Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: Waqar Nabi

38 A Next Generation Multi-Scale Modeling Theatre for in silico Oncology

Authors: Safee Chaudhary, Mahnoor Naseer Gondal, Hira Anees Awan, Abdul Rehman, Ammar Arif, Risham Hussain, Huma Khawar, Zainab Arshad, Muhammad Faizyab Ali Chaudhary, Waleed Ahmed, Muhammad Umer Sultan, Bibi Amina, Salaar Khan, Muhammad Moaz Ahmad, Osama Shiraz Shah, Hadia Hameed, Muhammad Farooq Ahmad Butt, Muhammad Ahmad, Sameer Ahmed, Fayyaz Ahmed, Omer Ishaq, Waqar Nabi, Wim Vanderbauwhede, Bilal Wajid, Huma Shehwana, Muhammad Tariq, Amir Faisal

Abstract:

Cancer is a manifestation of multifactorial deregulations in biomolecular pathways. These deregulations arise from the complex multi-scale interplay between cellular and extracellular factors. Such multifactorial aberrations at gene, protein, and extracellular scales need to be investigated systematically towards decoding the underlying mechanisms and orchestrating therapeutic interventions for patient treatment. In this work, we propose ‘TISON’, a next-generation web-based multiscale modeling platform for clinical systems oncology. TISON’s unique modeling abstraction allows a seamless coupling of information from biomolecular networks, cell decision circuits, extra-cellular environments, and tissue geometries. The platform can undertake multiscale sensitivity analysis towards in silico biomarker identification and drug evaluation on cellular phenotypes in user-defined tissue geometries. Furthermore, integration of cancer expression databases such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Human Proteome Atlas (HPA) facilitates in the development of personalized therapeutics. TISON is the next-evolution of multiscale cancer modeling and simulation platforms and provides a ‘zero-code’ model development, simulation, and analysis environment for application in clinical settings.

Keywords: systems oncology, cancer systems biology, cancer therapeutics, personalized therapeutics, cancer modelling

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37 A Comparative Study of Costumes for Religious Festivals in ASEAN Countries

Authors: Jaruphan Supprung

Abstract:

Aims of this research were to study the major religious festivals of merit making and joyful celebrations (nationwide) in each country of ASEAN countries and to compare the costumes for these major religious festivals among these countries. This documentary research employed qualitative research methodology. The findings of the research disclosed that there are 28 main religious festivals in ASEAN countries: 3 Islamic festivals in Brunei Darussalam such as Hari Raya Aidiladha Festival, Mauludin Nabi Festival and Hari Raya Aidilfitri Festival; 2 Buddhist festivals in Cambodia such as Pchum Ben Festival and Khmer New Year Festival; 3 Islamic festivals in Indonesia such as Eid al-Adha Festival, Maulid Nabi Festival and Eid ul-Fitr Festival; 5 Buddhist festivals in Laos such as Boun Awk Pansa Festival, Boun Pha Vet Festival, Boun Pi Mai Festival, Boun Khao Pradabdin Festival and Boun Khao Salak Festival; 3 Islamic festivals in Malaysia such as Hari Raya Aidil Adha Festival, Maulidur Rasul Festival and Hari Raya Aidilfitri Festival; 4 Buddhist festivals in Myanmar such as Thadingyut Festival, Tazaungmon Full Moon Festival, Htamane Festival, and Thingyan Festival; 2 Christian festivals in Philippines such as Christmas Festival and Feast of the Santo Niño; Only 1 Buddhist festival in Singapore: Festival of Vesak Day; 4 Buddhist festivals in Thailand such as Songkran Festival (Thai New Year), Sart Thai Festival, Khao Pansa Festival and Awk Pansa Festival; and only 1 Buddhist festival in Vietnam: Tet Nguyen Dan Festival. For the comparison of the costumes for these major religious festivals, it can be concluded that the most popular style of male costume for religious festivals in ASEAN countries consists of stand-up collar (100%), long sleeves (100%), shirt (90%), and long pants (100%), and the most popular style of male costume for religious festivals in ASEAN countries consists of round neck (90%), long sleeves (80%), blouse (60%), and maxi tube skirt (80%).

Keywords: costume, religious festival, ASEAN countries, visual and performing arts

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36 Government Intervention in Land Market

Authors: Waqar Ahmad Bajwa

Abstract:

In the land market, there are two kinds of government intervention. First one is the control of development and second is the supply of land. In the both intervention Government has a lot of benefits. In development control the government designation of conservation areas and the effects of growth controls which may increase the price of land. On other hand Government also apply charge fee on land. The second type of intervention is to increase the supply of land, either by direct action or indirect action, as in the Pakistan, by obligatory purchase or important domain.

