Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 281

Search results for: Mushtaq Hussain Lashari

281 Effect of Bull Exposure on Post-Partum Estrus Interval in Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

Authors: Muhammad Saleem Akhtar, Mushtaq Hussain Lashari, Ejaz Ahmad, Tanveer Ahmad, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi, Ijaz Ahmad, Masood Akhtar

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of bull exposure continuously or intermittently or its excretory products after calving on postpartum interval to estrus, in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Forty-eight buffaloes of Nili-Ravi breed were allocated one of the four treatments in a totally randomized plan using a 4 x 1 factorial design. The four treatment groups were BEC (Bull Exposed Continuously), BEI (Bull Exposed Intermittently), EPB (Excretory Products of Bull) and BNE (Bull Not Exposed). BEC; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed continuously to the physical presence of a bull whereas in BEI; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed intermittently to the physical presence of bull. EPB; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed to discharge waste (urine and feces) of bull and BNE buffaloes (n = 12) were not exposed to a bull or discharge waste of bulls. Buffaloes were exposed on day 15 after parturition. Day 15 postpartum represented d 0 for each treatment. The postpartum interval from calving to first behavioural estrus was 66.88 days in BEC, 75.12 days in BEI, 77.28 days in EPB and 76.5 days in BNE treatments. Postpartum interval to first behavioural estrus was shorter in BEC than BEI, EPB, and BNE treatments. There was no significant difference in postpartum interval to estrus between BEI, EPB and BNE treatments. In present study, the percentage of buffaloes showing estrus during experimental period was 75.0%, 66.66%, 66.66% and 58.33% in BEC, BEI, EPB and BNE treatments, respectively. The mean serum progesterone concentration did not differ significantly between BEC and other (BEI, EPB, and BNE) treatments. It was concluded that presence of bull has positive effect in reducing calving interval in Nili Ravi buffalo.

Keywords: calving interval, biostimulation, buffalo, bull exposure

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
280 Social Media Marketing Efforts to Influence Brand Equity and Consumer Behavior: The Case of Luxury Fashion Brands in Pakistan

Authors: Syed Rashid Hussain Shah, Sumera Syed, Nida Mushtaq

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Social media is not only acting as a medium of communication; rather it has provided a platform where customers can actually live with the brands they so dearly envy and interact with others with same interest. Organizations are making social media marketing efforts (SMME) to convert this opportunity into a meaningful experience. It may be resembled or considered as an act of branding where the notion is not only to understand the consumer behavior but also developing a strong link with them. Ultimately the quest is to influence and bend it into a mutual benefit of the stakeholders. This study investigates SMME of brands with the help of five dimensions (i.e., entertainment, interaction, trendiness, customization and word of mouth). The study has found that there is no significant impact of SMME as a construct on brand equity and consumer behavior. However, few of the dimensions (i.e. customization and word of mouth), have been found to have influence on brand equity (brand association, brand image) and consumer response (brand preferences).

Keywords: social media marketing efforts (SMME), brand equity, preference, loyalty price premium, luxury brands, international

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
279 Design of Bidirectional Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network in Optisystem Environment

Authors: Ashiq Hussain, Mahwash Hussain, Zeenat Parveen

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Now a days the demand for broadband service has increased. Due to which the researchers are trying to find a solution to provide a large amount of service. There is a shortage of bandwidth because of the use of downloading video, voice and data. One of the solutions to overcome this shortage of bandwidth is to provide the communication system with passive optical components. We have increased the data rate in this system. From experimental results we have concluded that the quality factor has increased by adding passive optical networks.

Keywords: WDM-PON, optical fiber, BER, Q-factor, eye diagram

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
278 Detection of Cytotoxicity of Green Synthesized Silver, Gold, and Silver/Gold Bimetallic on Baby Hamster Kidney-21 Cells Using MTT Assay

