Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 440

Search results for: buffalo milk

440 The First Step to Standardization of Iranian Buffalo Milk: Physicochemical Characterization

Authors: Farnoosh Attar


Nowadays, buffalo’s milk due to has highly nutritional properties, has a special place among consumers and its application for the production of dairy products due to the high technological properties is increasing day by day. In the present study, the physicochemical characteristics of Iranian buffalo’s milk were compared with cow's milk. According to chemical analysis, the amount of fat, protein, and total solid was higher in buffalo milk than cow's milk (respectively, 8.2%, 4.73%, and 15.92% compared with 3.5%, 3.25%, and 12.5%). Also, the percentage of cholesterol buffalo’s milk was less than in cow's milk. In contrast, no significant difference between the pH, acidity, and specific gravity was observed. The size of buffalo milk fat globules was larger than cow's milk. In addition, the profile of buffalo free fatty acids milk showed the relatively high distribution of long chain saturated fatty acids. The presence of four major bands related to αs casein, β casein, β-lactoglobulin, and α-lactalbumin with quite higher intensity than cow’s milk was also observed. The results obtained will provide a reference investigation to improve the developing of buffalo milk standard.

Keywords: buffalo milk, physicochemical characterization, standardization, dairy products

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439 Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacterial Isolates from Mastitis Milk of Cow and Buffalo in Udaipur, India

Authors: Hardik Goswami, Gayatri Swarnakar


-Mastitis disease has been known as one of the most costly diseases of dairy cattle and observed as an inflammatory disease of cow and buffalo udder. Mastitis badly affected animal health, quality of milk and economics of milk production along with cause’s great economic loss. Bacteria have been representing the most common etiological agents of mastitis. The antibiotic sensitivity test was important to attain accurate treatment of mastitis. The aim of present research work was to explore prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates recovered from cow and buffalo clinical mastitis milk sample. During the period of April 2010 to April 2014, total 1487 clinical mastitis milk samples of cow and buffalo were tested to check the prevalence of mastitis causing bacterial isolates. Milk samples were collected aseptically from the udder at the time of morning milking. The most prevalent bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (24.34%) followed by coliform bacteria (15.87%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus aureus (13.85%), non-coliform bacteria (13.05%), mixed infection (12.51%), Streptococcus spp. (10.96%). Out of 1487, 140 (9.42%) mastitis milk samples showed no growth on culture media. Identification of bacteria made on the basis of Standard Microbial features and procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates was investigated by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. In vitro Antibiotic susceptibility test of bacterial isolates revealed higher sensitivity to Gentamicin (74.6%), Ciprofloxacin (62.1%) and Amikacin (59.4%). The lower susceptibility was shown to Amoxicillin (21.6%), Erythromycin (26.4%) and Ceftizoxime (29.9%). Antibiotic sensitivity pattern revealed Gentamicin are the possible effective antibiotic against the major prevalent mastitis pathogens. Present research work would be helpful in increase production, quality and quantity of milk, increase annual income of dairy owners and improve health of cow and buffaloes.

Keywords: antibiotic, buffalo, cow, mastitis, prevalence

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438 Effect of Crude Flowers Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco Flowers on Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Cheddar Cheese

Authors: Usman Mir Khan, Ishtiaque Ahmad, Saima Inayat, H. M. Arslan Amin, Muhammad Ayaz, Nisar Ahmad


Citrus reticulata Blanco crude flowers extract (CFE) at four different concentration (1, 2, 3 and 4%, v/v) were used as natural milk coagulant instead of rennet to apply for Cheddar cheese making from buffalo milk. The physicochemical properties and nutrition composition of Cheddar cheeses were compared with cheese made with 0.002% (v/v) rennet (control cheese). Physico-chemical of Cheddar cheese showed that cheese made with 1% and 2% of CFE had a crumbly and slightly softer texture of cheese. While, cheeses containing 3 and 4% CFE had semi-hard textural properties of curd similar to rennet added cheese. The CFE made cheese had moisture 37 %, fat 45 % on dry basis similar to rennet made Cheddar cheese. Protein analysis shows that CFE made cheese had significant higher protein content than control. The Cheddar cheese with 3% and 1% CFE were preferred by consumers instead of 2% and 4% CFE for their taste, texture/appearance and overall acceptability. Conclusively, CFE coagulated Cheddar cheese fulfills the nutritional requirement with acceptable organoleptic characteristics and at the same time provides nutritional health benefits.

Keywords: cheddar cheese, Citrus reticulata Blanco, buffalo milk, milk coagulant

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
437 Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors of Bovine Brucellosis under Diverse Production Systems in Central Punjab, Paksitan

Authors: A. Khan, I. Khan, M. Younus, S. E. Haque, U. Waheed, H. Neubauer, A. A. Anjum, S. A. Muhammad, A. Idrees T. Abbas, S. Raza, M. A. Ali, M. Farooq, M. Mahmood, A. Hussain, H. Danish, U. Tayyab, M. Zafar, M. Aslam.


