Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4628

Search results for: functional food

4628 Consumer Choice Determinants in Context of Functional Food

Authors: E. Grochowska-Niedworok, K. Brukało, M. Kardas

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the consumption of functional food by consumers by: age, sex, formal education level, place of residence and diagnosed diseases. The study employed an ad hoc questionnaire in a group of 300 inhabitants of Upper Silesia voivodship. Knowledge of functional food among the group covered in the study was far from satisfactory. The choice of functional food was of intuitive character. In addition, the group covered was more likely to choose pharmacotherapy instead of diet-related prevention then, which can be associated with presumption of too distant effects and a long period of treatment.

Keywords: consumer choice, functional food, healthy lifestyle, consumer knowledge

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4627 Antiglycemic Activity of Raw Plant Materials as Potential Components of Functional Food

Authors: Ewa Flaczyk, Monika Przeor, Joanna Kobus-Cisowska, Józef Korczak

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The aim of this paper was to collect the information concerning the most popular raw plant materials of antidiabetic activity, in a context of functional food developing production. The elaboration discusses morphological elements possible for an application in functional food production of the plants such as: common bean, ginger, Ceylon cinnamon, white mulberry, fenugreek, French lilac, ginseng, jambolão, and bitter melon. An activity of bioactive substances contained in these raw plant materials was presented, pointing their antiglycemic and also hypocholesterolemic, antiarthritic, antirheumatic, antibacterial, and antiviral activity in the studies on humans and animals. Also the genesis of functional food definition was presented.

Keywords: antiglycemic activity, raw plant materials, functional food, food, nutritional sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
4626 Functional Food Industry in Thailand: Perspectives from Government, Education, and Private Sector

Authors: Charintorn Suwannawong, Tananpon Yavilas, Sopida Boonaneksap, Chotika Viriyarattanasak, Chairath Tangduangdee

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With increasing aging population and health conscious consumers, the demand for health promoting products such as functional foods, dietary supplements, and nutraceutical products has continuously increased in Thailand. Nevertheless, the strategic framework for regulatory functional food developments in Thailand is still unclear. The objective of this study was to survey stakeholders’ perspectives on three scopes, consisting of 1) the current status 2) obstacles, and 3) future trend for the development and production of functional foods in Thailand. A survey was conducted by interviewing ten experts from governmental organization, industrial sector and academic institute. The obtained results show that there is no established definition for functional foods in Thailand. There is a variety of raw materials that are capable to be potential ingredients for functional food production in Thailand and exported to global market. However, the scaling up technology into a commercial production is limited. Moreover, there is a need to establish the infrastructures, such as testing laboratory, and regulatory standards for quality control and ensuring product safety. This information is useful for government in the development of the strategic framework and policy statement on improvement of functional food industry in Thailand.

Keywords: functional foods, interview, perspective, Thailand

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4625 Evaluation of Scenedesmus obliquus Carotenoids as Food Colorants, and Antioxidant Activity in Functional Cakes

Authors: Hanaa H. Abd El Baky, Gamal S. El Baroty, Eman A. Ibrahem

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Microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus, the carotenoides (astaxanine and β-caroteine) were identified as the major bioactive constituents. In this work we prepared functional pre-biotic cakes to increase general mental health. Functional cakes were formulated by adding algal caroteinods at 2 and 4 mg/100g to flower and the cakes were storage for 20 days. Oxidative stability of both function cakes products were examined during storage periods by DPPH and TBA assays, and the results revealed that both values in function food products were significantly much low than that in untreated food products. Data of sensory evaluation revealed that treated biscuit and cakes with algae or algae extracts were significantly acceptable as control for main sensory characteristics (colour, odour/aroma, flavour, texture, the global appreciation, and overall acceptability). Thus, it could be concluded that functional biscuits and cakes (very popular and well balanced nutritional food) had good sensory and nutritional profiles and can be developed as new niche food market.

Keywords: Scenedesmus obliquus, carotenoids, functional cakes antioxidant, nutritional profiles

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4624 Searching for an Effective Marketing in the Food Supplement Industry in Japan

Authors: Michiko Miyamoto

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The market for "functional foods" and "foods with functional claims" that are effective in maintaining and improving health, has expanded year by year due to the entry of major food and beverage manufacturers following the introduction of the specified health food system in 1991 in Japan. To bring health claims related products or services to the market, it is necessary to let consumers to learn about these products or services; an effective marketing through advertising are important. This research proposes a framework for an effective advertisement medium for the food supplement industry by using survey data of 2,500 people.

Keywords: functional foods, dietary supplements, marketing strategy, structural equation modeling

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4623 Task Based Functional Connectivity within Reward Network in Food Image Viewing Paradigm Using Functional MRI

Authors: Preetham Shankapal, Jill King, Kori Murray, Corby Martin, Paula Giselman, Jason Hicks, Owen Carmicheal

Abstract:

Activation of reward and satiety networks in the brain while processing palatable food cues, as well as functional connectivity during rest has been studied using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain in various obesity phenotypes. However, functional connectivity within the reward and satiety network during food cue processing is understudied. 14 obese individuals underwent two fMRI scans during viewing of Macronutrient Picture System images. Each scan included two blocks of images of High Sugar/High Fat (HSHF), High Carbohydrate/High Fat (HCHF), Low Sugar/Low Fat (LSLF) and also non-food images. Seed voxels within seven food reward relevant ROIs: Insula, putamen and cingulate, precentral, parahippocampal, medial frontal and superior temporal gyri were isolated based on a prior meta-analysis. Beta series correlation for task-related functional connectivity between these seed voxels and the rest of the brain was computed. Voxel-level differences in functional connectivity were calculated between: first and the second scan; individuals who saw novel (N=7) vs. Repeated (N=7) images in the second scan; and between the HC/HF, HSHF blocks vs LSLF and non-food blocks. Computations and analysis showed that during food image viewing, reward network ROIs showed significant functional connectivity with each other and with other regions responsible for attentional and motor control, including inferior parietal lobe and precentral gyrus. These functional connectivity values were heightened among individuals who viewed novel HS/HF images in the second scan. In the second scan session, functional connectivity was reduced within the reward network but increased within attention, memory and recognition regions, suggesting habituation to reward properties and increased recollection of previously viewed images. In conclusion it can be inferred that Functional Connectivity within reward network and between reward and other brain regions, varies by important experimental conditions during food photography viewing, including habituation to shown foods.

Keywords: fMRI, functional connectivity, task-based, beta series correlation

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4622 Functional Foods and Their Health Benefits with an Emphasis on Probiotics

Authors: Tanu Malik, Eusebe Gnonlonfoun, Eudes L. Anihouvi

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The rise of nutrition-related diseases, increase of health care cost, and the social perception that food could directly affect health have naturally created an environment conducive to the development of foods and beverages with an asserted health benefit. Consumer habits have turned considerably healthier in recent years and led to the demand for fortified and enhanced foods that could adequately provide health benefits beyond necessary nutrients for humans when they are consumed as part of the diet and regularly. These trends have developed a global market for functional foods, that grows annually and undoubtedly requires to be diversified. Product development appears thus as a key research priority for both the food industry and science sectors. The health benefits of these functional foods are summarized in two possible ways: either indirectly as a desired result of biogenic effect or through the direct interaction of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect). This paper reviews functional foods and their beneficial health effects with a key focus on probiotics for the possible expansion of their use by the food industry in order to develop non-dairy based probiotics foods. Likewise, it reveals the need for more researches oriented towards an accurate understanding of the possible interaction between probiotic strains and the matrix and, on the other hand, the interaction between probiotic strains and some enzymes used during food manufacturing.

Keywords: functional foods, food industry, health benefits, probiotics

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4621 Tomato Lycopene: Functional Properties and Health Benefits

Authors: C. S. Marques, M. J. Reis Lima, J. Oliveira, E. Teixeira-Lemos

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The growing concerns for physical wellbeing and health have been reflected in the way we choose food in our table. Nowadays, we are all more informed consumers and choose healthier foods. On the other hand, stroke, cancer and atherosclerosis may be somehow minimized by the intake of some bioactive compounds present in food, the so-called nutraceuticals and functional foods. The aim of this work was to make a revision of the published studies about the effects of some bioactive compounds, namely lycopene in human health, in the prevention of diseases, thus playing the role of a functional food. Free radical in human body can induce cell damage and consequently can be responsible for the development of some cancers and chronic diseases. Lycopene is one of the most powerful antioxidants known, being the predominant carotenoid in tomato. The respective chemistry, bioavailability, and its functional role in the prevention of several diseases will be object of this work. On the other hand the inclusion of lycopene in some foods can also be made by biotechnology and represents a way to recover the wastes in the tomato industry with nutritional positive effects in health.

Keywords: tomato, lycopene, bioavailability, functional foods, carotenoids, cancer and antioxidants

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4620 Herbal Medicinal Materials for Health/Functional Foods in Korea

Authors: Chang-Hwan Oh, Young-Jong Lee

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In April, 2015, the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety’s announcement that only 10 of the 207 products that list Cynanchum Wilfordii Radix among their ingredients were confirmed to actually contain “iyeobupiso” the counterfeit version of the “baeksuo” raised a fog to consumers who purchased health/functional foods supposedly containing the herbal medicinal material, “baeksuo” in Korean. Baeksuo is the main ingredient of the product “EstroG-100” that contain Phlomis umbrosa and Angelica gigas too (NaturalEndoTech, S.Korea). The hot water extract of the herbal medicinal materials (HMM) was approved as a product specific Health/Functional Food (HFF) having a helpful function to women reaching menopause by Korea Food & Drug Administration (Ministry of Food & Drug Safety at present). The origin of “baeksuo” is the root of Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley in Korea (But “iyeobupiso, the root of Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight is considered as the origin of “baeksuo” in China). In Korea, about 116 HMMs are listed as the food materials in Korea Food Code among the total 187 HMMs could be used for food and medicine purpose simultaneously. But there are some chances of the HMMs (shared use for food and medicine purpose) could be misused by the part and HMMs not permitted for HFF such as the “baeksuo” case. In this study, some of HMMs (shared use for food and medicine purpose) are examined to alleviate the misuse chance of HMMs for HFFs in Korea. For the purpose of this study, the origin, shape, edible parts, efficacy and the side effects of the similar HMMs to be misused for HFF are investigated.