Authors: Naila Sher, Mushtaq Ahmed, Nadia Mushtaq, Rahmat Ali Khan

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In cancer therapy, nanoparticles (NPs) shall be applied possibly by inoculation in the veins of humans. This action will connect them with white (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) in the bloodstream before they reach their main targeted cancer cells. However, possible effects of silver, gold, and silver/gold bimetallic NPs (Ag, Au, and Ag/Au BNPs) on baby hamster kidney-21 (BHK-21) cells were studied by MTT assay. Here, Ag, Au, and their Ag/Au BNPs (bimetallic nanoparticles) were synthesized by using Hippeastrum hybridum (HH) extract. These NPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD, and EDX, and SEM analysis. XRD analysis conferring the crystal structure with an average size of 13.3, 10.72, and 8.34nm of Ag, Au, and Ag/Au BNPs, respectively. SEM showed that Ag, Au, and Ag/Au BNPs had irregular morphologies, with nano measures calculated sizes of 40, 30, and 20 nm respectively. EDX spectrometers confirmed the presence of elemental Ag signal of the AgNPs with 22.75%, Au signal of the AuNPs with 48.08%, Ag signal with 12%, and Au signal with 38.26% of the Ag/Au BNPs. The BHK-21cells were incubated in the existence of doxorubicin, plant extract, Ag, Au, and Ag/Au BNPs. The cytotoxic effects could be observed in a dose-dependent mode; doxorubicin and Ag/Au BNPs were more toxic than plant extract, Ag, and Au NPs. It is demonstrated that NPs interact with BHK-21cells and significantly reduce cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. However, to reduce the potential threats of NPs further studies are recommended.

Keywords: hippeastrum hybridum, nanoparticle, BHK-21cells

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277 Cascade Screening for Beta-Thalassemia in Pakistan: Relatives’ Experiences of a Decision Support Intervention in Routine Practice

Authors: Shenaz Ahmed, Hussain Jafri, Muhammed Faran, Wajeeha Naseer Ahmed, Yasmin Rashid, Yasmin Ehsan, Shabnam Bashir, Mushtaq Ahmed

Abstract:

Low uptake of cascade screening for βeta-Thalassaemia Major (β-TM) in the ‘Punjab Thalassaemia Prevention Project’ (PTPP) in Pakistan led to the development of a ‘decision support intervention for relatives’ (DeSIRe). This paper presents the experiences of relatives of children with β-TM of the DeSIRe following its use by PTPP field officers in routine clinical practice. Fifty-four semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted (April to June 2021) with relatives in seven cities in the Punjab province (Lahore, Sheikhupura, Nankana Sahab, Kasur, Gujranwala, Multan, and Faisalabad). Thematic analysis shows that participants were satisfied with the content of the DeSIRe and its delivery by the field officers in a family meeting. They understood the main purpose of the DeSIRe was to improve their knowledge of β-TM and its inheritance, to enable them to make decisions about thalassemia carrier testing, particularly before marriage. While participants raised concerns about the stigma of testing positive, they believed the DeSIRe was an appropriate intervention, which supported relatives to make informed decisions. Our findings show the DeSIRe is appropriate for use by healthcare professionals in routine practice in a low-middle income country and has the potential to facilitate shared decision-making about cascade screening for thalassemia. Further research is needed to prove the efficacy of the DeSIRe.

Keywords: thalassemia, Pakistan, cascade screening, decision support

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
276 The Impact of Organizational Culture on Internet Marketing Adoption

Authors: Hafiz Mushtaq Ahmad, Syed Faizan Ali Shah, Bushra Hussain, Muneeb Iqbal

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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of organizational culture on internet marketing adoption. Moreover, the study intends to explore the role of organizational culture in the internet marketing adoption that helps business to achieve organizational growth and augmented market share. Background: With the enormous expansion of technology, organizations now need technology-based marketing paradigm in order to capture larger group of customers. Organizational culture plays a dominant and prominent role in the internet marketing adoption. Changes in the world economy have demolished current organizational competition and generating new technology standards and strategies. With all the technological advances, e-marketing has become one of the essential part of marketing strategies. Organizations require advance internet marketing strategies in order to compete in a global market. Methodology: The population of this study consists of telecom sector organizations of Pakistan. The sample size consists of 200 telecom sector employees. Data were gathered through the questionnaire instrument. The research strategy of this study is survey. The study uses a deductive approach. The sampling technique of this study is convenience sampling. Tentative Results: The study reveals that organizational culture played a vital role in the internet marketing adoption. The results show that there is a strong association between the organizational culture and internet marketing adoption. The results further show that flexible organizational culture helps organization to easily adopt internet marketing. Conclusion: The study discloses that flexible organizational culture helps organizations to easily adopt e-marketing. The study guides decision-makers and owners of organizations to recognize the importance of internet marketing strategy and help them to increase market share by using e-marketing. The study offers solution to the managers to develop flexible organizational culture that helps in internet marketing adoption.