Keywords: supply of control, control of development, charge fee, land control

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35 Sustainable Opportunities of Educational Facilities Provided to the Imprisoned Women's Children in Karachi's Central Jail

Authors: Waqar Un Nisa Faizi, Anila Fatima Shakil, Wilayat Bibi, Sajjad Hayat Akhtar

Abstract:

This study will discuss the sustainable opportunities regarding educational facilities provided to the children of imprisoned women in the different jails of Pakistan particularly in Central Jail of Karachi. It will also discuss the importance of educational facilities which are required for the mental and personal growth of the children as education has the capability to enhance the general knowledge and the personality of any individual. Education is extremely important for the children whether they live in a society or in prison, because they are the future of any country. Therefore, the point of discussion in this paper will be the provision of educational facilities and sustainable opportunities regarding these facilities to the children of imprisoned women in Karachi and other countries of the world.

Keywords: imprisoned, educational facilities, criminal activities, positive atmosphere

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34 The Influence of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari's Thoughts and Ideas on Post-Modern Architecture

Authors: A. Nabi, S. Panahi

Abstract:

In the recent years, due to the countless changes in the world and various sciences, architecture has faced a new approach and different concepts more than any other times. The direct influence of philosophy on architecture is one of the features of contemporary architecture. Linking these two learnings directly together needs deep reflection. Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari are among the people who greatly influenced the thinking of future architects and artists by bringing up new concepts. If we focus on the works of these architects and artists whose works resemble anti-Platonism and who subvert the western philosophy, we can extract concepts which we can see their influence on art and architecture. Using content analysis, this study has come to this conclusion that the ideas of Deleuze and Guattari could influence the contemporary architecture.

Keywords: Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari, anti-platonism, post-modern architecture, folding

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33 Nonlinear Adaptive PID Control for a Semi-Batch Reactor Based on an RBF Network

Authors: Magdi. M. Nabi, Ding-Li Yu

Abstract:

Control of a semi-batch polymerization reactor using an adaptive radial basis function (RBF) neural network method is investigated in this paper. A neural network inverse model is used to estimate the valve position of the reactor; this method can identify the controlled system with the RBF neural network identifier. The weights of the adaptive PID controller are timely adjusted based on the identification of the plant and self-learning capability of RBFNN. A PID controller is used in the feedback control to regulate the actual temperature by compensating the neural network inverse model output. Simulation results show that the proposed control has strong adaptability, robustness and satisfactory control performance and the nonlinear system is achieved.

Keywords: Chylla-Haase polymerization reactor, RBF neural networks, feed-forward, feedback control

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32 Corruption in India: Causes and Remedial Measures

Authors: Ghulam Nabi Naz

Abstract:

After independence, the popular belief that Gandhian will not indulge in corruption got a setback, post-independence setup paved the way for heavy corruption. The menace which would have dealt with strong legal provisions has become a way of life of Indian society. Corruption is recognized as the single biggest problem facing the country today. It undermines democracy and rule of law, violates human rights, distorts market and corrodes the moral fibre of people. The paper discusses the causes and possible remedial measures of corruption and response of people in Indian society. It emphasizes the factors which provide fertile ground for growth of corruption like, degradation of moral values, absence of a strong anti-corruption law and its effective enforcement, accountability, consistency and a defective system of fighting elections. The paper also highlights the reforms necessary for fighting corruption in India.

Keywords: embezzlement, colonial, licence Raj, good governance, misappropriation, Sangh ideologue, Anna movement

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31 Dielectric Thickness Modulation Based Optically Transparent Leaky Wave Antenna Design

Authors: Waqar Ali Khan

Abstract:

A leaky-wave antenna design is proposed which is based on the realization of a certain kind of surface impedance profile that allows the existence of a perturbed surface wave (fast wave) that radiates. The antenna is realized by using optically transparent material Plexiglas. Plexiglas behaves as a dielectric at radio frequencies and is transparent at optical frequencies. In order to have a ground plane for the microwave frequencies, metal strips are used parallel to the E field of the operating mode. The microwave wavelength chosen is large enough such that it does not resolve the metal strip ground plane and sees it to be a uniform ground plane. While, at optical frequencies, the metal strips do have some shadowing effect. However still, about 62% of optical power can be transmitted through the antenna.