Keywords: herbal medicinal materials, healthy/functional foods, misuse, shared use

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4619 Functional Compounds Activity of Analog Rice Based on Purple Yam and Bran as Alternative Food for People with Diabetes Mellitus Type II

Authors: A. Iqbal Banauaji, Muchamad Sholikun

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolism disorder that tends to increase its prevalence in the world, including in Indonesia. The development of DM type 2 can cause oxidative stress characterized by an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in the body Increased oxidative stress causes type 2 diabetes mellitus to require intake of exogenous antioxidants in large quantities to inhibit oxidative damage in the body. Bran can be defined as a functional food because it consists of 11.39% fiberand 28.7% antioxidants and the purple yam consists of anthocyanin which functions as an antioxidant. With abundant amount and low price, purple yam and bran can be used for analog rice as the effort to diversify functional food. The antioxidant’s activity of analog rice from purple yam and bran which is measured by using DPPH’s method is 12,963%. The rough fiber’s level on the analog rice from purple yam is 2.985%. The water amount of analog rice from purple yam and bran is 8.726%. Analog rice from purple yam and bran has the similar texture as the usual rice, tasted slightly sweet, light purple colored, and smelled like bran.

Keywords: antioxidant, analog rice, functional food, diabetes mellitus

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4618 Upgrading along Value Chains: Strategies for Thailand's Functional Milk Industry

Authors: Panisa Harnpathananun

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This paper is 'Practical Experience Analysis' which aims to analyze critical obstacles hampering the growth of the functional milk industry and suggest recommendations to overcome those obstacles. Using the Sectoral Innovation System (SIS) along value chain analysis, it is found that restriction in regulation of milk disinfection process, difficulty of dairy entrepreneurs for health claim approval of functional food and beverage and lack of intermediary between entrepreneurs and certified units for certification of functional foods and milk are major causes that needed to be resolved. Consequently, policy recommendations are proposed to tackle the problems occurring throughout the value chain. For the upstream, a collaborative platform using the quadruple helix model is proposed in a pattern of effective dairy cooperatives. For the midstream, regulation issues of new process, extended shelf life (ESL) milk, or prolonged milk are necessary, which can be extended the global market opportunity. For the downstream, mechanism of intermediary between entrepreneurs and certified units can be assisted in certified process of functional milk, especially a process of 'health claim' approval.

Keywords: Thailand, functional milk, supply chain, quadruple helix, intermediary, functional food

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4617 Food Effects and Food Choices: Aligning the Two for Better Health

Authors: John Monro, Suman Mishra

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Choosing foods for health benefits requires information that accurately represents the relative effectiveness of foods with respect to specific health end points, or with respect to responses leading to health outcomes. At present consumers must rely on nutrient composition data, and on health claims to guide them to healthy food choices. Nutrient information may be of limited usefulness because it does not reflect the effect of food structure and food component interactions – that is, whole food effects. Health claims demand stringent criteria that exclude most foods, even though most foods have properties through which they may contribute to positive health outcomes in a diet. In this presentation, we show how the functional efficacy of foods may be expressed in the same format as nutrients, with weight units, as virtual food components that allow a nutrition information panel to show not only what a food is, but also what it does. In the presentation, two body responses linked to well-being are considered – glycaemic response and colonic bulk – in order to illustrate the concept. We show how the nutrient information on available carbohydrates and dietary fibre values obtained by food analysis methods fail to provide information of the glycaemic potency or the colonic bulking potential of foods, because of failings in the methods and approach taken to food analysis. It is concluded that a category of food values that represent the functional efficacy of foods is required to accurately guide food choices for health.

Keywords: dietary fibre, glycaemic response, food values, food effects, health

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4616 Yoghurt Kepel Stelechocarpus burahol as an Effort of Functional Food Diversification from Region of Yogyakarta

Authors: Dian Nur Amalia, Rifqi Dhiemas Aji, Tri Septa Wahyuningsih, Endang Wahyuni

Abstract:

Kepel fruit (Stelechocarpus burahol) is a scarce fruit that belongs as a logogram of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Kepel fruit can be used as substance of beauty treatment product, such as deodorant and good for skin health, and also contains antioxidant compound. Otherwise, this fruit is scarcely cultivated by people because of its image as a palace fruit and also the flesh percentage just a little, so it has low economic value. The flesh of kepel fruit is about 49% of its whole fruit. This little part as supporting point why kepel fruit has to be extracted and processed with the other product. Yoghurt is milk processing product that also have a role as functional food. Economically, the price of yoghurt is higher than whole milk or other milk processing product. Yoghurt is usually added with flavor of dye from plant or from chemical substance. Kepel fruit has a role as flavor in yoghurt, besides as product that good for digestion, yoghurt with kepel also has function as “beauty” food. Writing method that used is literature study by looking for the potential of kepel fruit as a local fruit of Yogyakarta and yoghurt as milk processing product. The process just like making common yoghurt because kepel fruit just have a role as flavor substance, so it does not affect to the other processing of yoghurt. Food diversification can be done as an effort to increase the value of local resources that proper to compete in Asean Economic Community (AEC), one of the way is producing kepel yoghurt.

