Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 956

Search results for: Muhammad Jalal Arif

956 Assessment of Attractency of Bactrocera Zonata and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera:Tephritidae) to Different Biolure Phagostimulant-Mixtures

Authors: Ahmad Nawaz, Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Ahsan Khan, Muhammad Arshad and Amna Jalal

Abstract:

Fruit flies of Bactrocera genus cause heavy losses in fruits and vegetables globally and insecticide-application for their control creates issues of ecological backlash, environmental pollution, and food safety. There is need to explore alternatives and food-baits application is considered safe for the environment and effective for fruit fly management. Present experiment was carried out to assess the attractancy of five phagostimulant-Mixtures (PHS-Mix) prepared by mixing banana-squash, mulberry, protein-hydrolysate and molasses with some phagostimulant-lure sources including beef extract, fish extract, yeast, starch, rose oil, casein and cedar oil in five different ratios i.e., PHS-Mix-1 (1 part of all ingredients), PHS-Mix-2 (1 part of banana with 0.75 parts of all other ingredients), PHS-Mix-3 (1 part of banana with 0.5 parts of all other ingredients), PHS-Mix-4 (1 part of banana with 0.25 parts of all other ingredients) and PHS-Mix-5 (1 part of banana with 0.125 parts of all other ingredients). These were evaluated in comparison with a standard (GF-120). PHS-Mix-4 demonstrated 40.5±1.3-46.2±1.6% AI for satiated flies (class-II i.e., moderately attractive) and 59.5±2.0-68.6±3.0% AI for starved flies (class-III i.e., highly attractive) for both B. dorsalis and B. zonata in olfactometric study while the same exhibited 51.2±0.53% AI (class-III i.e., highly attractive) for B. zonata and 45.4±0.89% AI (class-II i.e., moderately attractive) for B. dorsalis in field study. PHS-Mix-1 proved non-attractive (class-I) and moderately attractive (class-II) phagostimulant in olfactometer and field studies, respectively. PHS-Mix-2 exhibited moderate attractiveness for starved lots in olfactometer and field-lot in field studies. PHS-Mix-5 proved non-attractive to starved and satiated lots of B. zonata and B. dorsalis females in olfactometer and field studies. Overall PHS-Mix-4 proved better phagostimulant-mixture followed by PHS-Mix-3 which was categorized as class-II (moderately attractive) phagostimulant for starved and satiated lots of female flies of both species in olfactometer and field studies; hence these can be exploited for fruit fly management.

Keywords: olfactometer, attractive index, field conditions, Tephritid flies

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955 Performance of Different Biodegradable Waxes Based Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology-Male Anhelation Technique-Cue Lure Formulations in Bittergourd Field against Bactrocera cucurbitae

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Amna Jalal, Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Mubashir Iqbal, Anum Tariq, Talha Farooq

Abstract:

Melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) are economically important pests of the cucurbits and are geographically distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world. It causes heavy quantitative and qualitative losses in bitter gourd. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of different biodegradable waxes based SPLAT-MAT-CL (Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology-Male Anhelation Technique- Cue Lure) formulations in bitter gourd field. Fourteen SPLAT-MAT emulsions/formulations were prepared by admixing different SPLAT matrices with toxicant (spinosad) and sex pheromone cuelure (attractant) in different proportionate percentage by weight. The results revealed that attraction and trapping of fruit flies of B. cucurbitae varied significantly for different SPLAT-MAT-CL formulations (p < 0.05). The maximum B. cucurbitae males were trapped in SPLAT-MAT-CL-7 (60 flies/trap/day) followed by SPLAT-MAT-CL-9 (40 flies/trap/day). The performance of all other formulations of SPLAT-MAT-CL was found in the order of SPLAT-MAT-CL-8 (30 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-3 (28 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-5 (25 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-4 (22 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-12 (20 flies/trap/day) SPLAT-MAT-CL-2 (19 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-14 (17 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-13 (15 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-11 (10 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-1 (8 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-10 (02 flies/trap/day). Overall, all the SPLAT-MAT-CL formulations, except SPLAT-MAT-CL-10, demonstrated higher density of captures of B. cucurbitae males as compared to standard (06 flies/trap/day). The results also demonstrate that SPLAT-MAT-CL-7, SPLAT-MAT-CL-9, SPLAT-MAT-CL-8, SPLAT-MAT-CL-3, SPLAT-MAT-CL-5, SPLAT-MAT-CL-4, SPLAT-MAT-CL-12, SPLAT-MAT-CL-2, SPLAT-MAT-CL-14, SPLAT-MAT-CL-13, SPLAT-MAT-CL-11 and SPLAT-MAT-CL-1 explained approximately 5, 4.6, 4.1, 3.6, 3.3, 3.1,2.8,2.5 and 1.6 times higher captures of B. cucurbitae males over standards. However, SPLAT-MAT-CL-10 demonstrated 3 times fewer captures of B. cucurbitae males over standards. In conclusion, SPLAT-MAT-CL-7, SPLAT-MAT-CL-9 can be exploited for the monitoring and trapping of B. cucurbitae in its IPM of program.