Brucellosis is one of the major problems of milk producing animals in our country which deteriorate the health of livestock. It is a disease of zoonotic significance which is capable of producing disease in humans leading to infertility, orchitis, abortions, and synovitis. In this particular study, milk and serum samples of cattle and buffalo (n=402) were collected from different districts of Punjab including Narowal, Gujranwala and Gujrat. Milk samples were analyzed by Milk Ring Test (MRT), while serum samples were tested through Rose Bengal Plate agglutination Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (i-ELISA). The sample tested with MRT were 9.5% positive, including cattle 9.6% and buffalo 9.3%. While using the RBPT test for the detection of serum samples and for screening purpose it was observed that 16.4% animals were seropositive, cattle were 18.8% and buffalo were 13.9% seropositive. The higher prevalence of brucellosis indicates the danger of the disease to human population. The serum samples positive by RBPT were further confirmed by the use of most specific and sensitive serological test known as i-ELISA. 11.4% animals were confirmed as seropositive by i-ELISA including cattle 13.5% seropositive and buffalo 9.3%. The results indicated high seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle as compared to buffalos. Different risk factors were also studied to know the association between disease and their spread. Advanced age, larger herds, history of abortion and pregnancy of the animals is considered to be the important factors for the prevalence and spread of the hazardous zoonotic disease. It is a core issue of developing countries like Pakistan and has major public health impact.

Keywords: humans, bovines, infertility, orchitis, abortions, seroprevalence, brucellosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
436 Assessment of Milk Quality in Vehari: Evaluation of Public Health Concerns

Authors: Muhammad Farhan Saeed, Waheed Aslam Khan, Muhammad Nadeem, Iftikhar Ahmad, Zakir Ali


Milk is an important and fundamental nutrition source of human diet. In Pakistan, the milk used by the consumer is of low quality and is often contaminated due to the lack of quality controls. Mycotoxins produced from molds which contaminate the agriculture commodities of animal feed. Mycotoxins are poisons which affect the animals when they consume contaminated feeds. Aflatoxin AFM1 is naturally occurring form of mycotoxins in milk which is carcinogenic. To assess public awareness regarding milk Aflatoxin contamination, a population-based survey using a questionnaire was carried out from general public and from farmers of both rural and urban areas. It was revealed from the data that people of rural area were more satisfied about quality of available milk but the awareness level about milk contamination was found lower in both areas. Total 297 samples of milk were collected from rural (n=156) and urban (n=141) areas of district Vehari during June-July 2015. Milk samples were collected from three different point sources; farmer, milkman and milkshop. These point sources had three types of dairy milk including cow milk, buffalo milk and mixed milk. After performing ELISA test 18 samples with positive ELISA results were maintain per source for further analysis for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Higher percentages of samples were found exceeding the permissible limit for urban area. In rural area about 15% samples and from urban area about 35% samples were exceeded the permissible limit of AFM1 with 0.05µg/kg set by European Union. From urban areas about 55% of buffalo, 33% of cows and 17% of mixed milk samples were exceeded the permissible AFM1 level as compared with 17%, 11% and 17% for milk samples from rural areas respectively. Samples from urban areas 33%, 44% and 28% were exceeded the permissible AFM1 level for farmer, milkman and of milk shop respectively as compared with 28% and 17% of farmer and milkman’s samples from rural areas respectively. The presence of AFM1 in milk samples demands the implementation of strict regulations and also urges the need for continuous monitoring of milk and milk products in order to minimize the health hazards. Regulations regarding aflatoxins contamination and adulteration should be strictly imposed to prevent health problems related to milk quality. Permissible limits for aflatoxin should be enforced strongly in Pakistan so that economic loss due to aflatoxin contamination can be reduced.

Keywords: Vehari, aflatoxins AFM1, milk, HPLC

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435 Anthelminthic Effect of Clitoria Ternatea on Paramphistomum Cervi in Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India

Authors: Bhanupriya Sanger, Kiran Roat, Gayatri Swarnakar


Helminths including Paramphistomum Cervi (P. cervi) are a major cause of reduced production in livestock or domestic ruminant. Rajasthan is the largest state of India having a maximum number of livestock. The economy of rural people largely depends on livestock such as cow, buffalo, goat and sheep. The prevalence of P. cervi helminth parasite is extremely high in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) of Udaipur, which causes the disease paramphistomiasis. This disease mainly affects milk, meat, wool production and loss of life of buffalo. Chemotherapy is the only efficient and effective tool to cure and control the helminth P. cervi infection, as efficacious vaccines against helminth have not been developed so far. Various veterinary drugs like Albendazole have been used as the standard drug for eliminating P. cervi from buffalo, but these drugs are unaffordable and inaccessible for poor livestock farmers. The fruits, leaves and seeds of Clitoria ternatea Linn. are known for their ethno-medicinal value and commonly known as “Aprajita” in India. Seed extract of Clitoria ternatea found to have a significant anthelmintic action against Paramphistomum cervi at the dose of 35 mg/ml. The tegument of treated P. cervi was compared with controlled parasites by light microscopy. Treated P. cervi showed extensive distortion and destruction of the tegument including ruptured parenchymal cells, disruption of musculature cells, swelling and vacuolization in tegumental and sub tegumental cells. As a result, it can be concluded that the seeds of Clitoria ternatea can be used as the anthelmintic agent. Key words: Paramphistomiasis, Buffalo, Alcoholic extract, Paramphistomum cervi, Clitoria ternatea.