Keywords: kepel, yoghurt, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, functional food

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4615 Impact of Heat Moisture Treatment on the Yield of Resistant Starch and Evaluation of Functional Properties of Modified Mung Bean (Vigna radiate) Starch

Authors: Sreejani Barua, P. P. Srivastav

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Formulation of new functional food products for diabetes patients and obsessed people is a challenge for food industries till date. Starch is a certainly happening, ecological, reasonable and profusely obtainable polysaccharide in plant material. In the present scenario, there is a great interest in modifying starch functional properties without destroying its granular structure using different modification techniques. Resistant starch (RS) contains almost zero calories and can control blood glucose level to prevent diabetes. The current study focused on modification of mung bean starch which is a good source of legumes carbohydrate for the production of functional food. Heat moisture treatment (HMT) of mung starch was conducted at moisture content of 10-30%, temperature of 80-120 °C and time of 8-24 h.The content of resistant starch after modification was significantly increased from native starches containing RS 7.6%. The design combinations of HMT had been completed through Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The effects of HMT process variables on the yield of resistant starch was studied through Rapid Surface Methodology (RSM). The highest increase of resistant starch was found up to 34.39% when treated the native starch with 30% m.c at 120 °C temperature for 24 h.The functional properties of both native and modified mung bean starches showed that there was a reduction in the swelling power and swelling volume of HMT starches. However, the solubility of the HMT starches was higher than that of untreated native starch and also observed change in structural (scanning electron microscopy), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, blue value and thermal (differential scanning calorimetry) properties. Therefore, replacing native mung bean starch with heat-moisture treated mung bean starch leads to the development of new products with higher resistant starch levels and functional properties.

Keywords: Mung bean starch, heat moisture treatment, functional properties, resistant starch

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4614 Studies on the Proximate Composition and Functional Properties of Extracted Cocoyam Starch Flour

Authors: Adebola Ajayi, Francis B. Aiyeleye, Olakunke M. Makanjuola, Olalekan J. Adebowale

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Cocoyam, a generic term for both xanthoma and colocasia, is a traditional staple root crop in many developing countries in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. It is mostly cultivated as food crop which is very rich in vitamin B6, magnesium and also in dietary fiber. The cocoyam starch is easily digested and often used for baby food. Drying food is a method of food preservation that removes enough moisture from the food so bacteria, yeast and molds cannot grow. It is a one of the oldest methods of preserving food. The effect of drying methods on the proximate composition and functional properties of extracted cocoyam starch flour were studied. Freshly harvested cocoyam cultivars at matured level were washed with portable water, peeled, washed and grated. The starch in the grated cocoyam was extracted, dried using sun drying, oven and cabinet dryers. The extracted starch flour was milled into flour using Apex mill and packed and sealed in low-density polyethylene film (LDPE) 75 micron thickness with Nylon sealing machine QN5-3200HI and kept for three months under ambient temperature before analysis. The result showed that the moisture content, ash, crude fiber, fat, protein and carbohydrate ranged from 6.28% to 12.8% 2.32% to 3.2%, 0.89% to 2.24%%, 1.89% to 2.91%, 7.30% to 10.2% and 69% to 83% respectively. The functional properties of the cocoyam starch flour ranged from 2.65ml/g to 4.84ml/g water absorption capacity, 1.95ml/g to 3.12ml/g oil absorption capacity, 0.66ml/g to 7.82ml/g bulk density and 3.82% to 5.30ml/g swelling capacity. Significant difference (P≥0.5) was not obtained across the various drying methods used. The drying methods provide extension to the shelf-life of the extracted cocoyam starch flour.

Keywords: cocoyam, extraction, oven dryer, cabinet dryer

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4613 The Effects of Labeling Cues on Sensory and Affective Responses of Consumers to Categories of Functional Food Carriers: A Mixed Factorial ANOVA Design

Authors: Hedia El Ourabi, Marc Alexandre Tomiuk, Ahmed Khalil Ben Ayed

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The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the labeling cues traceability (T), health claim (HC), and verification of health claim (VHC) on consumer affective response and sensory appeal toward a wide array of functional food carriers (FFC). Predominantly, research in the food area has tended to examine the effects of these information cues independently on cognitive responses to food product offerings. Investigations and findings of potential interaction effects among these factors on effective response and sensory appeal are therefore scant. Moreover, previous studies have typically emphasized single or limited sets of functional food products and categories. In turn, this study considers five food product categories enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, namely: meat products, eggs, cereal products, dairy products and processed fruits and vegetables. It is, therefore, exhaustive in scope rather than exclusive. An investigation of the potential simultaneous effects of these information cues on the affective responses and sensory appeal of consumers should give rise to important insights to both functional food manufacturers and policymakers. A mixed (2 x 3) x (2 x 5) between-within subjects factorial ANOVA design was implemented in this study. T (two levels: completely traceable or non-traceable) and HC (three levels: functional health claim, or disease risk reduction health claim, or disease prevention health claim) were treated as between-subjects factors whereas VHC (two levels: by a government agency and by a non-government agency) and FFC (five food categories) were modeled as within-subjects factors. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the six between-subjects conditions. A total of 463 questionnaires were obtained from a convenience sample of undergraduate students at various universities in the Montreal and Ottawa areas (in Canada). Consumer affective response and sensory appeal were respectively measured via the following statements assessed on seven-point semantic differential scales: ‘Your evaluation of [food product category] enriched with omega-3 fatty acids is Unlikeable (1) / Likeable (7)’ and ‘Your evaluation of [food product category] enriched with omega-3 fatty acids is Unappetizing (1) / Appetizing (7).’ Results revealed a significant interaction effect between HC and VHC on consumer affective response as well as on sensory appeal toward foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. On the other hand, the three-way interaction effect between T, HC, and VHC on either of the two dependent variables was not significant. However, the triple interaction effect among T, VHC, and FFC was significant on consumer effective response and the interaction effect among T, HC, and FFC was significant on consumer sensory appeal. Findings of this study should serve as impetus for functional food manufacturers to closely cooperate with policymakers in order to improve on and legitimize the use of health claims in their marketing efforts through credible verification practices and protocols put in place by trusted government agencies. Finally, both functional food manufacturers and retailers may benefit from the socially-responsible image which is conveyed by product offerings whose ingredients remain traceable from farm to kitchen table.