Keywords: Plexiglass, surface-wave, optically transparent, metal strip

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30 RBF Modelling and Optimization Control for Semi-Batch Reactors

Authors: Magdi M. Nabi, Ding-Li Yu

Abstract:

This paper presents a neural network based model predictive control (MPC) strategy to control a strongly exothermic reaction with complicated nonlinear kinetics given by Chylla-Haase polymerization reactor that requires a very precise temperature control to maintain product uniformity. In the benchmark scenario, the operation of the reactor must be guaranteed under various disturbing influences, e.g., changing ambient temperatures or impurity of the monomer. Such a process usually controlled by conventional cascade control, it provides a robust operation, but often lacks accuracy concerning the required strict temperature tolerances. The predictive control strategy based on the RBF neural model is applied to solve this problem to achieve set-point tracking of the reactor temperature against disturbances. The result shows that the RBF based model predictive control gives reliable result in the presence of some disturbances and keeps the reactor temperature within a tight tolerance range around the desired reaction temperature.

Keywords: Chylla-Haase reactor, RBF neural network modelling, model predictive control, semi-batch reactors

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29 Time Bound Parallel Processing of a Disaster Management Alert System Using Random Selection of Target Audience: Bangladesh Context

Authors: Hasan Al Bashar Abul Ulayee, AKM Saifun Nabi, MD Mesbah-Ul-Awal

Abstract:

Alert system for disaster management is common now a day and can play a vital role reducing devastation and saves lives and costs. An alert in right time can save thousands of human life, help to take shelter, manage other assets including live stocks and above all, a right time alert will help to take preparation to face and early recovery of the situation. In a country like Bangladesh where populations is more than 170 million and always facing different types of natural calamities and disasters, an early right time alert is very effective and implementation of alert system is challenging. The challenge comes from the time constraint of alerting the huge number of population. The other method of existing disaster management pre alert is traditional, sequential and non-selective so efficiency is not good enough. This paper describes a way by which alert can be provided to maximum number of people within the short time bound using parallel processing as well as random selection of selective target audience.

Keywords: alert system, Bangladesh, disaster management, parallel processing, SMS

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28 Hyperspectral Mapping Methods for Differentiating Mangrove Species along Karachi Coast

Authors: Sher Muhammad, Mirza Muhammad Waqar

Abstract:

It is necessary to monitor and identify mangroves types and spatial extent near coastal areas because it plays an important role in coastal ecosystem and environmental protection. This research aims at identifying and mapping mangroves types along Karachi coast ranging from 24.79 to 24.85 degree in latitude and 66.91 to 66.97 degree in longitude using hyperspectral remote sensing data and techniques. Image acquired during February, 2012 through Hyperion sensor have been used for this research. Image preprocessing includes geometric and radiometric correction followed by Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Pixel Purity Index (PPI). The output of MNF and PPI has been analyzed by visualizing it in n-dimensions for end-member extraction. Well-distributed clusters on the n-dimensional scatter plot have been selected with the region of interest (ROI) tool as end members. These end members have been used as an input for classification techniques applied to identify and map mangroves species including Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF), and Spectral Information Diversion (SID). Only two types of mangroves namely Avicennia Marina (white mangroves) and Avicennia Germinans (black mangroves) have been observed throughout the study area.

Keywords: mangrove, hyperspectral, hyperion, SAM, SFF, SID

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27 Carbon Coated Yarn Supercapacitors: Parametric Study of Performance Output

Authors: Imtiaz Ahmed Khan, Sabu John, Sania Waqar, Lijing Wang, Mac Fergusson, Ilija Najdovski

Abstract:

Evolution of textiles, from its orthodox to more interactive role has stirred the researchers to uncover its application in numerous arenas. The idea of using textile based materials for wearable energy harvesting and storage devices have gained immense popularity. This is mainly due to textile comfort and flexibility features. In this work, nano-carbonous materials were infused on cellulosic fibers using caustic soda treatment. This paper presents the complete procedure of yarn supercapacitors fabrication process through dip coating technique and its characterization method. The main objective is to study, the effect of varying caustic soda concentration on mass loading of activated carbon on yarns and the related capacitance output of the designed yarn supercapacitor. Polyvinyl alcohol and Phosphoric acid were used as electrolyte in a two-electrode cell assembly to measure device electrochemical performance. The results show a promising increase in capacitance value using this technique.

Keywords: yarn supercapacitors, activated carbon, dip coating, caustic soda, electrolyte, electrochemical characterization

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26 Implementation of Building Information Modeling in Turkish Government Sector Projects

Authors: Mohammad Lemar Zalmai, Mustafa Nabi Kocakaya, Cemil Akcay, Ekrem Manisali

Abstract:

In recent years, the Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach has been developed expeditiously. As people see the benefits of this approach, it has begun to be used widely in construction projects and some countries made it mandatory to get more benefits from it. To promote the implementation of BIM in construction projects, it will be helpful to get some relevant information from surveys and interviews. The purpose of this study is to research the current adoption and implementation of BIM in public projects in Turkey. This study specified the challenges of BIM implementation in Turkey and proposed some solutions to overcome them. In this context, the challenges for BIM implementation and the factors that affect the BIM usage are determined based on previous academic researches and expert opinions by conducting interviews and questionnaire surveys. Several methods are used to process information in order to obtain weights of different factors to make BIM widespread in Turkey. This study concluded interviews' and questionnaire surveys' outcomes and proposed some suggestions to promote the implementation of BIM in Turkey. We believe research findings will be a good reference for boosting BIM implementation in Turkey.