Keywords: internet technology, internet marketing, marketing paradigm, organizational culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
275 Critical Discourse Analysis of President Mamnoon Hussain Speech in the Joint Session of Parliament.

Authors: Saeed Qaisrani

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This article briefly reviews the rise of Critical Discourse Analysis about the Pakistani President Mamnoon Hussain speech which delivered in the joint session of Parliament and teases out a detailed analysis of the various critiques that have been levelled at CDA and its practitioners over the last twenty years, both by scholars working within the “critical” paradigm and by other critics. A range of criticisms are discussed which target the underlying premises, the analytical methodology and the disputed areas of reader response and the integration of contextual factors. Controversial issues such as the predominantly negative focus of much CDA scholarship, and the status of CDA as an emergent “intellectual orthodoxy”, are also reviewed. The conclusions offer a summary of the principal criticisms that emerge from this overview, and suggest some ways in which these problems could be attenuated. It also focused on the different views about president speech and how it is presented in the Pakistani print and electronic media.

Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis, Analytical methodology, Corpus linguistics, Reader response theory, Critical paradigm, Contextualization.

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
274 Mutational and Evolutionary Analysis of Interleukin-2 Gene in Four Pakistani Goat Breeds

Authors: Tanveer Hussain, Misbah Hussain, Masroor Ellahi Babar, Muhammad Traiq Pervez, Fiaz Hussain, Sana Zahoor, Rashid Saif

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Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a cytokine which is produced by activated T cells, play important role in immune response against antigen. It act in both autocrine and paracrine manner. It can stimulate B cells and various other phagocytic cells like monocytes, lymphokine-activated killer cells and natural killer cells. Acting in autocrine fashion, IL-2 protein plays a crucial role in proliferation of T cells. IL-2 triggers the release of pro and anti- inflammatory cytokines by activating several pathways. In present study, exon 1 of IL-2 gene of four local Pakistani breeds (Dera Din Panah, Beetal, Nachi and Kamori) from two provinces was amplified by using reported Ovine IL-2 primers, yielding PCR product of 501 bp. The sequencing of all samples was done to identify the polymorphisms in amplified region of IL-2 gene. Analysis of sequencing data resulted in identification of one novel nucleotide substitution (T→A) in amplified non-coding region of IL-2 gene. Comparison of IL-2 gene sequence of all four breeds with other goat breeds showed high similarity in sequence. While phylogenetic analysis of our local breeds with other mammals showed that IL-2 is a variable gene which has undergone many substitutions. This high substitution rate can be due to the decreased or increased changed selective pressure. These rapid changes can also lead to the change in function of immune system. This pioneering study of Pakistani goat breeds urge for further studies on immune system of each targeted breed for fully understanding the functional role of IL-2 in goat immunity.

Keywords: interleukin 2, mutational analysis, phylogeny, goat breeds, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 517
273 Sparse Coding Based Classification of Electrocardiography Signals Using Data-Driven Complete Dictionary Learning

Authors: Fuad Noman, Sh-Hussain Salleh, Chee-Ming Ting, Hadri Hussain, Syed Rasul

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In this paper, a data-driven dictionary approach is proposed for the automatic detection and classification of cardiovascular abnormalities. Electrocardiography (ECG) signal is represented by the trained complete dictionaries that contain prototypes or atoms to avoid the limitations of pre-defined dictionaries. The data-driven trained dictionaries simply take the ECG signal as input rather than extracting features to study the set of parameters that yield the most descriptive dictionary. The approach inherently learns the complicated morphological changes in ECG waveform, which is then used to improve the classification. The classification performance was evaluated with ECG data under two different preprocessing environments. In the first category, QT-database is baseline drift corrected with notch filter and it filters the 60 Hz power line noise. In the second category, the data are further filtered using fast moving average smoother. The experimental results on QT database confirm that our proposed algorithm shows a classification accuracy of 92%.