Keywords: buffalo, Clitoria ternatea, Paramphistomiasis, Paramphistomum cervi

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
434 Existing Situation on Labour Use, Health Management and Problems of Buffalo Farming in Thailand

Authors: Chonlawit Yuwajitaa, Suttipong Pruangkab


Existing situation on labour use, health management and problems, and ancillary work done along with buffalo farming in Thailand was studied, There were 52 farms had been interviewed during August to September 2014. The study revealed that 100 percent of labor use was family labors themselves and all of farmers reared their buffaloes and grew rice simultaneously. The farmers valued veterinary service and advice as the most important problem (40.40%) and buffalo farming health problems was found 7.69% of dystocia, retain placenta and abortion. The major problem that should be taken into account was officials involved and buffalo farming should be continually promoted by government sectors to help solving economic problems as a whole.

Keywords: buffalo, labor use, health management, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
433 Performance and Breeding Potency of Local Buffalo in Kangean Island, Sumenep, East Java, Indonesia

Authors: A. Nurgiartiningsih, G. Ciptadi, S. B. Siswijono


This research was done to identify the performance and breeding potency of Local Buffalo in Kangean Island, Sumenep, East Java, Indonesia. Materials used were buffalo and farmer in Kangean Island. Method used was survey with purposive sampling method. Qualitative trait and existing breeding system including the type of production system were directly observed. Quantitative trait consisted of chest girth, body weight and wither height were measured and recorded. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance applying software GENSTAT 14. Results showed the purposes of buffalo breeding in Kangean Island were for production of calves, saving, religion tradition, and buffalo racing. The combination between grazing and cut and carry system were applied in Kangean Island. Forage, grass and agricultural waste product were available abundantly especially, during the wet season. Buffalo in Kangean Island was categorized as swamp buffalo with 48 chromosomes. Observation on qualitative trait indicated that there were three skin color types: gray (81.25%), red (10.42%) and white/albino (8.33%). Analysis on quantitative trait showed that there was no significant difference between male and female buffalo. The performance of male buffalo was 132.56 cm, 119.33 cm and 174.11 cm, for the mean of body length, whither height and chest girth, respectively. The performance of female buffalo were 129.8 cm, 114.0 cm and 166.2 cm, for mean of body length, wither height and chest girth (CG), respectively. The performance of local buffalo in Kangean Island was categorized well. Kangean Island could be promoted as center of buffalo breeding and conservation. For optimal improvement of population number and its genetics value, government policy in buffalo breeding program should be implemented.

Keywords: chromosome, qualitative trait, quantitative trait, swamp buffalo

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432 Allelic Diversity of Productive, Reproductive and Fertility Traits Genes of Buffalo and Cattle

Authors: M. Moaeen-ud-Din, G. Bilal, M. Yaqoob


Identification of genes of importance regarding production traits in buffalo is impaired by a paucity of genomic resources. Choice to fill this gap is to exploit data available for cow. The cross-species application of comparative genomics tools is potential gear to investigate the buffalo genome. However, this is dependent on nucleotide sequences similarity. In this study gene diversity between buffalo and cattle was determined by using 86 gene orthologues. There was about 3% difference in all genes in term of nucleotide diversity; and 0.267±0.134 in amino acids indicating the possibility for successfully using cross-species strategies for genomic studies. There were significantly higher non synonymous substitutions both in cattle and buffalo however, there was similar difference in term of dN – dS (4.414 vs 4.745) in buffalo and cattle respectively. Higher rate of non-synonymous substitutions at similar level in buffalo and cattle indicated a similar positive selection pressure. Results for relative rate test were assessed with the chi-squared test. There was no significance difference on unique mutations between cattle and buffalo lineages at synonymous sites. However, there was a significance difference on unique mutations for non synonymous sites indicating ongoing mutagenic process that generates substitutional mutation at approximately the same rate at silent sites. Moreover, despite of common ancestry, our results indicate a different divergent time among genes of cattle and buffalo. This is the first demonstration that variable rates of molecular evolution may be present within the family Bovidae.

Keywords: buffalo, cattle, gene diversity, molecular evolution

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431 Quality of Chilled Indigenous Ram Semen Using Multi-Species Skim Milk Based Extenders

Authors: Asaduzzaman Rimon, Pankaj Kumar Jha, Abdullah Al Mansur, Mohammad Mofizul Islam, Nasrin Sultana Juyena, Farida Yeasmin Bari