Keywords: building information modelling, BIM implementations, Turkish construction industry, Turkish government sector projects

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25 The name of Thai Muslim students: The Reflection of value and Identity of Thai Muslim

Authors: Apichaya Kaewuthai

Abstract:

To study the meaning of Muslim name in order to analyse the underlining value and identity from first year to forth year Muslim students at Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai Campus. The questionnaires are employed as a main analytical tool to acquire the names from 80 Muslim students in four study years. The meanings of obtained names are subsequently analysed and summarized base upon related documents to uncover the beneath value. The study reveals that name of male is derived from the name of prophet; Nabi Muhammad, merit, dignity, origins, leadership and the faith in Islam. For female, on the other hand, their names are related to virtue and beauty, cleanliness and peace, hope and flowers which comply with their characteristics. One of the reasons contribute to the principle of naming is the regulation of Ministry of Culture which states that the name should represent one’s nature and characters. The given name reflects value and identity of Muslim which can be classified into three categories including 1) Value related to belief in Islam 2) value related to relationship among families and relatives 3) value about relationship with nature and environment. All the above mentioned reflect Muslim value and identity vividly. The name of Muslim students allows the researcher to perceive the perspective, belief and value in giving the name of Thai Muslim. Besides, it reveals social condition and their culture. It can also be the fundamental of studying the meaning of name in other races.

Keywords: the naming, Thai Muslim, culture, economic

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24 Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Varieties of Vegetable oils Consumed in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Health Risk Assessment of Local Population

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Ashraf

Abstract:

Selected heavy metals, namely Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, and As, in seven popular varieties of edible vegetable oils collected from Saudi Arabia, were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) using microwave digestion. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference materials (NIST 1577b). The concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, lead and arsenic were observed in the range of 0.035 - 0.286, 0.955 - 3.10, 17.3 - 57.8, 0.178 - 0.586, 0.011 - 0.017 and 0.011 - 0.018 µg/g, respectively. Cadmium was found to be in the range of 2.36 - 6.34 ng/g. The results are compared internationally and with standards laid down by world health agencies. A risk assessment study has been carried out to assess exposure to these metals via consumption of vegetable oils. A comparison has been made with safety intake levels for these heavy metals recommended by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM), US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The results indicated that the dietary intakes of the selected heavy metals from daily consumption of 25 g of edible vegetable oils for a 70 kg individual should pose no significant health risk to local population.

Keywords: vegetable oils, heavy metals, contamination, health risk assessment

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23 Levels of Toxic Metals in Different Tissues of Lethrinus miniatus Fish from Arabian Gulf

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Ashraf, Atiq A. Mian

Abstract:

In the present study, accumulation of eight heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr)was determined in kidney, heart, liver and muscle tissues of Lethrinus miniatus fish caught from Arabian Gulf. Metal concentrations in all the samples were measured using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Analytical validation of data was carried out by applying the same digestion procedure to standard reference material (NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver). Levels of lead (Pb) in the liver tissue (0.60µg/g) exceeded the limit set by European Commission (2005) at 0.30 µg/g. Zinc concentration in all tissue samples were below the maximum permissible limit (50 µg/g) as set by FAO. Maximum mean cadmium concentration was found 0.15 µg/g in the kidney tissues. Highest content of Mn in the studied tissues was seen in the kidney tissue (2.13 µg/g), whereas minimum was found in muscle tissue (0.87 µg/g). The present study led to the conclusion that muscle tissue is the least contaminated tissue in Lethrinus miniatus and consumption of organs should be avoided as much as possible.

Keywords: lethrinus miniatus, arabian gulf, heavy metals, atomic absorption spectroscopy

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22 Levels of Heavy Metals in Different Tissues of Lethrinus Miniatus Fish from Arabian Gulf

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Ashraf

Abstract:

In the present study, accumulation of eight heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr)was determined in kidney, heart, liver and muscle tissues of Lethrinus Miniatus fish caught from Arabian Gulf. Metal concentrations in all the samples were measured using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GF-AAS). Analytical validation of data was carried out by applying the same digestion procedure to standard reference material (NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver). Levels of lead (Pb) in the liver tissue (0.60µg/g) exceeded the limit set by European Commission (2005) at 0.30 µg/g. Zinc concentration in all tissue samples were below the maximum permissible limit (50 µg/g) as set by FAO. Maximum mean cadmium concentration was found to be 0.15 µg/g in the kidney tissues. Highest content of Mn in the studied tissues was seen in the kidney tissue (2.13 µg/g), whereas minimum was found in muscle tissue (0.87 µg/g). The present study led to the conclusion that muscle tissue is the least contaminated tissue in Lethrinus Miniatus and consumption of organs should be avoided as much as possible.