Keywords: electrocardiogram, dictionary learning, sparse coding, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
272 Kinetics and Toxicological Effects of Kickxia elatine Extract-Based Silver Nanoparticles on Rat Brain Acetylcholinesterase

Authors: Noor Ul Huda, Mushtaq Ahmed, Nadia Mushtaq, Naila Sher, Rahmat Ali Khan

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Purpose: The green synthesis of AgNPs has been favored over chemical synthesis due to their distinctive properties such as high dispersion, surface-to-volume ratio, low toxicity, and easy preparation. In the present work, the biosynthesis of AgNPs (KE-AgNPs) was carried out in one step by using the traditionally used plant Kickxia elatine (KE) extract and then investigated its enzyme inhibiting activity against rat’s brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in vitro. Methods: KE-AgNPs were synthesized from 1mM AgNO₃ using KE extract and characterized by UV–spectroscopy, SEM, EDX, XRD, and FTIR analysis. Rat’s brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity was evaluated by the standard protocol. Results: UV–spectrum at 416 nm confirmed the formation of KE-AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern presented 2θ values corresponding to the crystalline nature of KE-AgNPs with an average size of 42.47nm. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis confirmed the presence of spherical-shaped and huge density KE-AgNPs with a size of 50nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) suggested that the functional groups present in KE extract and on the surface of KE-AgNPs are responsible for the stability of biosynthesized NPs. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) displayed an intense sharp peak at 3.2 keV, presenting that Ag was the chief element with 61.67%. Both KE extract and KE-AgNPs showed good and potent anti-AChE activity, with higher inhibition potential at a concentration of 175 µg/ml. Statistical analysis showed that both KEE and AgNPs exhibited non-competitive type inhibition against AChE, i.e., Vmax decreased (34.17-68.64% and 22.29- 62.10%) in the concentration-dependent mode for KEE and KE-AgNPs respectively and while Km values remained constant. Conclusions: KEE and KE-AgNPs can be considered an inhibitor of rats’ brain AChE, and the synthesis of KE-AgNPs-based drugs can be used as a cheaper and alternative option against diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords: Kickxia elatine, AgNPs, brain homogenate, acetylcholinesterase, kinetics

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271 Time Overrun in Pre-Construction Planning Phase of Construction Projects

Authors: Hafiz Usama Imad, Muhammad Akram Akhund, Tauha Hussain Ali, Ali Raza Khoso, Fida Hussain Siddiqui

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Construction industry plays a significant role in fulfilling the major requirements of the human being. It is one of the major constituents of every developed country. Although the construction industry of both the developing and developed countries encompasses a major part of the economy, and millions of rupees are utilized every year on various kinds of construction projects. But, this industry is facing numerous hurdles in terms of its budget and timely completion. Construction projects generally consist of several phases like planning, designing, execution, and finishing. This research study aims to determine the significant factors of time overrun in pre-construction planning (PCP) phase of construction projects in Pakistan. Questionnaires were distributed by various means and responses of respondents were compiled and collected data were then analyzed through a statistical technique using SPSS version 24. Major causes of time overrun in pre-construction planning phase; which is an extremely important phase of construction projects, were revealed. The research conclusion will provide a pathway for stakeholders to pay attention to the mentioned causes to overcome the major issue of time overrun.

Keywords: construction industry, Pakistan, pre-construction planning phase, time overrun

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
270 Project Time Prediction Model: A Case Study of Construction Projects in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Tauha Hussain Ali, Shabir Hussain Khahro, Nafees Ahmed Memon

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Accurate prediction of project time for planning and bid preparation stage should contain realistic dates. Constructors use their experience to estimate the project duration for the new projects, which is based on intuitions. It has been a constant concern to both researchers and constructors to analyze the accurate prediction of project duration for bid preparation stage. In Pakistan, such study for time cost relationship has been lacked to predict duration performance for the construction projects. This study is an attempt to explore the time cost relationship that would conclude with a mathematical model to predict the time for the drainage rehabilitation projects in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. The data has been collected from National Engineering Services (NESPAK), Pakistan and regression analysis has been carried out for the analysis of results. Significant relationship has been found between time and cost of the construction projects in Sindh and the generated mathematical model can be used by the constructors to predict the project duration for the upcoming projects of same nature. This study also provides the professionals with a requisite knowledge to make decisions regarding project duration, which is significantly important to win the projects at the bid stage.

