Nawaz, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Waleed Afzal Naveed

Abstract:

Larvae of silkworm (Bombyx mori) exhibit very high mortality when reared on mulberry leaves collected from mulberry orchards which get contaminated with metallic/nonmetallic compounds through either drift-deposition or chemigation. There is need to screen out such metallic compound for their toxicity at their various concentrations. The present study was carried out to assess toxicity of metals in different instars of silkworm. Aqueous solutions of nine heavy-metal based salts were prepared by dissolving 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 mg of each salt in one liter of water and were applied on the mulberry leaves by leaf-dip methods. The results reveal that mortality in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae caused by each heavy metal salts increased with an increase in their concentrations. The 1st instar larvae were found more susceptible to metal salts followed by 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of silkworm. Overall, Nickel chloride proved more toxic for all larval instar as it demonstrated approximately 40-99% mortality. On the basis of LC2 and larval mortality, the order of toxicity of heavy metals against all five larval instar was Nickel chloride (LC₂ = 1.9-13.9 mg/L; & 15.0±1.2-69.2±1.7% mortality) followed by Chromium nitrate (LC₂ = 3.3-14.8 mg/L; & 13.3±1.4-62.4±2.8% mortality), Cobalt nitrate (LC₂ = 4.3-30.9; &11.4±0.07-54.9±2.0% mortality), Lead acetate (LC₂ =8.8-53.3 mg/L; & 9.5±1.3-46.4±2.9% mortality), Aluminum sulfate (LC₂ = 15.5-76.6 mg/L; & 8.4±0.08-42.1±2.8% mortality), Barium sulfide (LC₂ = 20.9-105.9; & 7.7±1.1-39.2±2.5% mortality), Copper sulfate (LC2 = 28.5-12.4 mg/L; & 7.3±0.06-37.1±2.4% mortality), Manganese chloride (LC₂ = 29.9-136.9 mg/L; & 6.8±0.09-35.3±1.6% mortality) and Zinc nitrate (LC₂ = 36.3-15 mg/L; & 6.2±1.2-32.1±1.9% mortality). Zinc nitrate @ 50 and 100 mg/L, Barium sulfide @ 50 mg/L, Manganese chloride @ 50 and 100 mg/L and Copper sulfate @ 50 mg/L proved safe for 5th instar larvae as these interaction attributed no mortality. All the heavy metal salts at a concentration of 50 mg/L demonstrated less than 10% mortality.

Keywords: heavy-metals, larval-instars, lethal-concentration, mortality, silkworm

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150 Re-Visiting Rumi and Iqbal on Self-Enhancement for Social Responsibility

Authors: Javed Y. Uppal

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The background of this study is the great degree of stress that the world is experiencing today, internationally among the countries, within a community among people, and even individually within one’s own self. The significance of the study is the attempt to find a solution of this stress in the philosophy of the olden times of Jalaluddin Rumi and comparatively recently of that of Allama Iqbal. The methodology adopted in this paper is firstly exploration of the perspectives of these philosophers that are being consolidated by a number of psychic and spiritual experts of today, who are being widely read but less followed. This paper further goes on presenting brief life sketches of Rumi and Iqbal. It expounds the key concepts proposed by them and the social change that was resulted in the times of the two above mentioned metaphysical philosophers. It is further amplified that with the recent advancements, in both metaphysics and the physical sciences, the gap between the two is closing down. Both Rumi and Iqbal emphasized their common essence. The old time's concepts, postulates, and philosophies are hence once again becoming valid. The findings of this paper are that the existence of human empathy, affection and mutual social attraction among humans is still valid. The positive inner belief system that dictates our thoughts and actions is vital. As a conclusion, empathy should enable us solving our problems collectively. We need to strengthen our inner communication system, to listen to the messages that come to our inner-selves. We need to get guidance and strength from them. We need to value common needs and purposes collectively to achieve results. Spiritual energy among us is to be harnessed and utilized. Connectivity is to be recognized to unify and strengthen ties among people. Mutual bonding at small and large group levels is to be employed for the survival of the disadvantaged, and sustainability of the empowering trends. With the above guidelines, hopefully, we can define a framework towards a brave and happy new humane world.