This study was conducted to determine the effects of multi-species skim milk based extenders on sperm quality at 5ºC with the advancement of preservation time. Altogether forty ejaculates, 8 ejaculates for each of the 5 home-made semen extenders: cow skim milk (CSM), goat skim milk (GSM), sheep skim milk (SSM), buffalo skim milk (BSM) and commercial dried skim milk (CDSM) were examined for motility, plasma membrane integrity and normal morphology % of sperm at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours, respectively. Sperm motility was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) with the increase of preservation time. There were no significant difference in motility % among CSM (84.0±1.4, 82.3±2.1), GSM (84.5±1.0, 82.5±0.6) and CDSM (85.0±80.3±1.3) extenders at 0 and 24 hours, respectively. However, the motility in GSM extender was significantly higher than BSM, SSM and CDSM extender at 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. The plasma membrane integrity % at 0 hour had no significant difference among the extenders. But, the plasma membrane integrity % in GSM (84.3±0.9, 81.8±1.3, 78.0±2.2, 74.8±0.5, 72.0±1.4) and CSM (82.8±0.5, 80.8±1.0, 78.0±1.4, 73.5±1.7, 70.3±0.5) extenders were significantly higher than BSM (81.0±1.4, 76.3±2.5, 72.5±1.7, 63.8±2.5, 54.0±4.6), SSM (78.5±1.5, 75.0±1.6, 71.5±2.4, 64.3±1.7, 56.5±2.4) and CDSM extenders (78.3±2.4, 75.8±3.9, 72.5±3.3, 64.8±1.0, 60.5±3.3) at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours, respectively. The sperm morphology % had no significant difference at 0 hour among the extenders but were significantly higher in GSM (83.0±0.8, 81.3±1.5, 79.3±1.3, 73.0±2.2, 70.3±1.3) and CSM (81.5±1.7, 79.3±1.5, 75.8±1.5, 70.3±1.3, 66.3±1.5) than BSM (79.0±1.2, 75.0±1.4, 69.5±1.7, 64.5±3.1, 56.8±2.2), SSM (79.8±1.3, 76.8±2.1, 71.3±3.0, 66.0±2.7, 60.3±4.5) and CDSM (80.0±1.6, 77.0±2.2, 72.0±2.5, 66.3±2.5, 62.0±4.0) extenders at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours, respectively. The motility, plasma membrane integrity and normal morphology % of sperm had shown no significant difference between GSM and CSM but were found to be higher in GSM extenders. In the end, we concluded from the above study that the goat milk based extenders (GSM) had optimum sperm preserving quality. However, further studies are required to validate followed by fertility rate.

Keywords: chilled semen, indigenous ram, multi-species skim milk based extenders, preservation

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430 Bioinformatic Study of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) Gene in Different Buffalo Breeds

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Adeela Ajmal, Kim EuiSoo, Noor-ul-Ain


World wild, buffalo production is considered as most important component of food industry. Efficient buffalo production is related with reproductive performance of this species. Lack of knowledge of reproductive efficiency and its related genes in buffalo species is a major constraint for sustainable buffalo production. In this study, we performed some bioinformatics analysis on Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) gene and explored the possible relationship of this gene among different buffalo breeds and with other farm animals. We also found the evolution pattern for this gene among these species. We investigate CDS lengths, Stop codon variation, homology search, signal peptide, isoelectic point, tertiary structure, motifs and phylogenetic tree. The results of this study indicate 4 different motif in this gene, which are Activin-recp, GS motif, STYKc Protein kinase and transmembrane. The results also indicate that this gene has very close relationship with cattle, bison, sheep and goat. Multiple alignment (MA) showed high conservation of motif which indicates constancy of this gene during evolution. The results of this study can be used and applied for better understanding of this gene for better characterization of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) gene structure in different farm animals, which would be helpful for efficient breeding plans for animal’s production.

Keywords: buffalo, FSHR gene, bioinformatics, production

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
429 Optimization of Moisture Content for Highest Tensile Strength of Instant Soluble Milk Tablet and Flowability of Milk Powder

Authors: Siddharth Vishwakarma, Danie Shajie A., Mishra H. N.


Milk powder becomes very useful in the low milk supply area but the exact amount to add for one glass of milk and the handling is difficult. So, the idea of instant soluble milk tablet comes into existence for its high solubility and easy handling. The moisture content of milk tablets is increased by the direct addition of water with no additives for binding. The variation of the tensile strength of instant soluble milk tablets and the flowability of milk powder with the moisture content is analyzed and optimized for the highest tensile strength of instant soluble milk tablets and flowability, above a particular value of milk powder using response surface methodology. The flowability value is necessary for ease in quantifying the milk powder, as a feed, in the designed tablet making machine. The instant soluble nature of milk tablets purely depends upon the disintegration characteristic of tablets in water whose study is under progress. Conclusions: The optimization results are very useful in the commercialization of milk tablets.

Keywords: flowability, milk powder, response surface methodology, tablet making machine, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
428 Spatial Orientation of Land Use Activities along Buffalo River Estuary: A Study in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, Eastern Cape South Africa

Authors: A. Ngunga, M. K. Soviti, S. Nakin


South Africa is one of the developing countries rich in estuary ecosystem. Previous studies have identified many impacts of land use activities on the pollution status of the estuaries. These land use activity and related practices are often blamed for the many pollution problems affecting the estuaries. For example, the estuarine ecosystems on a global scale are experiencing vast transformations from anthropogenic influences; Buffalo River Estuary is one of the influenced estuaries whereby the sources of pollution are unknown. These problems consequently lead to the degradation of the estuaries. The aim of the research was to establish the factors that have the potential to impact pollution status of Buffalo river estuary. Study focuses on Identifying and mapping land use activities along Buffalo River Estuary. Questionnaire survey, structured interviews, direct observation, GPS survey and ArcGIS mapping were the methods used for data collection in the area, and results were analyzed and presented by ANOVA and Microsoft Excel statistical methods. The results showed that harbour is the main source of pollution, in Buffalo River Estuary, through Ballast water discharge. Therefore that requires more concern for protecting and cleaning the estuary.