Keywords: functional foods, labeling cues, effective appeal, sensory appeal

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4612 Physical Properties of Nine Nigerian Staple Food Flours Related to Bulk Handling and Processing

Authors: Ogunsina Babatunde, Aregbesola Omotayo, Adebayo Adewale, Odunlami Johnson

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The physical properties of nine Nigerian staple food flours related to bulk handling and processing were investigated following standard procedures. The results showed that the moisture content, bulk density, angle of repose, water absorption capacity, swelling index, dispersability, pH and wettability of the flours ranged from 9.95 to 11.98%, 0.44 to 0.66 g/cm3, 31.43 to 39.65o, 198.3 to 291.7 g of water/100 g of sample, 5.53 to 7.63, 60.3 to 73.8%, 4.43 to 6.70, and 11 to 150 s. The particle size analysis of the flour samples indicated significant differences (p<0.05). The least gelation concentration of the flour samples ranged from 6 to 14%. The colour of the flours fell between light and saturated, with the exception of cassava, millet and maize flours which appear dark and dull. The properties of food flours depend largely on the inherent property of the food material and may influence their functional behaviour as food materials.

Keywords: properties, flours, staple food, bulk handling

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4611 The Production of B-Group Vitamin by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Its Importance in Food Industry

Authors: Goksen Arik, Mihriban Korukluoglu

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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been used commonly in the food industry. They can be used as natural preservatives because acidifying carried out in the medium can protect the last product against microbial spoilage. Besides, other metabolites produced by LAB during fermentation period have also an antimicrobial effect on pathogen and spoilage microorganisms in the food industry. LAB are responsible for the desirable and distinctive aroma and flavour which are observed in fermented food products such as pickle, kefir, yogurt, and cheese. Various LAB strains are able to produce B-group vitamins such as folate (B11), riboflavin (B2) and cobalamin (B12). Especially wild-type strains of LAB can produce B-group vitamins in high concentrations. These cultures may be used in food industry as a starter culture and also the microbial strains can be used in encapsulation technology for new and functional food product development. This review is based on the current applications of B-group vitamin producing LAB. Furthermore, the new technologies and innovative researches about B vitamin production in LAB have been demonstrated and discussed for determining their usage availability in various area in the food industry.

Keywords: B vitamin, food industry, lactic acid bacteria, starter culture, technology

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4610 Aquafaba Derived from Korean Soybean Cultivars: A Novel Vegan Egg Replacer

Authors: Yue He, Youn Young Shim, Ji Hye Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Martin J. T. Reaney

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Recently, pulse cooking water (a.k.a. Aquafaba) has been used as an important and cost-effective alternative to eggs in gluten-free, vegan cooking and baking applications. The aquafaba (AQ) is primarily due to its excellent ability to stabilize foams and emulsions in foods. However, the functional ingredients of this excellent AQ are usually discarded with the compound release. This study developed a high-functional food material, AQ, using functional soybean AQ that has not been studied in Korea. A zero-waste and cost-effective hybrid process were used to produce oil emulsifiers from Korean soybeans. The treatment technique was implemented using a small number of efficient steps. Aquafaba from Backtae had the best emulsion properties (92%) and has the potential to produce more stable food oil emulsions. Therefore, this study is expected to be utilized in the development of the first gluten-free, vegan product for vegetarians and consumers with animal protein allergies, utilizing wastewater from cooked soybeans as a source of plant protein that can replace animal protein.

Keywords: aquafaba, soybean, chickpea, emulsifiers, egg replacer, egg-free products

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4609 Effect of Fermentation Time on Some Functional Properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Seed Flour

Authors: Ocheme B. Ocheme, Omobolanle O. Oloyede, S. James, Eleojo V. Akpa

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The effect of fermentation time on some functional properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed flour was examined. Fermentation, an effective processing method used to improve nutritional quality of plant foods, tends to affect the characteristics of food components and their behaviour in food systems just like other processing methods. Hence the need for this study. Moringa seeds were fermented naturally by soaking in potable water and allowing it to stand for 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. At the end of fermentation, the seeds were oven dried at 600C for 12 hours and then milled into flour. Flour obtained from unfermented seeds served as control: hence a total of five flour samples. The functional properties were analyzed using standard methods. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05) increased the water holding capacity of Moringa seed flour from 0.86g/g - 2.31g/g. The highest value was observed after 48 hours of fermentation The same trend was observed for oil absorption capacity with values between 0.87 and 1.91g/g. Flour from unfermented Moringa seeds had a bulk density of 0.60g/cm3 which was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the bulk densities of flours from seeds fermented for 12, 24 and 48. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05) decreased the dispersibility of Moringa seed flours from 36% to 21, 24, 29 and 20% after 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of fermentation respectively. The flours’ emulsifying capacities increased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing fermentation time with values between 50 – 68%. The flour obtained from seeds fermented for 12 hours had a significantly (p<0.05) higher foaming capacity of 16% while the flour obtained from seeds fermented for 0, 24 and 72 hours had the least foaming capacities of 9%. Flours from seeds fermented for 12 and 48 hours had better functional properties than flours from seeds fermented for 24 and 72 hours.