Keywords: belief system, connectivity, human empathy, inner-self, mutual bonding, spiritual energy

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149 Performance of Different Biodegradable Waxes Based Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology-Male Anhelation Technique-Cue Lure Formulations in Bittergourd Field against Bactrocera cucurbitae

Authors: Amna Jalal, Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Anum Tariq, Waleed Afzal Naveed, Talha Farooq, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar

Abstract:

Melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) are economically important pests of the cucurbits and are geographically distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world. It causes heavy quantitative and qualitative losses in bitter gourd. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of different biodegradable waxes based SPLAT-MAT-CL (Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology-Male Anhelation Technique- Cue Lure) formulations in bitter gourd field. Fourteen SPLAT-MAT emulsions/formulations were prepared by admixing different SPLAT matrices with toxicant (spinosad) and sex pheromone cuelure (attractant) in different proportionate percentage by weight. The results revealed that attraction and trapping of fruit flies of B. cucurbitae varied significantly for different SPLAT-MAT-CL formulations (p < 0.05). The maximum B. cucurbitae males were trapped in SPLAT-MAT-CL-7 (60 flies/trap/day) followed by SPLAT-MAT-CL-9 (40 flies/trap/day). The performance of all other formulations of SPLAT-MAT-CL was found in the order of SPLAT-MAT-CL-8 (30 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-3 (28 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-5 (25 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-4 (22 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-12 (20 flies/trap/day) SPLAT-MAT-CL-2 (19 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-14 (17 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-13 (15 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-11 (10 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-1 (8 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-10 (02 flies/trap/day). Overall, all the SPLAT-MAT-CL formulations, except SPLAT-MAT-CL-10, demonstrated higher density of captures of B. cucurbitae males as compared to standard (06 flies/trap/day). The results also demonstrate that SPLAT-MAT-CL-7, SPLAT-MAT-CL-9, SPLAT-MAT-CL-8, SPLAT-MAT-CL-3, SPLAT-MAT-CL-5, SPLAT-MAT-CL-4, SPLAT-MAT-CL-12, SPLAT-MAT-CL-2, SPLAT-MAT-CL-14, SPLAT-MAT-CL-13, SPLAT-MAT-CL-11 and SPLAT-MAT-CL-1 explained approximately 5, 4.6, 4.1, 3.6, 3.3, 3.1,2.8,2.5 and 1.6 times higher captures of B. cucurbitae males over standards. However, SPLAT-MAT-CL-10 demonstrated 3 times fewer captures of B. cucurbitae males over standards. In conclusion, SPLAT-MAT-CL-7, SPLAT-MAT-CL-9 can be exploited for the monitoring and trapping of B. cucurbitae in its IPM of program.

Keywords: attractancy, field conditions, melon fruit fly, SPLAT-MAT-CL

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148 Assessment of Attractency of Bactrocera Zonata and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera:Tephritidae) to Different Biolure Phagostimulant-Mixtures

Authors: Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashir Iqbal, Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammad Ahsan Khan, Ahmad Nawaz, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Arshad, Amna Jalal

Abstract:

Fruit flies of Bactrocera genus cause heavy losses in fruits and vegetables globally and insecticide-application for their control creates issues of ecological backlash, environmental pollution, and food safety. There is need to explore alternatives and food-baits application is considered safe for the environment and effective for fruit fly management. Present experiment was carried out to assess the attractancy of five phagostimulant-Mixtures (PHS-Mix) prepared by mixing banana-squash, mulberry, protein-hydrolysate and molasses with some phagostimulant-lure sources including beef extract, fish extract, yeast, starch, rose oil, casein and cedar oil in five different ratios i.e., PHS-Mix-1 (1 part of all ingredients), PHS-Mix-2 (1 part of banana with 0.75 parts of all other ingredients), PHS-Mix-3 (1 part of banana with 0.5 parts of all other ingredients), PHS-Mix-4 (1 part of banana with 0.25 parts of all other ingredients) and PHS-Mix-5 (1 part of banana with 0.125 parts of all other ingredients). These were evaluated in comparison with a standard (GF-120). PHS-Mix-4 demonstrated 40.5±1.3-46.2±1.6% AI for satiated flies (class-II i.e., moderately attractive) and 59.5±2.0-68.6±3.0% AI for starved flies (class-III i.e., highly attractive) for both B. dorsalis and B. zonata in olfactometric study while the same exhibited 51.2±0.53% AI (class-III i.e., highly attractive) for B. zonata and 45.4±0.89% AI (class-II i.e., moderately attractive) for B. dorsalis in field study. PHS-Mix-1 proved non-attractive (class-I) and moderately attractive (class-II) phagostimulant in olfactometer and field studies, respectively. PHS-Mix-2 exhibited moderate attractiveness for starved lots in olfactometer and field-lot in field studies. PHS-Mix-5 proved non-attractive to starved and satiated lots of B. zonata and B. dorsalis females in olfactometer and field studies. Overall PHS-Mix-4 proved better phagostimulant-mixture followed by PHS-Mix-3 which was categorized as class-II (moderately attractive) phagostimulant for starved and satiated lots of female flies of both species in olfactometer and field studies; hence these can be exploited for fruit fly management.

Keywords: attractive index, field conditions, olfactometer, Tephritid flies

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147 Emotional Intelligence and Age in Open Distance Learning

Authors: Naila Naseer

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Emotional Intelligence (EI) concept is not new yet unique and interesting. EI is a person’s ability to be aware of his/her own emotions and to manage, handle and communicate emotions with others effectively. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and age of graduate level students at Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU). Population consisted of Allama Iqbal Open University students (B.Ed 3rd Semester, Autumn 2007) from Rawalpindi and Islamabad regions. Total number of sample consisted of 469 participants was randomly drawn out by using table of random numbers. Bar-On EQ-i was administered on the participants through personal contact. The instrument was also validated through pilot study on a random sample of 50 participants (B.Ed students Spring 2006), who had completed their B.Ed degree successfully. Data was analyzed and tabulated in percentages, frequencies, mean, standard deviation, correlation, and scatter gram in SPSS (version 16.0 for windows). The results revealed that students with higher age group had scored low on the scale (Bar-On EQ-i). Moreover, the students in low age groups exhibited higher levels of EI as compared with old age students.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, age level, learning, emotion-related feelings

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146 Landfill Site Selection Using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis A Case Study for Gulshan-e-Iqbal Town, Karachi

Authors: Javeria Arain, Saad Malik

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The management of solid waste is a crucial and essential aspect of urban environmental management especially in a city with an ever increasing population such as Karachi. The total amount of municipal solid waste generated from Gulshan e Iqbal town on average is 444.48 tons per day and landfill sites are a widely accepted solution for final disposal of this waste. However, an improperly selected site can have immense environmental, economical and ecological impacts. To select an appropriate landfill site a number of factors should be kept into consideration to minimize the potential hazards of solid waste. The purpose of this research is to analyse the study area for the construction of an appropriate landfill site for disposal of municipal solid waste generated from Gulshan e-Iqbal Town by using geospatial techniques considering hydrological, geological, social and geomorphological factors. This was achieved using analytical hierarchy process and fuzzy analysis as a decision support tool with integration of geographic information sciences techniques. Eight most critical parameters, relevant to the study area, were selected. After generation of thematic layers for each parameter, overlay analysis was performed in ArcGIS 10.0 software. The results produced by both methods were then compared with each other and the final suitability map using AHP shows that 19% of the total area is Least Suitable, 6% is Suitable but avoided, 46% is Moderately Suitable, 26% is Suitable, 2% is Most Suitable and 1% is Restricted. In comparison the output map of fuzzy set theory is not in crisp logic rather it provides an output map with a range of 0-1, where 0 indicates least suitable and 1 indicates most suitable site. Considering the results it is deduced that the northern part of the city is appropriate for constructing the landfill site though a final decision for an optimal site could be made after field survey and considering economical and political factors.

Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), fuzzy set theory, Geographic Information Sciences (GIS), Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA)

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145 Correlation between Microalbuminuria and Hypertension in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Authors: Alia Ali, Azeem Taj, Muhammed Joher Amin, Farrukh Iqbal, Zafar Iqbal

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Background: Hypertension is commonly found in patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD). Microalbuminuria is the first clinical sign of involvement of kidneys in patients with type 2 diabetes. Uncontrolled hypertension induces a higher risk of cardiovascular events, including death, increasing proteinuria and progression to kidney disease. Objectives: To determine the correlation between microalbuminuria and hypertension and their association with other risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: One hundred and thirteen type 2 diabetic patients were screened for microalbuminuria and raised blood pressure, attending the diabetic clinic of Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. The study was conducted from November 2012 to June 2013. Results: Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1, those with normoalbuminuria (n=63) and Group 2, those having microalbuminuria (n=50). Group 2 patients showed higher blood pressure values as compared to Group 1. The results were statistically significant and showed poor glycemic control as a contributing risk factor. Conclusion: The study concluded that there is high frequency of hypertension among type 2 diabetics but still much higher among those having microalbuminuria. So, early recognition of renal dysfunction through detection of microalbuminuria and to start treatment without any delay will confer future protection from end-stage renal disease as well as hypertension and its complications in type 2 diabetic patients.

Keywords: hypertension, microalbuminuria, diabetic kidney disease, type 2 Diabetes mellitus

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144 Analysis of Drilling Parameters for Al-Mg2-Si Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: S. Jahangir, S. H. I. Jaffery, M. Khan, Z. Zareef, A. Yar, A. Mubashir, S. Butt, L. Ali

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In this work, drilling responses and behavior of MMC was investigated in Al-Mg2Si composites. For the purpose Al-15% wt. Mg2Si, was selected from the hypereutectic region of Al- Mg2Si phase diagram. Based on hardness and tensile strength, drill bit of appropriate material and morphology was selected. The performance of different drill bits of different morphology and material was studied and analysed using experimental data. For theoretical calculations of axial thrust force and required power calculation, material factor “K” was obtained from different data charts and at the same time cutting forces (drilling forces) were practically obtained using a Peizo electric force dynamometer. These results show the role of reinforcement particles on the machinability of MMCs and provide a useful guide for a better control and optimized drilling parameters for the drilling process. Furthermore, in this work, comparison of MMC with non -reinforced Aluminum Alloy regarding drilling operation was also studied.

Keywords: drilling, metal matrix composite (MMC), cutting forces, thrust force

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143 Infectivity of Hyalomma Ticks for Theileria annulata Using 18s rRNA PCR

Authors: Muhammad S. Sajid, A. Iqbal, A. Kausar, M. Jawad-ul-Hassan, Z. Iqbal, Hafiz M. Rizwan, M. Saqib

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Among the ixodid ticks, species of genus Hyalomma are of prime importance as they can survive in harsh conditions better than those of other species. Similarly, among various tick-borne pathogens, Theileria (T.) annulata, the causative agent of tropical theileriosis in large ruminants, is responsible for reduced productivity and ultimately substantial economic losses due to morbidity and mortality. The present study was planned to screening of vector ticks through molecular techniques for determination of tick-borne theileriosis in district Toba Tek Singh (T. T. Singh), Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose, among the collected ticks (n = 2252) from livestock and their microclimate, Hyalomma spp. were subjected to dissection for procurement of salivary glands (SGs) and formation of pool (averaged 8 acini in each pool). Each pool of acini was used for DNA extraction, quantification and primer-specific amplification of 18S rRNA of Theileria (T.) annulata. The amplicons were electrophoresed using 1.8% agarose gel following by imaging to identify the band specific for T. annulata. For confirmation, the positive amplicons were subjected to sequencing, BLAST analysis and homology search using NCBI software. The number of Theileria-infected acini was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in female ticks vs male ticks, infesting ticks vs questing ticks and riverine-collected vs non-riverine collected. The data provides first attempt to quantify the vectoral capacity of ixodid ticks in Pakistan for T. annulata which can be helpful in estimation of risk analysis of theileriosis to the domestic livestock population of the country.