Keywords: BTC Model, project time, relationship of time cost, regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
269 Environmental Effects on Energy Consumption of Smart Grid Consumers

Authors: S. M. Ali, A. Salam Khan, A. U. Khan, M. Tariq, M. S. Hussain, B. A. Abbasi, I. Hussain, U. Farid

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Environment and surrounding plays a pivotal rule in structuring life-style of the consumers. Living standards intern effect the energy consumption of the consumers. In smart grid paradigm, climate drifts, weather parameter and green environmental directly relates to the energy profiles of the various consumers, such as residential, commercial and industrial. Considering above factors helps policy in shaping utility load curves and optimal management of demand and supply. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop correlation models of load and weather parameters and critical analysis of the factors effecting energy profiles of smart grid consumers. In this paper, we elaborated various environment and weather parameter factors effecting demand of consumers. Moreover, we developed correlation models, such as Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall, an inter-relation between dependent (load) parameter and independent (weather) parameters. Furthermore, we validated our discussion with real-time data of Texas State. The numerical simulations proved the effective relation of climatic drifts with energy consumption of smart grid consumers.

Keywords: climatic drifts, correlation analysis, energy consumption, smart grid, weather parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
268 Space Debris Mitigation: Solutions from the Dark Skies of the Remote Australian Outback Using a Proposed Network of Mobile Astronomical Observatories

Authors: Muhammad Akbar Hussain, Muhammad Mehdi Hussain, Waqar Haider

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There are tens of thousands of undetected and uncatalogued pieces of space debris in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). They are not only difficult to be detected and tracked, their sheer number puts active satellites and humans in orbit around Earth into danger. With the entry of more governments and private companies into harnessing the Earth’s orbit for communication, research and military purposes, there is an ever-increasing need for not only the detection and cataloguing of these pieces of space debris, it is time to take measures to take them out and clean up the space around Earth. Current optical and radar-based Space Situational Awareness initiatives are useful mostly in detecting and cataloguing larger pieces of debris mainly for avoidance measures. Smaller than 10 cm pieces are in a relatively dark zone, yet these are deadly and capable of destroying satellites and human missions. A network of mobile observatories, connected to each other in real time and working in unison as a single instrument, may be able to detect small pieces of debris and achieve effective triangulation to help create a comprehensive database of their trajectories and parameters to the highest level of precision. This data may enable ground-based laser systems to help deorbit individual debris. Such a network of observatories can join current efforts in detection and removal of space debris in Earth’s orbit.

Keywords: space debris, low earth orbit, mobile observatories, triangulation, seamless operability

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
267 Optimization of Catalyst Parameters to Get Chlorine Free Bimetallic Catalysts

Authors: Noreen Sajjad Ghulam Hussain

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Catalysts are prepared by simple physical mixing and thermal treatment of support and metal acetate precursors.The effect of metal ratio and metal loading to produce highly active catalyst for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol are studied.

Keywords: catalyst, acetates, benzyl alcohols

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
266 Investigation of Fusion Zone Microstructures in Plasma Arc Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel (SS-304L) with Low Carbon Steel (A-36) with or without Filler Alloy

Authors: Shan-e-Fatima, Mushtaq Khan, Syed Imran Hussian

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Plasma arc welding technology is used for welding SS-304L with A-36. Two different optimize butt welded joints were produced by using austenitic filler alloy E-309L and with direct fusion at 45 A, 2mm/sec by keeping plasma gas flow rate at 0.5LPM. Microstructure analysis of the weld bead was carried out. The results reveal complex heterogeneous microstructure in austenitic base filler alloy sample where as full martensite was found in directly fused sample.

Keywords: fusion zone microstructure, stainless steel, low carbon steel, plasma arc welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 483
265 Assessment of Academic Knowledge Transfer Channels in Field of Environment

Authors: Jagul Huma Lashari, Arabella Bhutto

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Last few years have shown increased an interest of researchers in knowledge and technology transfer. However, facts show fewer types of knowledge transfer practices in the developing countries. This article focuses on assessment transfer channels of academic research produced by highly qualified academicians working in universities in Sindh offering degrees in field of an Environment in Sindh Pakistan. The academic field has been chosen because in field of the environment there is alarming need of research into practice for sustainable development. Using case study approach; in this research qualitative interviews have been conducted from PhD faculty members working in the universities offering degrees in field of environment. Obtained data is analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test with the help of statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS). Research explored 31 channels of academic knowledge transfer from detailed review of literature and exploratory interviews with participants. Identified knowledge transfer channels have been grouped together in 6 groups of knowledge transfer channels; As knowledge transfer through publications, networking, mobility of researchers, joint research, intellectual property and co-operations. Results revealed that academic knowledge have been transferred through publications, networking, and co-operation. However, less number of academic knowledge has been transferred through groups of knowledge transfer channels such as Intellectual Property and joint research.