Keywords: fermentation, flour, functional properties, Moringa

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4608 Functional Feeding Groups and Trophic Levels of Benthic Macroinvertebrates Assemblages in Albertine Rift Rivers and Streams in South Western Uganda

Authors: Peace Liz Sasha Musonge

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Behavioral aspects of species nutrition such as feeding methods and food type are archetypal biological traits signifying how species have adapted to their environment. This concept of functional feeding groups (FFG) analysis is currently used to ascertain the trophic levels of the aquatic food web in a specific microhabitat. However, in Eastern Africa, information about the FFG classification of benthic macroinvertebrates in highland rivers and streams is almost absent, and existing studies have fragmented datasets. For this reason, we carried out a robust study to determine the feed type, trophic level and FFGs, of 56 macroinvertebrate taxa (identified to family level) from Albertine rift valley streams. Our findings showed that all five major functional feeding groups were represented; Gatherer Collectors (GC); Predators (PR); shredders (SH); Scrapers (SC); and Filterer collectors. The most dominant functional feeding group was the Gatherer Collectors (GC) that accounted for 53.5% of the total population. The most abundant (GC) families were Baetidae (7813 individuals), Chironomidae NTP (5628) and Caenidae (1848). Majority of the macroinvertebrate population feed on Fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) from the stream bottom. In terms of taxa richness the Predators (PR) had the highest value of 24 taxa and the Filterer Collectors group had the least number of taxa (3). The families that had the highest number of predators (PR) were Corixidae (1024 individuals), Coenagrionidae (445) and Libellulidae (283). However, Predators accounted for only 7.4% of the population. The findings highlighted the functional feeding groups and habitat type of macroinvertebrate communities along an altitudinal gradient.

Keywords: trophic levels, functional feeding groups, macroinvertebrates, Albertine rift

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4607 A Fundamental Functional Equation for Lie Algebras

Authors: Ih-Ching Hsu

Abstract:

Inspired by the so called Jacobi Identity (x y) z + (y z) x + (z x) y = 0, the following class of functional equations EQ I: F [F (x, y), z] + F [F (y, z), x] + F [F (z, x), y] = 0 is proposed, researched and generalized. Research methodologies begin with classical methods for functional equations, then evolve into discovering of any implicit algebraic structures. One of this paper’s major findings is that EQ I, under two additional conditions F (x, x) = 0 and F (x, y) + F (y, x) = 0, proves to be a fundamental functional equation for Lie Algebras. Existence of non-trivial solutions for EQ I can be proven by defining F (p, q) = [p q] = pq –qp, where p and q are quaternions, and pq is the quaternion product of p and q. EQ I can be generalized to the following class of functional equations EQ II: F [G (x, y), z] + F [G (y, z), x] + F [G (z, x), y] = 0. Concluding Statement: With a major finding proven, and non-trivial solutions derived, this research paper illustrates and provides a new functional equation scheme for studies in two major areas: (1) What underlying algebraic structures can be defined and/or derived from EQ I or EQ II? (2) What conditions can be imposed so that conditional general solutions to EQ I and EQ II can be found, investigated and applied?

Keywords: fundamental functional equation, generalized functional equations, Lie algebras, quaternions

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4606 Method Development for the Determination of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid in Rice Products by Lc-Ms-Ms

Authors: Cher Rong Matthew Kong, Edmund Tian, Seng Poon Ong, Chee Sian Gan

Abstract:

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid that is a functional constituent of certain rice varieties. When consumed, it decreases blood pressure and reduces the risk of hypertension-related diseases. This has led to more research dedicated towards the development of functional food products (e.g. germinated brown rice) with enhanced GABA content, and the development of these functional food products has led to increased demand for instrument-based methods that can efficiently and effectively determine GABA content. Current analytical methods require analyte derivatisation, and have significant disadvantages such as being labour intensive and time-consuming, and being subject to analyte loss due to the increased complexity of the sample preparation process. To address this, an LC-MS-MS method for the determination of GABA in rice products has been developed and validated. This developed method involves a relatively simple sample preparation process before analysis using HILIC LC-MS-MS. This method eliminates the need for derivatisation, thereby significantly reducing the labour and time associated with such an analysis. Using LC-MS-MS also allows for better differentiation of GABA from any potential co-eluting compounds in the sample matrix. Results obtained from the developed method demonstrated high linearity, accuracy, and precision for the determination of GABA (1ng/L to 8ng/L) in a variety of brown rice products. The method can significantly simplify sample preparation steps, improve the accuracy of quantitation, and increase the throughput of analyses, thereby providing a quick but effective alternative to established instrumental analysis methods for GABA in rice.

Keywords: functional food, gamma-aminobutyric acid, germinated brown rice, method development

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4605 Obtaining Nutritive Powder from Peel of Mangifera Indica L. (Mango) as a Food Additive

Authors: Chajira Garrote, Laura Arango, Lourdes Merino

Abstract:

This research explains how to obtain nutritious powder from a variety of ripe mango peels Hilacha (Mangifera indica L.) to use it as a food additive. Also, this study intends to use efficiently the by-products resulting from the operations of mango pulp manufacturing process by processing companies with the aim of giving them an added value. The physical and chemical characteristics of the mango peels and the benefits that may help humans, were studied. Unit operations are explained for the processing of mango peels and the production of nutritive powder as a food additive. Emphasis is placed on the preliminary operations applied to the raw material and on the drying method, which is very important in this project to obtain the suitable characteristics of the nutritive powder. Once the powder was obtained, it was subjected to laboratory tests to determine its functional properties: water retention capacity (WRC) and oil retention capacity (ORC), also a sensory analysis for the powder was performed to determine the product profile. The nutritive powder from the ripe mango peels reported excellent WRC and ORC values: 7.236 g of water / g B.S. and 1.796 g water / g B.S. respectively and the sensory analysis defined a complete profile of color, odor and texture of the nutritive powder, which is suitable to use it in the food industry.