Keywords: Hyalomma anatolicum, ixodids, PCR, Theileria annulata

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142 Influence of Pseudomonas japonica on Growth and Metal Tolerance of Celosia cristata L.

Authors: Muhammad Umair Mushtaq, Ameena Iqbal, Muhammad Aqib Hassan Ali Khan, Ismat Nawaz, Sohail Yousaf, Mazhar Iqbal

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Heavy metals are one of the priority pollutants as they pose serious health and environmental threats. They can be removed by various physiochemical methods but are costly and responsible for additional environmental problems. Bioremediation that exploits plants and their associated microbes have been referred as cost effective and environmental friendly technique. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the potential of Celosia cristata and effects of bacteria, Pseudomonas japonica, and organic amendment moss/compost on tolerating/accumulating heavy metals. Two weeks old seedlings were transferred to soil in pots, and after four weeks they were inoculated with bacterial strain, while after growth of six weeks they were watered with a metal containing synthetic wastewater and were harvested after a growth period of nine weeks. After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters and metal content of plants were measured. The results showed highest plant growth and biomass production in case of organic amendments while highest metal uptake has been found in non-amended pots. Positive controls have shown highest Pb uptake of 2900 mg/kg DW, while P. japonica amended pots have shown highest Cd, Cr, Ni and Cu uptake of 963.53, 1481.17, 1022.01 and 602.17 mg/kg DW, respectively. In conclusion organic amendments have strong impacts on growth enhancement while P. japonica enhances metal translocation and accumulation to aerial parts with little significant involvement in plant growth.

Keywords: ornamental plants, plant microbe interaction, amendments, bacteria

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141 The Governance of UK Museums and Art Galleries: Implications for Accountability

Authors: Aminah Abdullah, Iqbal Khadaroo

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This paper investigates to what ends, how and by whom museums and art galleries in the UK are governed, and to whom they provide accounts to justify their behavior and activities. A theoretical framework is developed by drawing from the governance and accountability literature and is fleshed out by using empirical data from secondary sources. The findings show that the governance model used, informed by the new public management (NPM) philosophy, and has created tensions between the managerial and social forms of accountability. Museums and art galleries have adopted a managerial culture of getting done what gets measured.

Keywords: governance, accountability, UK museums and art galleries, public sector

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140 Assessment of the Professional Competencies of Agriculture Officers in North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Khalid Nawab, Shahid Ali, Mubashir Habib, Shakirullah Khan, Sajjad Ahmad, Javid Ullah, Ikramul Haq

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Professionally competent Agriculture Officers (AOs) can play an important role in the development of agriculture in the country. This study was conducted in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Pakistan) to assess professional competencies of Agriculture Officers (AOs) in January 2007. Data were collected from all (112) AOs through a mailed questionnaire. The study examines existing level of professional competencies of AOs and the required level of possessed competencies needed by them for their job performance in the areas of participatory extension methodologies. Both the possessed and required levels of competencies were scaled from 1-5 on Liker scale, 1 being very low and 5 being very high. . The study revealed a numerical difference between possessed and required levels regarding the professional competencies of the participatory extension methodology. It was also observed that higher levels of job experience increase the professional competencies in participatory extension methodology. It is recommended that periodic training and refresher courses are arranged for AOs so that their learning may become more practicable to diffuse agricultural innovations among members of participatory learning groups and convey modern technologies to the end users.

Keywords: professional competency, agriculture officers, assessment and participatory extension methodology, participatory extension

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139 Future Trends of Mechatronics Engineering in Pakistan

Authors: Aqeela Mir, Akhtar Nawaz Malik, Javaid Iqbal

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The paper presents a survey based approach in order to observe the level of awareness regarding Mechatronics in society of Pakistan and the factors affecting the future development trend of Mechatronics in Pakistan. With the help of these surveys a new direction for making a Mathematical model for the future development trend of Mechatronics in Pakistan is also suggested.