Keywords: Arabian gulf, Lethrinus miniatus, heavy metals, atomic absorption spectroscopy

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21 Investigation and Analysis on Pore Pressure Variation by Sonic Impedance under Influence of Compressional, Shear, and Stonely Waves in High Pressure Zones

Authors: Nouri, K., Ghassem Alaskari, M., K., Amiri Hazaveh, A., Nabi Bidhendi, M.

Abstract:

Pore pressure is one on the key Petrophysical parameter in exploration discussion and survey on hydrocarbon reservoir. Determination of pore pressure in various levels of drilling and integrity of drilling mud and high pressure zones in order to restrict blow-out and following damages are significant. The pore pressure is obtained by seismic and well logging data. In this study the pore pressure and over burden pressure through the matrix stress and Tarzaqi equation and other related formulas are calculated. By making a comparison on variation of density log in over normal pressure zones with change of sonic impedance under influence of compressional, shear, and Stonely waves, the correlation level of sonic impedance with density log is studied. The level of correlation and variation trend is recorded in sonic impedance under influence Stonely wave with density log that key factor in recording of over burden pressure and pore pressure in Tarzaqi equation is high. The transition time is in divert relation with porosity and fluid type in the formation and as a consequence to the pore pressure. The density log is a key factor in determination of pore pressure therefore sonic impedance under Stonley wave is denotes well the identification of high pressure besides other used factors.

Keywords: pore pressure, stonely wave, density log, sonic impedance, high pressure zone

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20 Magnetic Treatment of Irrigation Water and Its Effect on Water Salinity

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Ashraf

Abstract:

The influence of magnetic field on the structure of water and aqueous solutions are similar and can alter the physical and chemical properties of water-dispersed systems. With the application of magnetic field, hydration of salt ions and other impurities slides down and improve the possible technological characteristics of the water. Magnetic field can enhance the characteristic of water i.e. better salt solubility, kinetic changes in salt crystallization, accelerated coagulation, etc. Gulf countries are facing critical problem due to depletion of water resources and increasing food demands to cover the human needs; therefore water shortage is being increasingly accepted as a major limitation for increased agricultural production and food security. In arid and semi-arid regions sustainable agricultural development is influenced to a great extent by water quality that might be used economically and effectively in developing agriculture programs. In the present study, the possibility of using magnetized water to desalinate the soil is accounted for the enhanced dissolving capacity of the magnetized water. Magnetic field has been applied to treat brackish water. The study showed that the impact of magnetic field on saline water is sustained up to three hours (with and without shaking). These results suggest that even low magnetic field can decrease the electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids which are good for the removal of salinity from the irrigated land by using magnetized water.

Keywords: magnetic treatment, saline water, hardness of water, removal of salinity

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19 Experiences of Timing Analysis of Parallel Embedded Software

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Aziz, Syed Abdul Baqi Shah

Abstract:

The execution time analysis is fundamental to the successful design and execution of real-time embedded software. In such analysis, the Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) of a program is a key measure, on the basis of which system tasks are scheduled. The WCET analysis of embedded software is also needed for system understanding and to guarantee its behavior. WCET analysis can be performed statically (without executing the program) or dynamically (through measurement). Traditionally, research on the WCET analysis assumes sequential code running on single-core platforms. However, as computation is steadily moving towards using a combination of parallel programs and multi-core hardware, new challenges in WCET analysis need to be addressed. In this article, we report our experiences of performing the WCET analysis of Parallel Embedded Software (PES) running on multi-core platform. The primary purpose was to investigate how WCET estimates of PES can be computed statically, and how they can be derived dynamically. Our experiences, as reported in this article, include the challenges we faced, possible suggestions to these challenges and the workarounds that were developed. This article also provides observations on the benefits and drawbacks of deriving the WCET estimates using the said methods and provides useful recommendations for further research in this area.