Keywords: estuary, land-use activities, pollution, mapping, water pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
427 Vitamin C Status and Nitric Oxide in Buffalo Ovarian Follicular Fluid in Relation to Seasonal Heat Stress and Phase of Estrous Cycle

Authors: H. F. Hozyen, A. M. Abo-El Maaty


Heat stress is a recognized problem causing huge economic losses to the buffalo breeders as well as dairy industry. The aim of the present work was to study the pattern of vitamin C and nitric oxide in follicular fluid of buffalo during different seasons of the year considering phase of estrous cycle. This study was conducted on 208 cyclic buffaloes slaughtered at Al-Qaliobia governorate, Egypt, over one year. The obtained results revealed that vitamin C in follicular fluid was significantly lower in summer than winter and spring. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) was significantly higher in summer and autumn than winter and spring. Both vitamin C and NO did not differ significantly between follicular and luteal phases. In conclusion, the present study revealed that alterations in concentrations of follicular fluid vitamin C and NO that occur in summer could be related to low summer fertility in buffalo.

Keywords: Buffalo, follicular fluid, vitamin C, nitric oxide, heat stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
426 Antioxidant Activity of the Algerian Traditional Kefir Supernatant

Authors: H. Amellal-Chibane, N. Dehdouh, S. Ait-Kaki, F. Halladj


Kefir is fermented milk that is produced by adding Kefir grains, consisting of bacteria and yeasts, to milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the kefir supernatant and the raw milk. The Antioxidant activity assays of kefir supernatant and raw milk were evaluated by assessing the DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Kefir supernatant demonstrated high antioxidant activity (87.75%) compared to the raw milk (70.59 %). These results suggest that the Algerian kefir has interesting antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, kefir, kefir supernatant, raw milk

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
425 The Influence of the Types of Smoke Powder and Storage Duration on Sensory Quality of Balinese Beef and Buffalo Meatballs

Authors: E. Abustam, M. I. Said, M. Yusuf, H. M. Ali


This study aims to examine the sensory quality of meatballs made from Balinese beef and buffalo meat after the addition of smoke powder prior to storage at the temperatures of 2-5°C for 7 days. This study used meat from Longissimus dorsi muscle of male Balinese cattle aged 3 years and of male buffalo aged 5 years as the main raw materials, and smoke powder as a binder and preservative in making meatballs. The study was based on completely randomized design (CRD) of factorial pattern of 2 x 3 x 2 where factors 1, 2 and 3 included the types of meat (cattle and buffalo), types of smoke powder (oven dried, freeze dried and spray dried) with a level of 2% of the weight of the meat (b/b), and storage duration (0 and 7 days) with three replications respectively. The parameters measured were the meatball sensory quality (scores of tenderness, firmness, chewing residue, and intensity of flavor). The results of this study show that each type of meat has produced different sensory characteristics. The meatballs made from buffalo meat have higher tenderness and elasticity scores than the Balinese beef. Meanwhile, the buffalo meatballs have a lower residue mastication score than the Balinese beef. Each type of smoke powders has produced a relatively similar sensory quality of meatballs. It can be concluded that the smoke powder of 2% of the weight of the meat (w/w) could maintain the sensory quality of the meatballs for 7 days of storage.

Keywords: Balinese beef meatballs, buffalo meatballs, sensory quality, smoke powder

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424 Static Light Scattering Method for the Analysis of Raw Cow's Milk

Authors: V. Villa-Cruz, H. Pérez-Ladron de Guevara, J. E. Diaz-Díaz


Static Light Scattering (SLS) was used as a method to analyse cow's milk raw, coming from the town of Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco, Mexico. This method is based on the analysis of the dispersion of light laser produced by a set of particles in solution. Based on the above, raw milk, which contains particles of fat globules, with a diameter of 2000 nm and particles of micelles of protein with 300 nm in diameter were analyzed. For this, dilutions of commercial milk were made (1.0%, 2.0% and 3.3%) to obtain a pattern of laser light scattering and also made measurements of raw cow's milk. Readings were taken in a sweep initial angle 10° to 170°, results were analyzed with the program OriginPro 7. The SLS method gives us an estimate of the percentage of fat content in milk samples. It can be concluded that the SLS method, is a quick method of analysis to detect adulteration in raw cow's milk.

Keywords: light scattering, milk analysis, adulteration in milk, micelles, OriginPro

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423 Application of Dastamboo Fruit (Cucumis melo var. dudaim) Extract for Buffalo Meat Tenderization

Authors: A. Javadi, H. Asad Beygi


In line with the increasing demand for high-quality and safe food products, the present study is intended to examine the crude extract and juice of the fruit of Cucumis melo var. dudaim on tenderization of meat. Cubic pieces were selected from the biceps fermoris muscle of a five year-old female water buffalo; then, they were cut two or three hours after the buffalo was slaughtered. The selected samples were superficially exposed to the resolution obtained from the powder of the extract of Cucumis melo var. dudaim. Distilled water as a control sample and the powder of fruit extract of the mentioned plant with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 percent concentrations were experimented in the study. These samples were kept for three time spans of 2 hours, 7 and 14 days. Then, some tests were conducted on the samples both before and after cooking them. In general, with regard to the results obtained from the experiments and the investigations of the impact of time and different concentrations on the tenderization of buffalo meat, it can be argued that the time span of 2 hours and the concentration of 1.5 % can be considered as the best time and concentration for obtaining the most desirable tenderness. Also, tenderness increased in the samples kept for 7 and 14 days; however, due to the extraordinary decomposition, the samples were rather doughy and pasty.