Keywords: mechatronics society survey, future development trend of mechatronics in pakistan, probability estimation, mathematical model

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138 Working Capital Management Effectiveness

Authors: Asif Iqbal

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Working capital management has its effect on liquidity as well as on profitability of a firm. In this research we have selected a sample of 100 respondents whose firms are listed on Karachi stock exchange. We have studied the effect of different variable s of working capital management. We find that organizations throughout the world as well as in Pakistan have to give immense recognition to the working capital management as it is an effective thing from their long term perspective especially to their shareholders to have a firm confidence over the companies for investment purpose.

Keywords: working capital management, Karachi stock exchange, shareholders, capital management

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137 Detection of Micro-Unmanned Ariel Vehicles Using a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Digital Array Radar

Authors: Tareq AlNuaim, Mubashir Alam, Abdulrazaq Aldowesh

Abstract:

The usage of micro-Unmanned Ariel Vehicles (UAVs) has witnessed an enormous increase recently. Detection of such drones became a necessity nowadays to prevent any harmful activities. Typically, such targets have low velocity and low Radar Cross Section (RCS), making them indistinguishable from clutter and phase noise. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Radars have many potentials; it increases the degrees of freedom on both transmit and receive ends. Such architecture allows for flexibility in operation, through utilizing the direct access to every element in the transmit/ receive array. MIMO systems allow for several array processing techniques, permitting the system to stare at targets for longer times, which improves the Doppler resolution. In this paper, a 2×2 MIMO radar prototype is developed using Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology, and its performance is evaluated against a slow-moving low radar cross section micro-UAV used by hobbyists. Radar cross section simulations were carried out using FEKO simulator, achieving an average of -14.42 dBsm at S-band. The developed prototype was experimentally evaluated achieving more than 300 meters of detection range for a DJI Mavic pro-drone

Keywords: digital beamforming, drone detection, micro-UAV, MIMO, phased array

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
136 Clean Coal Using Coal Bed Methane: A Pollution Control Mechanism

Authors: Arish Iqbal, Santosh Kumar Singh

Abstract:

Energy from coal is one of the major source of energy throughout the world but taking into consideration its effect on environment 'Clean Coal Technologies' (CCT) came into existence. In this paper we have we studied why CCT’s are essential and what are the different types of CCT’s. Also, the coal and CCT scenario in India is introduced. Coal Bed Methane one of major CCT area is studied in detail. Different types of coal bed methane and its methods of extraction are discussed. The different problem areas during the extraction of CBM are identified and discussed. How CBM can be used as a fuel for future is also discussed.

Keywords: CBM (coal bed methane), CCS (carbon capture and storage), CCT (clean coal technology), CMM (coal mining methane)

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
135 An Investigation for Information Asymmetry Nexus IPO Under-Pricing: A Case of Pakistan

Authors: Saqib Mehmood, Naveed Iqbal Chaudhry, Asif Mehmood

Abstract:

This study intends to investigate the information asymmetry theories of IPO and under-pricing in Pakistan. The purpose of the study is to validate the information asymmetry about firm value which leads to under-pricing. A total of 55 IPOs listed from 2000-2011 were included in this study. OLS multiple regression was applied to achieve the objectives of this study. The findings of the study confirm the significance of information asymmetry on under-pricing in Pakistan. The findings have implications for issuing firms and prospective investors.

Keywords: information asymmetry, initial public offerings, under-pricing, firm value

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
134 Simulation and Characterization of Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photovoltaics Using Physics Based Tool

Authors: T. A. Shahul Hameed, P. Predeep, Anju Iqbal, M. R. Baiju

Abstract:

Research and development in organic photovoltaic cells and Organic Light Emitting Diodes have gained wider acceptance due to the advent of many advanced techniques to enhance the efficiency and operational hours. Here we report our work on design, simulation and characterizationracterize the bulk heterojunction organic photo cell and polymer light emitting diodes in different layer configurations using ATLAS, a licensed device simulation tool. Bulk heterojuction and multilayer devices were simulated for comparing their performance parameters.