Keywords: embedded software, worst-case execution-time analysis, static flow analysis, measurement-based analysis, parallel computing

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18 Development of Lipid Architectonics for Improving Efficacy and Ameliorating the Oral Bioavailability of Elvitegravir

Authors: Bushra Nabi, Saleha Rehman, Sanjula Baboota, Javed Ali

Abstract:

Aim: The objective of research undertaken is analytical method validation (HPLC method) of an anti-HIV drug Elvitegravir (EVG). Additionally carrying out the forced degradation studies of the drug under different stress conditions to determine its stability. It is envisaged in order to determine the suitable technique for drug estimation, which would be employed in further research. Furthermore, comparative pharmacokinetic profile of the drug from lipid architectonics and drug suspension would be obtained post oral administration. Method: Lipid Architectonics (LA) of EVR was formulated using probe sonication technique and optimized using QbD (Box-Behnken design). For the estimation of drug during further analysis HPLC method has been validation on the parameters (Linearity, Precision, Accuracy, Robustness) and Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) has been determined. Furthermore, HPLC quantification of forced degradation studies was carried out under different stress conditions (acid induced, base induced, oxidative, photolytic and thermal). For pharmacokinetic (PK) study, Albino Wistar rats were used weighing between 200-250g. Different formulations were given per oral route, and blood was collected at designated time intervals. A plasma concentration profile over time was plotted from which the following parameters were determined:

Keywords: AIDS, Elvitegravir, HPLC, nanostructured lipid carriers, pharmacokinetics

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17 Half Model Testing for Canard of a Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft

Authors: Anwar U. Haque, Waqar Asrar, Ashraf Ali Omar, Erwin Sulaeman, Jaffer Sayed Mohamed Ali

Abstract:

Due to the interference effects, the intrinsic aerodynamic parameters obtained from the individual component testing are always fundamentally different than those obtained for complete model testing. Consideration and limitation for such testing need to be taken into account in any design work related to the component buildup method. In this paper, the scaled model of a straight rectangular canard of a hybrid buoyant aircraft is tested at 50 m/s in IIUM-LSWT (Low-Speed Wind Tunnel). Model and its attachment with the balance are kept rigid to have results free from the aeroelastic distortion. Based on the velocity profile of the test section’s floor; the height of the model is kept equal to the corresponding boundary layer displacement. Balance measurements provide valuable but limited information of the overall aerodynamic behavior of the model. Zero lift coefficient is obtained at -2.2o and the corresponding drag coefficient was found to be less than that at zero angles of attack. As a part of the validation of low fidelity tool, the plot of lift coefficient plot was verified by the experimental data and except the value of zero lift coefficient, the overall trend has under-predicted the lift coefficient. Based on this comparative study, a correction factor of 1.36 is proposed for lift curve slope obtained from the panel method.

Keywords: wind tunnel testing, boundary layer displacement, lift curve slope, canard, aerodynamics

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16 Estimation of Pressure Profile and Boundary Layer Characteristics over NACA 4412 Airfoil

Authors: Anwar Ul Haque, Waqar Asrar, Erwin Sulaeman, Jaffar S. M. Ali

Abstract:

Pressure distribution data of the standard airfoils is usually used for the calibration purposes in subsonic wind tunnels. Results of such experiments are quite old and obtained by using the model in the spanwise direction. In this manuscript, pressure distribution over NACA 4412 airfoil model was presented by placing the 3D model in the lateral direction. The model is made of metal with pressure ports distributed longitudinally as well as in the lateral direction. The pressure model was attached to the floor of the tunnel with the help of the base plate to give the specified angle of attack to the model. Before the start of the experiments, the pressure tubes of the respective ports of the 128 ports pressure scanner are checked for leakage, and the losses due to the length of the pipes were also incorporated in the results for the specified pressure range. Growth rate maps of the boundary layer thickness were also plotted. It was found that with the increase in the velocity, the dynamic pressure distribution was also increased for the alpha seep. Plots of pressure distribution so obtained were overlapped with those obtained by using XFLR software, a low fidelity tool. It was found that at moderate and high angles of attack, the distribution of the pressure coefficients obtained from the experiments is high when compared with the XFLR ® results obtained along with the span of the wing. This under-prediction by XFLR ® is more obvious on the windward than on the leeward side.

Keywords: subsonic flow, boundary layer, wind tunnel, pressure testing

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15 Performance Evaluation of Wideband Code Division Multiplication Network

Authors: Osama Abdallah Mohammed Enan, Amin Babiker A/Nabi Mustafa

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate and analyze different parameters of WCDMA (wideband code division multiplication). Moreover, this study also incorporates brief yet throughout analysis of WCDMA’s components as well as its internal architecture. This study also examines different power controls. These power controls may include open loop power control, closed or inner group loop power control and outer loop power control. Different handover techniques or methods of WCDMA are also illustrated in this study. These handovers may include hard handover, inter system handover and soft and softer handover. Different duplexing techniques are also described in the paper. This study has also presented an idea about different parameters of WCDMA that leads the system towards QoS issues. This may help the operator in designing and developing adequate network configuration. In addition to this, the study has also investigated various parameters including Bit Energy per Noise Spectral Density (Eb/No), Noise rise, and Bit Error Rate (BER). After simulating these parameters, using MATLAB environment, it was investigated that, for a given Eb/No value the system capacity increase by increasing the reuse factor. Besides that, it was also analyzed that, noise rise is decreasing for lower data rates and for lower interference levels. Finally, it was examined that, BER increase by using one type of modulation technique than using other type of modulation technique.