Keywords: environment, research knowledge, transfer channels, universities

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
264 Death Anxiety and Well-being in Doctors during COVID-19: The Explanatory and Boosting Roles of Depression and Work Locality

Authors: Mamoona Mushtaq, Komal Meher

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The COVID-19 pandemic, a global public health crisis, has triggered anxiety and fear of death in the public, particularly among health professionals. This study aimed to assess the direct and mediated associations between death anxiety, sleep quality, and subjective well-being in doctors working during the pandemic. Another aim was tested to analyze the interactive role of workplace locality in these associations. An indirect-effect model was tested on a sample of 244 doctors working during the pandemic. Findings revealed that the association between death anxiety and subjective well-being was mediated through depression. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

Keywords: death anxiety, depression, subjective well-being, working locality

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263 Relationship of Workplace Stress and Mental Wellbeing among Health Professionals

Authors: Rabia Mushtaq, Uroosa Javaid

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It has been observed that health professionals are at higher danger of stress in light of the fact that being a specialist is physically and emotionally demanding. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between workplace stress and mental wellbeing among health professionals. Sample of 120 male and female health professionals belonging to two age groups, i.e., early adulthood and middle adulthood, was employed through purposive sampling technique. Job stress scale, mindful attention awareness scale, and Warwick Edinburgh mental wellbeing scales were used for the measurement of study variables. Results of the study indicated that job stress has a significant negative relationship with mental wellbeing among health professionals. The current study opened the door for more exploratory work on mindfulness among health professionals. Yielding outcomes helped in consolidating adapting procedures among workers to improve their mental wellbeing and lessen the job stress.

Keywords: health professionals, job stress, mental wellbeing, mindfulness

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
262 Fabrication and Characterization of Folic Acid-Grafted-Thiomer Enveloped Liposomes for Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Docetaxel

Authors: Farhan Sohail, Gul Shahnaz Irshad Hussain, Shoaib Sarwar, Ibrahim Javed, Zajif Hussain, Akhtar Nadhman

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The present study was aimed to develop a hybrid nanocarrier (NC) system with enhanced membrane permeability, bioavailability and targeted delivery of Docetaxel (DTX) in breast cancer. Hybrid NC’s based on folic acid (FA) grafted thiolated chitosan (TCS) enveloped liposomes were prepared with DTX and evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo for their enhanced permeability and bioavailability. Physicochemical characterization of NC’s including particle size, morphology, zeta potential, FTIR, DSC, PXRD, encapsulation efficiency and drug release from NC’s was determined in vitro. Permeation enhancement and p-gp inhibition were performed through everted sac method on freshly excised rat intestine which indicated that permeation was enhanced 5 times as compared to pure DTX and the hybrid NC’s were strongly able to inhibit the p-gp activity as well. In-vitro cytotoxicity and tumor targeting was done using MDA-MB-231 cell line. The stability study of the formulations performed for 3 months showed the improved stability of FA-TCS enveloped liposomes in terms of its particles size, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency as compared to TCS NP’s and liposomes. The pharmacokinetic study was performed in vivo using rabbits. The oral bioavailability and AUC0-96 was increased 10.07 folds with hybrid NC’s as compared to positive control. Half-life (t1/2) was increased 4 times (58.76 hrs) as compared to positive control (17.72 hrs). Conclusively, it is suggested that FA-TCS enveloped liposomes have strong potential to enhance permeability and bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs after oral administration and tumor targeting.

Keywords: docetaxel, coated liposome, permeation enhancement, oral bioavailability

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
261 Effect of Leadership Style on Organizational Performance

Authors: Khadija Mushtaq, Mian Saqib Mehmood

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This paper attempts to determine the impact of leadership style and learning orientation on organizational performance in Pakistan. A sample of 158 middle managers selected from sports and surgical factories from Sialkot. The empirical estimation is based on a multiple linear regression analysis of the relationship between leadership style, learning orientation and organizational performance. Leadership style is measure through transformational leadership and transactional leadership. The transformational leadership has insignificant impact on organizational performance. The transactional leadership has positive and significant relation with organizational performance. Learning orientation also has positive and significant relation with organizational performance. Linear regression used to estimate the relation between dependent and independent variables. This study suggests top manger should prefer continuous process for improvement for any change in system rather radical change.