Keywords: HOMO, LUMO, PLED, OPV

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
133 Differential Transform Method: Some Important Examples

Authors: M. Jamil Amir, Rabia Iqbal, M. Yaseen

Abstract:

In this paper, we solve some differential equations analytically by using differential transform method. For this purpose, we consider four models of Laplace equation with two Dirichlet and two Neumann boundary conditions and K(2,2) equation and obtain the corresponding exact solutions. The obtained results show the simplicity of the method and massive reduction in calculations when one compares it with other iterative methods, available in literature. It is worth mentioning that here only a few number of iterations are required to reach the closed form solutions as series expansions of some known functions.

Keywords: differential transform method, laplace equation, Dirichlet boundary conditions, Neumann boundary conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
132 Design of Bacterial Pathogens Identification System Based on Scattering of Laser Beam Light and Classification of Binned Plots

Authors: Mubashir Hussain, Mu Lv, Xiaohan Dong, Zhiyang Li, Bin Liu, Nongyue He

Abstract:

Detection and classification of microbes have a vast range of applications in biomedical engineering especially in detection, characterization, and quantification of bacterial contaminants. For identification of pathogens, different techniques are emerging in the field of biomedical engineering. Latest technology uses light scattering, capable of identifying different pathogens without any need for biochemical processing. Bacterial Pathogens Identification System (BPIS) which uses a laser beam, passes through the sample and light scatters off. An assembly of photodetectors surrounded by the sample at different angles to detect the scattering of light. The algorithm of the system consists of two parts: (a) Library files, and (b) Comparator. Library files contain data of known species of bacterial microbes in the form of binned plots, while comparator compares data of unknown sample with library files. Using collected data of unknown bacterial species, highest voltage values stored in the form of peaks and arranged in 3D histograms to find the frequency of occurrence. Resulting data compared with library files of known bacterial species. If sample data matching with any library file of known bacterial species, sample identified as a matched microbe. An experiment performed to identify three different bacteria particles: Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. By applying algorithm using library files of given samples, results were compromising. This system is potentially applicable to several biomedical areas, especially those related to cell morphology.

Keywords: microbial identification, laser scattering, peak identification, binned plots classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
131 Reservoir Potential, Net Pay Zone and 3D Modeling of Cretaceous Clastic Reservoir in Eastern Sulieman Belt Pakistan

Authors: Hadayat Ullah, Pervez Khalid, Saad Ahmed Mashwani, Zaheer Abbasi, Mubashir Mehmood, Muhammad Jahangir, Ehsan ul Haq

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to explore subsurface structures through data that is acquired from the seismic survey to delineate the characteristics of the reservoir through petrophysical analysis. Ghazij Shale of Eocene age is regional seal rock in this field. In this research work, 3D property models of subsurface were prepared by applying Petrel software to identify various lithologies and reservoir fluids distribution throughout the field. The 3D static modeling shows a better distribution of the discrete and continuous properties in the field. This model helped to understand the reservoir properties and enhance production by selecting the best location for future drilling. A complete workflow is proposed for formation evaluation, electrofacies modeling, and structural interpretation of the subsurface geology. Based on the wireline logs, it is interpreted that the thickness of the Pab Sandstone varies from 250 m to 350 m in the entire study area. The sandstone is massive with high porosity and intercalated layers of shales. Faulted anticlinal structures are present in the study area, which are favorable for the accumulation of hydrocarbon. 3D structural models and various seismic attribute models were prepared to analyze the reservoir character of this clastic reservoir. Based on wireline logs and seismic data, clean sand, shaly sand, and shale are marked as dominant facies in the study area. However, clean sand facies are more favorable to act as a potential net pay zone.