Keywords: duplexing, handover, loop power control, WCDMA

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14 Investigation of Mode II Fracture Toughness in Orthotropic Materials

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Nabi Mehri Khansari, Ahmadreza Farokhi

Abstract:

Evaluation of mode II fracture toughness (KIIC) in composite materials is very hard problem to be solved, since it can be affected by many mechanisms of dissipation. Furthermore, non-linearity in its behavior can offer an extra difficulty to obtain accuracy in the results. Different reported values for KIIC in various references can prove the mentioned assertion. In this research, some solutions proposed based on the form of necessary corrections that should be executed on the common test fixtures. Due to the fact that the common test fixtures are not able to active toughening mechanisms in pure Mode II correctly, we have employed some structural modifications on common fixtures. Particularly, the Iosipescu test is used as start point. The tests are applied on graphite/epoxy; PMMA and Western White Pine Wood. Also, mixed mode I/II fracture limit curves are used to indicate the scattering in test results are really relevant to the creation of Fracture Process Zone (FPZ). In the present paper, shear load consideration applied at the predicted shear zone by considering some significant structural amendments that can active mode II toughening mechanisms. Indeed, the employed empirical method causes significant developing in repeatability and reproducibility as well. Moreover, a 3D Finite Element (FE) is performed for verification of the obtained results. Eventually, it is figured out that, a remarkable precision can be obtained in common test fixture in comparison with the previous one.

Keywords: FPZ, shear test fixture, mode II fracture toughness, composite material, FEM

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13 Platelet Indices among the Cases of Vivax Malaria

Authors: Mirza Sultan Ahmad, Mubashra Ahmad, Ramlah Mehmood, Nazia Mahboob, Waqar Nasir

Abstract:

Objective: To ascertain the prevalence of thrombocytopenia and study changes in MPV and PDW among cases of vivax malaria. Design: Descriptive analytic study. Place and duration of study: Department of pediatrics, Fazle Omar Hospital, from January to December 2012. Methodology: All patients from birth to 16 years age, who presented in Fazle- Omar hospital, Rabwah from January to December 2012 were included in this study. Hundred patients with other febrile illnesses were taken as control. Full blood counts were checked by Madonic CA 620 analyzer. Name, age, sex, weight, platelet counts. MPV, PDW, any evidence of bleeding, outcome of cases included in this study and taken as control were recorded on data sheets. Results: One hundred and forty-two patients were included in this study. There was no incidence of death or active bleeding. Median platelet count was 109000/mm3. Thrombocytopenia was present in 108 (76.1%) patients. Severe thrombocytopenia was present in 10(7%) patients. Minimum count was 27000/mm3 and maximum was 341000/mm3. Platelet counts of control group was significantly more as compared with study group.(p<.001) Median MPV was 8.70. Minimum value was 6.40 and maximum was 11.90. MPV of study group was significantly more than control group.(p<.001) Median PDW was 11.30. Minimum value was 8.5 and maximum was 16.70. There was no difference between PDW of study and control groups (p=0.246). Conclusions: Thrombocytopenia is a common complication among pediatric cases of vivax malaria. MPV of cases of vivax malaria is higher than control group.

Keywords: malaria vivax, platelet, mean platelet volume, thrombocytopenia

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12 Satellite Derived Snow Cover Status and Trends in the Indus Basin Reservoir

Authors: Muhammad Tayyab Afzal, Muhammad Arslan, Mirza Muhammad Waqar

Abstract:

Snow constitutes an important component of the cryosphere, characterized by high temporal and spatial variability. Because of the contribution of snow melt to water availability, snow is an important focus for research on climate change and adaptation. MODIS satellite data have been used to identify spatial-temporal trends in snow cover in the upper Indus basin. For this research MODIS satellite 8 day composite data of medium resolution (250m) have been analysed from 2001-2005.Pixel based supervised classification have been performed and extent of snow have been calculated of all the images. Results show large variation in snow cover between years while an increasing trend from west to east is observed. Temperature data for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) have been analysed for seasonal and annual trends over the period 2001-2005 and calibrated with the results acquired by the research. From the analysis it is concluded that there are indications that regional warming is one of the factor that is affecting the hydrology of the upper Indus basin due to accelerated glacial melting during the simulation period, stream flow in the upper Indus basin can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy. This conclusion is also supported by the research of ICIMOD in which there is an observation that the average annual precipitation over a five year period is less than the observed stream flow and supported by positive temperature trends in all seasons.