Keywords: transformational leadership, transactional leadership, learning orientation, organizational performance, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
260 Analysis of Rural Roads in Developing Countries Using Principal Component Analysis and Simple Average Technique in the Development of a Road Safety Performance Index

Authors: Muhammad Tufail, Jawad Hussain, Hammad Hussain, Imran Hafeez, Naveed Ahmad

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Road safety performance index is a composite index which combines various indicators of road safety into single number. Development of a road safety performance index using appropriate safety performance indicators is essential to enhance road safety. However, a road safety performance index in developing countries has not been given as much priority as needed. The primary objective of this research is to develop a general Road Safety Performance Index (RSPI) for developing countries based on the facility as well as behavior of road user. The secondary objectives include finding the critical inputs in the RSPI and finding the better method of making the index. In this study, the RSPI is developed by selecting four main safety performance indicators i.e., protective system (seat belt, helmet etc.), road (road width, signalized intersections, number of lanes, speed limit), number of pedestrians, and number of vehicles. Data on these four safety performance indicators were collected using observation survey on a 20 km road section of the National Highway N-125 road Taxila, Pakistan. For the development of this composite index, two methods are used: a) Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and b) Equal Weighting (EW) method. PCA is used for extraction, weighting, and linear aggregation of indicators to obtain a single value. An individual index score was calculated for each road section by multiplication of weights and standardized values of each safety performance indicator. However, Simple Average technique was used for weighting and linear aggregation of indicators to develop a RSPI. The road sections are ranked according to RSPI scores using both methods. The two weighting methods are compared, and the PCA method is found to be much more reliable than the Simple Average Technique.

Keywords: indicators, aggregation, principle component analysis, weighting, index score

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259 Role of Macro and Technical Indicators in Equity Risk Premium Prediction: A Principal Component Analysis Approach

Authors: Naveed Ul Hassan, Bilal Aziz, Maryam Mushtaq, Imran Ameen Khan

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Equity risk premium (ERP) is the stock return in excess of risk free return. Even though it is an essential topic of finance but still there is no common consensus upon its forecasting. For forecasting ERP, apart from the macroeconomic variables attention is devoted to technical indicators as well. For this purpose, set of 14 technical and 14 macro-economic variables is selected and all forecasts are generated based on a standard predictive regression framework, where ERP is regressed on a constant and a lag of a macroeconomic variable or technical indicator. The comparative results showed that technical indicators provide better indications about ERP estimates as compared to macro-economic variables. The relative strength of ERP predictability is also investigated by using National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) data of business cycle expansion and recessions and found that ERP predictability is more than twice for recessions as compared to expansions.

Keywords: equity risk premium, forecasting, macroeconomic indicators, technical indicators

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
258 Fixed Points of Contractive-Like Operators by a Faster Iterative Process

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan

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In this paper, we prove a strong convergence result using a recently introduced iterative process with contractive-like operators. This improves and generalizes corresponding results in the literature in two ways: the iterative process is faster, operators are more general. In the end, we indicate that the results can also be proved with the iterative process with error terms.

Keywords: contractive-like operator, iterative process, fixed point, strong convergence

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
257 Intrinsic Motivational Factor of Students in Learning Mathematics and Science Based on Electroencephalogram Signals

Authors: Norzaliza Md. Nor, Sh-Hussain Salleh, Mahyar Hamedi, Hadrina Hussain, Wahab Abdul Rahman

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Motivational factor is mainly the students’ desire to involve in learning process. However, it also depends on the goal towards their involvement or non-involvement in academic activity. Even though, the students’ motivation might be in the same level, but the basis of their motivation may differ. In this study, it focuses on the intrinsic motivational factor which student enjoy learning or feeling of accomplishment the activity or study for its own sake. The intrinsic motivational factor of students in learning mathematics and science has found as difficult to be achieved because it depends on students’ interest. In the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for mathematics and science, Malaysia is ranked as third lowest. The main problem in Malaysian educational system, students tend to have extrinsic motivation which they have to score in exam in order to achieve a good result and enrolled as university students. The use of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals has found to be scarce especially to identify the students’ intrinsic motivational factor in learning science and mathematics. In this research study, we are identifying the correlation between precursor emotion and its dynamic emotion to verify the intrinsic motivational factor of students in learning mathematics and science. The 2-D Affective Space Model (ASM) was used in this research in order to identify the relationship of precursor emotion and its dynamic emotion based on the four basic emotions, happy, calm, fear and sad. These four basic emotions are required to be used as reference stimuli. Then, in order to capture the brain waves, EEG device was used, while Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) was adopted to be used for extracting the features before it will be feed to Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) to classify the valence and arousal axes for the ASM. The results show that the precursor emotion had an influence the dynamic emotions and it identifies that most students have no interest in mathematics and science according to the negative emotion (sad and fear) appear in the EEG signals. We hope that these results can help us further relate the behavior and intrinsic motivational factor of students towards learning of mathematics and science.