Keywords: cretaceous, pab sandstone, petrophysics, electrofacies, hydrocarbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
130 Reflection Performance of Truncated Pyramidal and Truncated Wedge Microwave Absorber Using Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB)

Authors: Liyana Zahid, Mohd Fareq Abd Malek, Ee Meng Cheng, Wei Wen Liu, Yeng Seng Lee, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal, Fwen Hoon Wee

Abstract:

One of the parameters that affect the performance of microwave absorbers is the shape of the absorbers. This paper shows the performance (reflection loss) of truncated pyramidal and truncated wedge microwave absorbers in the range frequency between 8.2 to 12.4 GHz (X-Band) in simulation. The material used is sugarcane bagasse (SCB) which is one of the new materials that used to fabricate the microwave absorber. The complex permittivity was measured using Agilent dielectric probe technique. The designs were simulated using CST Microwave Studio Software. The reflection losses between these two shapes were compared.

Keywords: microwave absorber, reflection loss, sugarcane bagasse (SCB), X-Band

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
129 Performance Evaluation of Content Based Image Retrieval Using Indexed Views

Authors: Tahir Iqbal, Mumtaz Ali, Syed Wajahat Kareem, Muhammad Harris

Abstract:

Digital information is expanding in exponential order in our life. Information that is residing online and offline are stored in huge repositories relating to every aspect of our lives. Getting the required information is a task of retrieval systems. Content based image retrieval (CBIR) is a retrieval system that retrieves the required information from repositories on the basis of the contents of the image. Time is a critical factor in retrieval system and using indexed views with CBIR system improves the time efficiency of retrieved results.

Keywords: content based image retrieval (CBIR), indexed view, color, image retrieval, cross correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
128 Islamic Transaction: An Alternative for Customer Satisfaction in the Islamic Banking

Authors: Mohammad Iqbal Maiik

Abstract:

Islamic marketing ethics combines the principle of value maximization with the principles of equity and justice for the welfare of the society. Adherence to the Islamic ethics in the Islamic banking industry can help elevate the standards of both behavior and living of bankers and customers alike. In a rapidly changing marketing environment, the need to be customer-focused has never been as important as it is today. At present where customers are becoming more demanding and increasingly mobile between competing financial providers, being customer-focused is not enough. Islamic banks and more specifically their customer-contact employees (customer relation advisers or officers) need to be perceived by their customers as being Islamic. This study represents an initial step in analyzing the role of Islamic ethical sales behavior as it may be perceived by the customers of Islamic Banks.

Keywords: Islam, ethics, marketing, Islamic banks

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
127 Deformation and Energy Absorption of Corrugated Tubes

Authors: Mohammad R. Rahim, Shagil Akhtar, Prem K. Bharti, Syed Muneeb Iqbal

Abstract:

Deformation and energy absorption studies with corrugated tubes where corrugation is perpendicular to the line of action which coincides exactly with the unstrained axis of the tubes. In the present study, several specimens with various geometric parameters are prepared and compressed quasi-statistically in ANSYS Workbench. It is observed that tubes with perpendicular corrugation alters the deformation condition considerably and culminates in a substantial escalation in energy absorption scope in juxtaposed with the tubes having a circular cross-section. This study will help automotive, aerospace and various other industries to design superior components with perpendicular corrugated tubes and will reduce the experimental trials by conducting the numerical simulations.

Keywords: ANSYS Workbench, deformation and energy absorption, corrugated tubes, quasi-static compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
126 A Security Study for Smart Metering Systems

Authors: Musaab Hasan, Farkhund Iqbal, Patrick C. K. Hung, Benjamin C. M. Fung, Laura Rafferty

Abstract:

In modern societies, the smart cities concept raised simultaneously with the projection towards adopting smart devices. A smart grid is an essential part of any smart city as both consumers and power utility companies benefit from the features provided by the power grid. In addition to advanced features presented by smart grids, there may also be a risk when the grids are exposed to malicious acts such as security attacks performed by terrorists. Considering advanced security measures in the design of smart meters could reduce these risks. This paper presents a security study for smart metering systems with a prototype implementation of the user interfaces for future works.

Keywords: security design, smart city, smart meter, smart grid, smart metering system

Procedia PDF Downloads 147