Keywords: meat, Cucumis melo var. dudaim, tenderization, water buffalo

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422 Analysis of Commercial Cow and Camel Milk by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Authors: Lucia Pappalardo, Sara Abdul Majid Azzam


Camel milk is widely consumed by people living in arid areas of the world, where it is also known for its potential therapeutic and medical properties. Indeed it has been used as a treatment for several diseases such as tuberculosis, dropsy, asthma, jaundice and leishmaniasis in India, Sudan and some parts of Russia. A wealth of references is available in literature for the composition of milk from different diary animals such as cows, goats and sheep. Camel milk instead has not been extensively studied, despite its nutritional value. In this study commercial cow and camel milk samples, bought from the local market, were analyzed by 1D 1H-NMR and multivariate statistics in order to identify the different composition of the low-molecular-weight compounds in the milk mixtures. The samples were analyzed in their native conditions without any pre-treatment. Our preliminary study shows that the two different types of milk samples differ in the content of metabolites such as orotate, fats and more.

Keywords: camel, cow, milk, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
421 Effect of Species and Slaughtering Age on Quality Characteristics of Different Meat Cuts of Humped Cattle and Water Buffalo Bulls

Authors: Muhammad Kashif Yar, Muhammad Hayat Jaspal, Muawuz Ijaz, Zafar Hayat, Iftikhar Hussain Badar, Jamal Nasir


Meat quality characteristics such as ultimate pH (pHu), color, cooking loss and shear force of eight wholesale meat cuts of humped cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls at two age groups were evaluated. A total of 48 animals, 24 of each species and within species 12 from each 18 and 26 months age group were slaughtered. After 24h post-slaughter, eight meat cuts, i.e., tenderloin, sirloin, rump, cube roll, round, topside, silverside and blade were cut from the carcass. The pHu of tenderloin (5.65 vs 5.55), sirloin (5.67 vs 5.60), cube roll (5.68 vs 5.62) and blade (5.88 vs 5.72) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in buffalo than cattle. The tenderloin showed significantly higher (44.63 vs 42.23) and sirloin showed lower (P<0.05) mean L* value (42.28 vs 44.47) in cattle than buffalo whilst the mean L* value of the only tenderloin was affected by animal age. Species had a significant (P<0.05) effect on mean a*, b*, C, and h values of all meat cuts. The shear force of the majority of meat cuts, within species and age groups, varied considerably. The mean shear values of tenderloin, sirloin, cube roll and blade were higher (P<0.05) in buffalo than cattle. The shear values of rump, round, topside and silverside increased significantly (P<0.05) with animal age. In conclusion, primal cuts of cattle showed better meat quality especially tenderness than buffalo. Furthermore, calves should be raised at least up to 26 months of age to maximize profitability by providing better quality meat.

Keywords: buffalo, cattle, meat color, meat quality, slaughtering age, tenderness

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
420 Assessment of Procurement-Demand of Milk Plant Using Quality Control Tools: A Case Study

Authors: Jagdeep Singh, Prem Singh


Milk is considered as an essential and complete food. The present study was conducted at Milk Plant Mohali especially in reference to the procurement section where the cash inflow was maximum, with the objective to achieve higher productivity and reduce wastage of milk. In milk plant it was observed that during the month of Jan-2014 to March-2014 the average procurement of milk was Rs. 4, 19, 361 liter per month and cost of procurement of milk is Rs 35/- per liter. The total cost of procurement thereby equal to Rs. 1crore 46 lakh per month, but there was mismatch in procurement-production of milk, which leads to an average loss of Rs. 12, 94, 405 per month. To solve the procurement-production problem Quality Control Tools like brainstorming, Flow Chart, Cause effect diagram and Pareto analysis are applied wherever applicable. With the successful implementation of Quality Control tools an average saving of Rs. 4, 59, 445 per month is done.

Keywords: milk, procurement-demand, quality control tools,

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
419 Effect of Goat Milk Kefir and Soy Milk Kefir on IL-6 in Diabetes Mellitus Wistar Mice Models Induced by Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide

Authors: Agatha Swasti Ayuning Tyas


Hyperglycemia in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an important factor in cellular and vascular damage, which is caused by activation of C Protein Kinase, polyol and hexosamine track, and production of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGE). Those mentioned before causes the accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Oxidative stress increases the expression of proinflammatory factors IL-6 as one of many signs of endothelial disfunction. Genistein in soy milk has a high immunomodulator potential. Goat milk contains amino acids which have antioxidative potential. Fermented kefir has an anti-inflammatory activity which believed will also contribute in potentiating goat milk and soy milk. This study is a quasi-experimental posttest-only research to 30 Wistar mice. This study compared the levels of IL-6 between healthy Wistar mice group (G1) and 4 DM Wistar mice with intervention and grouped as follows: mice without treatment (G2), mice treated with 100% goat milk kefir (G3), mice treated with combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G4), and mice treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5). DM animal models were induced with Streptozotocin & Nicotinamide to achieve hyperglycemic condition. Goat milk kefir and soy milk kefir are given at a dose of 2 mL/kg body weight/day for four weeks to intervention groups. Blood glucose was analyzed by the GOD-POD principle. IL-6 was analyzed by enzyme-linked sandwich ELISA. The level of IL-6 in DM untreated control group (G2) showed a significant difference from the group treated with the combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G3) (p=0,006) and the group treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5) (p=0,009). Whereas the difference of IL-6 in group treated with 100% goat milk kefir (G3) was not significant (p=0,131). There is also synergism between glucose level and IL-6 in intervention groups treated with combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G3) and the group treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5). Combination of 50 % goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir and administration of 100% soy milk kefir alone can control the level of IL-6 remained low in DM Wistar mice induced with streptozocin and nicotinamide.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, goat milk kefir, soy milk kefir, interleukin 6

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
418 Current Status and Prospects of Further Control of Brucellosis in Humans and Domestic Ruminants in Bangladesh

Authors: A. K. M. Anisur Rahman


Brucellosis is an ancient and one of the world's most widespread zoonotic diseases affecting both, public health and animal production. Its current status in humans and domestic ruminants along with probable means to control further in Bangladesh are described. The true exposure prevalence of brucellosis in cattle, goats, and sheep seems to be low: 0.3% in cattle, 1% in goats and 1.2% in sheep. The true prevalence of brucellosis in humans was also reported to be around 2%. In such a low prevalence scenario both in humans and animals, the positive predictive values of the diagnostic tests were very low. The role Brucella species in the abortion of domestic ruminants is less likely. Still now, no Brucella spp. was isolated from animal and human samples. However, Brucella abortus DNA was detected from seropositive humans, cattle, and buffalo; milk of cow, goats, and gayals and semen of an infected bull. Consuming raw milk and unpasteurized milk products by Bangladeshi people are not common. Close contact with animals, artificial insemination using semen from infected bulls, grazing mixed species of animals together in the field and transboundary animal movement are important factors, which should be considered for the further control of this zoonosis in Bangladesh.

Keywords: brucellosis, control, human, zoonosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
417 Addition of Phosphates on Stability of Sterilized Goat Milk in Different Seasons

Authors: Mei-Jen Lin, Yuan-Yuan Yu


Low heat stability of goat milk limited the application of ultra-high temperature (UHT) sterilization on producing sterilized goat milk in order to keep excess goat milk in summer for producing goat dairy products in winter in Taiwan. Therefore, this study aimed to add stabilizers in goat milk to increase the heat stability for producing UHT sterilized goat milk preserved for making goat dairy products in winter. The amounts of 0.05-0.11% blend of sodium phosphates (Na) and blend of sodium/potassium phosphates (Sp) were added in raw goat milk at different seasons a night before autoclaved sterilization at 135°C 4 sec. The coagulation, ion calcium concentration and ethanol stability of sterilized goat milk were analyzed. Results showed that there were seasonal differences on choosing the optimal stabilizers and the addition levels. Addition of 0.05% and 0.22% of both Na and Sp salts in Spring goat milk, 0.10-0.11% of both Na and Sp salts in Summer goat milk, and 0.05%Na Sp group in Autumn goat milk were coagulated after autoclaved, respectively. There was no coagulation found with the addition of 0.08-0.09% both Na and Sp salts in goat milk; furthermore, the ionic calcium concentration were lower than 2.00 mM and ethanol stability higher than 70% in both 0.08-0.09% Na and Sp salts added goat milk. Therefore, the optimal addition level of blend of sodium phosphates and blend of sodium/potassium phosphates were 0.08-0.09% for producing sterilized goat milk at different seasons in Taiwan.

Keywords: coagulation, goat milk, phosphates, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
416 Utilization of Soymilk Residue for Wheat Flour Substitution in Gyoza skin

Authors: Naruemon Prapasuwannakul


Soy milk residue is obtained as a byproduct from soy milk and tofu production with little economic value. It contains high protein and fiber as well as various minerals and phyto-chemical compounds. The objective of this research was to substitute soy milk residue for wheat flour in gyoza skin in order to enhance value of soy milk residue and increase protein and fiber content of gyoza skin. Wheat flour was replaced with soy milk residue from 0 to 40%. The soy milk residue prepared in this research contains 26.92% protein, 3.58% fiber, 2.88% lipid, 6.29% ash and 60.33% carbohydrate. The results showed that increasing soy milk residue decreased lightness (L*value), tensile strength and sensory attributes but increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*), protein and fiber contents of product. The result also showed that the gyoza skin substituted with 30% soy milk residue was the most acceptable (p≤0.05) and its protein and fiber content increased up to 45 % and 867 % respectively.