Keywords: indus basin, MODIS, remote sensing, snow cover

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11 Hepatoprotective Activity of Sharbat Deenar, against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Nazmul Huda, Ashik Mosaddik, Abdul Awal, Shafiqur Rahman, Rukhsana Shaheen, Mustofa Nabi

Abstract:

Polyherbal formulation Sharbat Deenar is a very popular unani medicine in Bangladesh. It is usually used for different kinds of liver disorders. In absence of reliable and inadequate hepatoprotective agents in conventional medicine, the herbal preparations are preferred for liver diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Sharbat Deenar on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in male Long-Evans albino rats. Group I served as normal control and received neither formulation nor carbon tetrachloride. Group II received only CCl4 1mL/kg body weight of rat intraperitoneally for consecutive 14 days. Group III received CCl4 1mL/kg body weight of rat intraperitoneally and Silymarin, in dose 50mg/kg body weight of rat orally. Group IV received CCl4 1mL/kg body weight of rat intraperitoneally and Sharbat Deenar 1mL/kg body weight of rat for the same 14 consecutive days. At the end of the study, hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by the levels of total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Histopathological study of rat liver was also carried out. The results showed that polyherbal formulation Sharbat Deenar exhibited a significant hepatoprotective effect. Such an outcome seems to be the synergistic effect of all ingredients of tested herbal formulation. Although this study suggests that Sharbat Deenar may be used to cure or minimize various liver diseases, it needs further study to attain the clarity of mechanism and safety.

Keywords: polyherbal formulation, sharbat deenar, carbon tetrachloride, silymarin, hepatoprotective

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10 Uniqueness and Repeatability Analysis for Slim Tube Determined Minimum Miscibility Pressure

Authors: Waqar Ahmad Butt, Gholamreza Vakili Nezhaad, Ali Soud Al Bemani, Yahya Al Wahaibi

Abstract:

Miscible gas injection processes as secondary recovery methods can be applied to a huge number of mature reservoirs to improve the trapped oil displacement. Successful miscible gas injection processes require an accurate estimation of the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) to make injection process feasible, economical, and effective. There are several methods of MMP determination like slim tube approach, vanishing interfacial tension and rising bubble apparatus but slim tube is the deployed experimental technique in this study. Slim tube method is assumed to be non-standardized for MMP determination with respect to both operating procedure and design. Therefore, 25 slim tube runs were being conducted with three different coil lengths (12, 18 and 24 m) of constant diameter using three different injection rates (0.08, 0.1 and 0.15 cc/min) to evaluate uniqueness and repeatability of determined MMP. A trend of decrease in MMP with increase in coil length was found. No unique trend was found between MMP and injection rate. Lowest MMP and highest recovery were observed with highest coil length and lowest injection rate. It shows that slim tube measured MMP does not depend solely on interacting fluids characteristics but also affected by used coil selection and injection rate choice. Therefore, both slim tube design and procedure need to be standardized. It is recommended to use lowest possible injection rate and estimated coil length depending upon the distance between injections and producing wells for accurate and reliable MMP determination.

Keywords: coil length, injection rate, minimum miscibility pressure, multiple contacts miscibility

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9 Comparative Evaluation of Vanishing Interfacial Tension Approach for Minimum Miscibility Pressure Determination

Authors: Waqar Ahmad Butt, Gholamreza Vakili Nezhaad, Ali Soud Al Bemani, Yahya Al Wahaibi

Abstract:

Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) plays a great role in determining the displacement efficiency of different gas injection processes. Experimental techniques for MMP determination include industrially recommended slim tube, vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) and rising bubble apparatus (RBA). In this paper, MMP measurement study using slim tube and VIT experimental techniques for two different crude oil samples (M and N) both in live and stock tank oil forms is being presented. VIT measured MMP values for both 'M' and 'N' live crude oils were close to slim tube determined MMP values with 6.4 and 5 % deviation respectively. Whereas for both oil samples in stock tank oil form, VIT measured MMP showed a higher unacceptable deviation from slim tube determined MMP. This higher difference appears to be related to high stabilized crude oil heavier fraction and lack of multiple contacts miscibility. None of the different nine deployed crude oil and CO2 MMP computing correlations could result in reliable MMP, close to slim tube determined MMP. Since VIT determined MMP values for both considered live crude oils are in close match with slim tube determined MMP values, it confirms reliable, reproducible, rapid and cheap alternative for live crude oil MMP determination. Whereas VIT MMP determination for stock tank oil case needed further investigation about stabilization / destabilization mechanism of oil heavier ends and multiple contacts miscibility development issues.

Keywords: minimum miscibility pressure, interfacial tension, multiple contacts miscibility, heavier ends

Procedia PDF Downloads 159