Keywords: mango, peel, powder, nutritive, functional properties, sensory analysis

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4604 Effect of Cooking Time, Seed-To-Water Ratio and Soaking Time on the Proximate Composition and Functional Properties of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Nigerian Walnut) Seeds

Authors: J. O. Idoko, C. N. Michael, T. O. Fasuan

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of cooking time, seed-to-water ratio and soaking time on proximate and functional properties of African walnut seed using Box-Behnken design and Response Surface Methodology (BBD-RSM) with a view to increase its utilization in the food industry. African walnut seeds were sorted washed, soaked, cooked, dehulled, sliced, dried and milled. Proximate analysis and functional properties of the samples were evaluated using standard procedures. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Quadratic models were obtained to predict the proximate and functional qualities as a function of cooking time, seed-to-water ratio and soaking time. The results showed that the crude protein ranged between 11.80% and 23.50%, moisture content ranged between 1.00% and 4.66%, ash content ranged between 3.35% and 5.25%, crude fibre ranged from 0.10% to 7.25% and carbohydrate ranged from 1.22% to 29.35%. The functional properties showed that soluble protein ranged from 16.26% to 42.96%, viscosity ranged from 23.43 mPas to 57 mPas, emulsifying capacity ranged from 17.14% to 39.43% and water absorption capacity ranged from 232% to 297%. An increase in the volume of water used during cooking resulted in loss of water soluble protein through leaching, the length of soaking time and the moisture content of the dried product are inversely related, ash content is inversely related to the cooking time and amount of water used, extraction of fat is enhanced by increase in soaking time while increase in cooking and soaking times result into decrease in fibre content. The results obtained indicated that African walnut could be used in several food formulations as protein supplement and binder.

Keywords: African walnut, functional properties, proximate analysis, response surface methodology

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4603 Evaluation of Two Functional Food Products: Tortillas and Yogurt Based on Spirulina platensis and Haematococcus pluvialis

Authors: Raul Alexis Sanchez Cornejo, Elena Ivonne Mancera Andrade, Gibran Sidney Aleman Nava, Angel Josue Arteaga Garces, Roberto Parra Saldivar

Abstract:

An unhealthy diet is one of the main factors for a wide range of chronical diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, among others. Nowadays, there is a current need to provide innovate healthy products to people in order to decrease the number of people with unhealthy diet. This study focuses on the production of two food products based on two microalgae strains: Tortillas with powder of Haematococcus pluvialis and Spirulina platensis biomass and yogurt with microencapsulated biomass of the same strains. S. platensis has been used widely as food supplements in a form of powder and pills due to its high content in proteins and fatty acids. Haematococcus pluvialis has been recognized for its ability to produce high-added value products under stressful conditions such as antioxidants (astaxanthin). Despite the benefits that those microalgae have, few efforts have been done to use them in food products. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the nutritional properties such as protein content, lipid fraction, carbohydrates, antioxidants,, and vitamins, that these microalgae strains provide to the food product. Additionally, physicochemical, and sensory evaluation were assessed to evaluate the quality of the product. The results obtained will dictate the feasibility of the product to be commercialized. These novel products will have the ability to change the nutritional intake and strength the health of the consumers.

Keywords: functional food, Haematococcus pluvialis, microalgae, Spirulina platensis, tortilla, yogurt

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4602 Drying Effect on the Proximate Composition and Functional Properties of Cocoyam Flour

Authors: K. Maliki, A. Ajayi, O. M. Makanjuola, O. J. Adebowale

Abstract:

Cocoyam is herbaceous perennial plant which belongs to the family Araceae and genus xanthosoma or cococasia is mostly cultivated as food crop. It is very rich in Vitamin B6, Magnesium and also in dietary fiber. Matured cocoyam is eaten boiled, Fried or roasted in Nigeria. It can also be dried and used to make flour. Food drying is a method of food preservation in which food is dried, thus inhibit the growth of bacteria yeast and mold through the removal of water. Drying effect on the proximate composition and functional properties of cocoyam flour were investigated. Freshly harvested cocoyam cultivars at matured level were washed with portable water, peeled, sliced into 0.3mm thickness blanch in boiling water at 100°C for 15 minutes and dried using sun drying oven and cabinet dryers. The blanched slices were divided into three lots and were subjected to different drying methods. The dried cocoyam slices were milled into flour using Apex mill and packed into Low Density Polyethylene Film (LDPE) 75 Micron 4 thickness and kept for four months under ambient temperature before analysis. The results showed that the moisture content, ash, crude fiber, fat, protein and carbohydrate ranged from 7.35% to 13.89%, 1.45% to 3.3%, 1.2% to 3.41%, 2.1% to 3.1%, 6.30% to 9.1% and 66% to 82% respectively. The functional properties of the cocoyam flour ranged from 1. 65ml/g to 4.24ml/g water absorption capacity, 0.85ml/g to 2.11ml/g oil absorption capacity 0.56ml/g and 0.78ml/g bulk density and 4.91% to 6.80% swelling capacity. The result showed that there was not significant difference (P ≥ 0.5) across the various drying methods used. Cabinet drying method was found to have the best quality characteristic values than the other drying methods. In conclusion, drying of cocoyam could be used for value addition and provide extension to shelf-life.