Keywords: EEG, MLP, MFCC, intrinsic motivational factor

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256 Numerical Investigation of Hybrid Ferrofluid Unsteady Flow through Porous Channel

Authors: Wajahat Hussain Khan, M. Zubair Akbar Qureshi

Abstract:

The viscous, two-dimensional, incompressible, and laminar time-dependent heat transfer flow through a ferromagnetic fluid is considered in this paper. Flow takes place in a channel between two porous walls under the influence of the magnetic field located beyond the channel. It is assumed that there are no electric field effects and the variation in the magnetic field vector that could occur within the F

Keywords: hybrid ferrofluid, heat transfer, magnetic field, porous channel

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255 Parental Restriction and Children’s Appetitive Traits: A Study Among Children Aged 5-11 Years Old in Dubai Private Schools

Authors: Hajar Aman Key Yekani, Yusra Mushtaq, Behnaz Farahani, Hamed Abdi

Abstract:

This study explores associations between parental restriction and children's appetitive traits, putting to test the hypothesis that parental 'restriction' is associated with having a child with stronger food approach tendencies (food enjoyment (FE) and food over-responsiveness (FR)). The participants, from 55 nationalities, targeting 1081 parents of 5- to 11-year-old children from 7 private schools in Dubai, UAE, who completed self-reported questionnaires over the 2011-2012 school year. The questionnaire has been a tailored amalgamation of CEBQ and CFQ in order to measure the children’s appetitive traits and parental restriction, respectively. The findings of this quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional analysis confirmed the hypothesis in that 'parental restriction' was positively associated with child food responsiveness (r, 0.183), food enjoyment (r, 0.102). To conclude, as far as the figures depict, the parents controlling their children’s food intake would seemingly a reverse impact on their eating behaviour in the short term.

Keywords: parental restriction, children, eating behaviour, schools in Dubai

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254 Heterogeneous Catalytic Ozonation of Diethyl Phthalate

Authors: Chedly Tizaoui, Hussain Mohammed, Lobna Mansouri, Nidal Hilal, Latifa Bousselmi

Abstract:

The degradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) was studied using heterogeneous catalytic ozonation. Activated carbon was used as a catalyst. The degradation of DEP with ozone alone was slow while catalytic ozonation increased degradation rates. Second-order reaction kinetics was used to describe the experimental data, and the corresponding rate constant values were 1.19 and 3.94 M-1.s-1 for ozone and ozone/activated carbon respectively.

Keywords: ozone, heterogeneous catalytic ozonation, diethyl phthalate, endocrine disrupting chemicals

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253 Metric Dimension on Line Graph of Honeycomb Networks

Authors: M. Hussain, Aqsa Farooq

Abstract:

Let G = (V,E) be a connected graph and distance between any two vertices a and b in G is a−b geodesic and is denoted by d(a, b). A set of vertices W resolves a graph G if each vertex is uniquely determined by its vector of distances to the vertices in W. A metric dimension of G is the minimum cardinality of a resolving set of G. In this paper line graph of honeycomb network has been derived and then we calculated the metric dimension on line graph of honeycomb network.

Keywords: Resolving set, Metric dimension, Honeycomb network, Line graph

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252 Construction of Pile Foundation Using Slow and Old Equipments at Srinagar, India

Authors: Azmat Hussain

Abstract:

Great Taj Mahal is built on well foundation. Well foundation can be constructed on the dry bed or after making sand Island. Cassions are relatively easy to construct provide sinking operations are smooth without much hindrance. Well foundation have many constructional difficulties, viz prolonged sinking period, tilting etc. These problems become worse and take more time when working season is winter. Especially in Indian Areas like Jammu & Kashmir (Srinagar) where technology lacks. The only thing Engineers can do is to wait till working conditions become suitable. A case study is presented in the paper exploring the feasibility of pile foundation.

Keywords: well foundation, pile foundation, equipments used, pile construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 198