Keywords: Gyoza skin, sensory, soymilk residue, wheat flour

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
415 The microbial evaluation of cow raw milk used in private dairy factories in of Zawia city, Libya

Authors: Obied A. Alwan, Elgerbi, M. Ali


This study was conducted on the cow milk which is used in the local milk factories of Zawia. This was completely random sampling the unscheduled samples. The microbiologic result have approved that the count of bacteria and the count of E.Coli are very high and all the manufacturing places which were included in the study have lacked the health conditions.

Keywords: raw milk, dairy factories, Libya, microbiologic

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
414 The Possibility of Increase UFA in Milk by Adding of Canola Seed in Holstein Dairy Cow Diets

Authors: H. Mansoori Yarahmadi, A. Aghazadeh, K. Nazeradl


This study was done to evaluate the effects of feeding canola seed for enrichment of UFA and milk performance of early lactation dairy cows. Twelve multi parous Holstein cows (635.3±18 kg BW and 36±9 DIM) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1- Control (CON) without canola seed, 2- 7.5% raw canola seed (CUT), and 3- 7.5% Heat-treated canola seed (CHT) of the total ration. Diets contained same crude protein, but varied in net energy. Diets were composed by basis of corn silage and alfalfa. Cows were milked twice daily for 4 wk. The inclusion of canola seed did not alter DM intake, weight gain, or body condition score of cows. Milk fat from CHT cows had greater proportions of UFA and MUFA (P < 0.05). Feeding CUT increased PUFA without significant difference. Milk fat from CHT had a greater proportion of C18 UFA and tended to have a higher proportion of other UFA. FCM milk yields, milk fat and protein percentages and total yield of these components were similar between treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was lower in cows fed CON and CHT. Feeding canola seed to lactating dairy cows resulted in milk fat with higher proportions of healthful fatty acids without adverse affecting milk yield or milk composition.

Keywords: canola seed, fatty acid, dairy cow, milk

Procedia PDF Downloads 512
413 New Challenge: Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 Residues in Cow’s Milk by MilBond Dietary Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate (HSCAS) and Its Effect on Milk Composition

Authors: A. Aly Salwa, H. Diekmann, S. Hafiz Ragaa, DG Abo Elhassan


This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Milbond (HSCAS) on aflatoxin M1 in artificially contaminated cows milk. Chemisorption compounds used in this experiment were MIlBond, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS). Raw cow milk were artificially exposed to aflatoxin M1 in a concentration of 100 ppb) with addition of Nilbond at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 % at room temperature for 30 minutes. Aflatoxin M1 was decreased more than 95% by HSCAS at 2%. Milk composition consist of protein, fat, lactose, solid non fat and total solid were affected by addition of some adsorbents were not significantly affected (p 0.05). Tthis method did not involve degrading the toxin, milk may be free from toxin degradation products and is safe for consumption. In addition, the added material may be easily separated from milk after the substance adsorbs the toxin. Thus, this method should be developed by further researches for determining effects of these compounds on functional properties of milk. The ability of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to prevent or reduce the level of aflatoxin MI residues in milk is critically needed. This finding has important implications, because milk is ultimately consumed by humans and animals, and the reduction of aflatoxin contamination in the milk could have an important impact on their health.

Keywords: aflatoxin M1, Hydrated sodium calcium aluminium silicate, detoxification, raw cow milk

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
412 Exploring the Feasibility of Introducing Particular Polyphenols into Cow Milk Naturally through Animal Feeding

Authors: Steve H. Y. Lee, Jeremy P. E. Spencer


The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of enriching polyphenols in cow milk via addition of flavanone-rich citrus pulp to existing animal feed. 8 Holstein lactating cows were enrolled onto the 4 week feeding study. 4 cows were fed the standard farm diet (control group), with another 4 (treatment group) which are fed a standard farm diet mixed with citrus pulp diet. Milk was collected twice a day, 3 times a week. The resulting milk yield and its macronutrient composition as well as lactose content were measured. The milk phenolic compounds were analysed using electrochemical detection (ECD).

Keywords: milk, polyphenol, animal feeding, lactating cows

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
411 Milk Production and Milk Composition of Dairy Cows in Response to Calcium Salt of Palm Oil Fatty Acids Supplementation

Authors: Wisitiporn Suksombat, Tanawat Phonkert, Chayapol Meeprom


The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of calcium salt of palm oil fatty acids (Ca-POFA) supplementation on milk production and milk composition of dairy cows. Twenty-four early lactating crossbred Holstein Friesian 87.5% cows (15.4 ± 3.75 kg of milk/d; 93 ± 27 DIM; 369 ± 6 kg of BW), were assigned into 3 treatments in an RCBD. All dairy cows were fed 15.4% CP total mixed ration (TMR). The first group (control) received a basal diet and no supplement. The second group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 150 g/d calcium salt of palm oil fatty acids (Ca-POFA), and the last group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 300 g/d Ca-POFA. The experiment lasted 40 days with the first 10 days is an adaptation period, and measurements were made during the last 30 days in 6 periods with 5-days in each period for milk sample collection. The results found that supplemented calcium salt of palm oil fatty acid had no effect on milk yield, milk composition, milk composition yield, live weight and live weight change. However, Ca-POFA decreased milk protein percentage (P < 0.05).

Keywords: calcium salt of palm oil fatty acid, dairy cow, milk composition, milk production

Procedia PDF Downloads 136