Keywords: cocoyam flour, drying, cabinet dryer, oven dryer

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4601 Amino Acid Profile, Protein Digestibility, Antioxidant and Functional Properties of Protein Concentrate of Local Varieties (Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila) of Rice Brands from Nigeria

Authors: C. E. Chinma, S. O. Azeez, J. C. Anuonye, O. B. Ocheme, C. M. Yakubu, S. James, E. U. Ohuoba, I. A. Baba

Abstract:

There is growing interest in the use of rice bran protein in food formulation due to its hypoallergenic protein, high nutritional value and health promoting potentials. For the first time, the amino acid profile, protein digestibility, antioxidant, and functional properties of protein concentrate from some local varieties of rice bran from Nigeria were studied for possible food applications. Protein concentrates were prepared from rice bran and analysed using standard methods. Results showed that protein content of Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila were 69.24%, 69.97%, 68.73%, and 71.62%, respectively while total essential amino acid were 52.71, 53.03, 51.86, and 55.75g/100g protein, respectively. In vitro protein digestibility of protein concentrate from Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep and Jamila were 90.70%, 91.39%, 90.57% and 91.63% respectively. DPPH radical inhibition of protein from Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila were 48.15%, 48.90%, 47.56%, and 53.29%, respectively while ferric reducing ability power were 0.52, 0.55, 0.47 and 0.67mmol TE per gram, respectively. Protein concentrate from Jamila had higher onset (92.57oC) and denaturation temperature (102.13oC), and enthalpy (0.72J/g) than Jeep (91.46oC, 101.76oC, and 0.68J/g, respectively), Kwandala (90.32oC, 100.54oC and 0.57J/g, respectively), and Yardass (88.94oC, 99.45oC, and 0.51J/g, respectively). In vitro digestibility of protein from Kwandala, Yardas, Jeep, and Jamila were 90.70%, 91.39%, 90.57% and 91.63% respectively. Oil absorption capacity of Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila were 3.61, 3.73, 3.40, and 4.23g oil/g sample respectively, while water absorption capacity were 4.19, 4.32, 3.55 and 4.48g water/g sample, respectively. Protein concentrates had low bulk density (0.37-0.43g/ml). Protein concentrate from Jamila rice bran had the highest foam capacity (37.25%), followed by Yardass (34.20%), Kwandala (30.14%) and Jeep (28.90%). Protein concentrates showed low emulsifying and gelling capacities. In conclusion, protein concentrate prepared from these local rice bran varieties could serve as functional ingredients in food formulations and for enriching low protein foods.

Keywords: rice bran protein, amino acid profile, protein digestibility, antioxidant and functional properties

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4600 Edible and Ecofriendly Packaging – A Trendsetter of the Modern Era – Standardization and Properties of Films and Cutleries from Food Starch

Authors: P. Raajeswari, S. M. Devatha, R. Pragatheeswari

Abstract:

The edible packaging is a new trendsetter in the era of modern packaging. The researchers and food scientist recognise edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability. Starch was extracted from different sources that contains abundantly like potato, tapioca, rice, wheat, and corn. The starch based edible films and cutleries are developed as an alternative for conventional packages providing the nutritional benefit when consumed along with the food. The development of starch based edible films by the extraction of starch from various raw ingredients at lab scale level. The films are developed by the employment of plasticiser at different concentrations of 1.5ml and 2ml. The films developed using glycerol as a plasticiser in filmogenic solution to increase the flexibility and plasticity of film. It reduces intra and intermolecular forces in starch, and it increases the mobility of starch based edible films. The films developed are tested for its functional properties such as thickness, tensile strength, elongation at break, moisture permeability, moisture content, and puncture strength. The cutleries like spoons and cups are prepared by making dough and rolling the starch along with water. The overall results showed that starch based edible films absorbed less moisture, and they also contributed to the low moisture permeability with high tensile strength. Food colorants extracted from red onion peel, pumpkin, and red amaranth adds on the nutritive value, colour, and attraction when incorporated in edible cutleries, and it doesn’t influence the functional properties. Addition of a low quantity of glycerol in edible films and colour extraction from onion peel, pumpkin, and red amaranth enhances biodegradability and provides a good quantity of nutrients when consumed. Therefore, due to its multiple advantages, food starch can serve as the best response for eco-friendly industrial products aimed to replace single use plastics at low cost.

Keywords: edible films, edible cutleries, plasticizer, glycerol, starch, functional property

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4599 Monotonicity of the Jensen Functional for f-Divergences via the Zipf-Mandelbrot Law

Authors: Neda Lovričević, Đilda Pečarić, Josip Pečarić

Abstract:

The Jensen functional in its discrete form is brought in relation to the Csiszar divergence functional, this time via its monotonicity property. This approach presents a generalization of the previously obtained results that made use of interpolating Jensen-type inequalities. Thus the monotonicity property is integrated with the Zipf-Mandelbrot law and applied to f-divergences for probability distributions that originate from the Csiszar divergence functional: Kullback-Leibler divergence, Hellinger distance, Bhattacharyya distance, chi-square divergence, total variation distance. The Zipf-Mandelbrot and the Zipf law are widely used in various scientific fields and interdisciplinary and here the focus is on the aspect of the mathematical inequalities.

Keywords: Jensen functional, monotonicity, Csiszar divergence functional, f-divergences, Zipf-Mandelbrot law

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