Keywords: field conditions, attractancy, melon fruit fly, SPLAT-MAT-CL

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954 Evaluation of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Eugenol with Lanolin Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Muhammad Amjad Ali, Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashar Iqbal, Amna Jalal, Faisal Munir

Abstract:

The study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax in orchard of the University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Lanolin wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFₗₗ-7 trapped 42.1 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 51.71%, proved strongly attractive SRFₗₗ for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (AI > 50%). The SRFₗₗ-2, SRFₗₗ-3, SRFₗₗ-4, SRFₗₗ-5, SRFₗₗ-6, SRFₗₗ-8 and SRFₗₗ-9 trapped 17.7, 27.9, 32.3, 23.8, 28.3, 37.8 and 19.9 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 20.54%, 41.02%, 26.00%, 34.15%, 43.50%, 49.86% and 46.07% AI respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulations for B. zonata and were categorized as Class-II slow-released formulations (AI = 11-50%). However, SRFₗₗ-1 trapped 14.8 flies /day/trap, exhibited 0.71% AI proved little or nonattractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: Bactrocera zonata, slow-released formulation, lenoline wax, methyl euginol

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953 Toxicity of Cry1ac Bacillus thuringiensis against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) on Artificial Diet under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Tahammal Hussain, Khuram Zia, Mumammad Jalal Arif, Megha Parajulee, Abdul Hakeem

Abstract:

The Bioassay on neonate, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) were conducted against Bacillus thuringiensis proteins Cry1Ac. Cry1Ac was incorporated into an artificial diet and was serially diluted with distilled water and then mixed with diet at an appropriate temperature of diet. Toxins incorporated prepared diet was poured into Petri-dishes. For controls, distilled water was mixed with the diet. Five toxin doses 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 ug / ml and one control were used for each instars of H. armigera 20 larvae were used in each replication and each treatment is replicated four times. LC50 of Cry1Ac against neonate, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of H. armigera were 0.34, 0.81 and 1.46 ug / ml. So Cry1Ac is more effective against neonate larvae of H .armigera as compared to 2nd and 3rd instar larvae under laboratory conditions.

Keywords: Toxicity, B. thuringiensis, Cry1Ac, H. armigera

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952 A Next Generation Multi-Scale Modeling Theatre for in silico Oncology

Authors: Waleed Ahmed, Muhammad Ahmad, Muhammad Tariq, Bilal Wajid, Abdul Rehman, Bibi Amina, Safee Chaudhary, Mahnoor Naseer Gondal, Hira Anees Awan, Ammar Arif, Risham Hussain, Huma Khawar, Zainab Arshad, Muhammad Faizyab Ali Chaudhary, Muhammad Umer Sultan, Salaar Khan, Muhammad Moaz Ahmad, Osama Shiraz Shah, Hadia Hameed, Muhammad Farooq Ahmad Butt, Sameer Ahmed, Fayyaz Ahmed, Omer Ishaq, Waqar Nabi, Wim Vanderbauwhede, Huma Shehwana, Amir Faisal

Abstract:

Cancer is a manifestation of multifactorial deregulations in biomolecular pathways. These deregulations arise from the complex multi-scale interplay between cellular and extracellular factors. Such multifactorial aberrations at gene, protein, and extracellular scales need to be investigated systematically towards decoding the underlying mechanisms and orchestrating therapeutic interventions for patient treatment. In this work, we propose ‘TISON’, a next-generation web-based multiscale modeling platform for clinical systems oncology. TISON’s unique modeling abstraction allows a seamless coupling of information from biomolecular networks, cell decision circuits, extra-cellular environments, and tissue geometries. The platform can undertake multiscale sensitivity analysis towards in silico biomarker identification and drug evaluation on cellular phenotypes in user-defined tissue geometries. Furthermore, integration of cancer expression databases such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Human Proteome Atlas (HPA) facilitates in the development of personalized therapeutics. TISON is the next-evolution of multiscale cancer modeling and simulation platforms and provides a ‘zero-code’ model development, simulation, and analysis environment for application in clinical settings.

Keywords: Cancer Therapeutics, Cancer Systems Biology, systems oncology, personalized therapeutics, cancer modelling

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951 Evaluation of Different Inoculation Methods of Entomopathogenic Fungi on Their Endophytism and Pathogenicity against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)

Authors: Mubashar Iqbal, Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Iqra Anjum

Abstract:

The present study was carried to screen out the effective entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) inoculation method in maize and to evaluate pathogenicity and oviposition-choice in C. partellus. Three entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) formulations Pacer® (Metarhizium anisopliae), Racer® (Beauveria bassiana) and Meailkil® (Verticillium lecanii) were evaluated at three concentrations (5000, 10000 and 20000 ppm) for their endophytism in maize and pathogenicity in C. partellus. The stock solution of the highest concentration (20,000 ppm) was prepared and next lower from stock solution. In the first experiment, three EPF was inoculated in maize plant by four methods, i.e., leaf-inoculation (LI), whorl-inoculation (WI), shoot-inoculation (SI) and root-inoculation (RI). Leaf-discs and stem-cutting were sampled in all four inoculation methods and placed on fungus growth media in Petri dishes. In the second experiment, pathogenicity, pupal formation, adult emergence, sex ratio, oviposition-choice, and growth index of C. partellus were calculated. The leaves and stem of the inoculated plants were given to the counted number of larvae of C. Partellus. The mortality of larvae was recorded on daily basis till the pupation. The result shows that maximum percent mortality (86.67%) was recorded at high concentration (20000ppm) of Beauveria bassiana by leaf inoculation method. For oviposition choice bioassay, the newly emerged adults were fed on diet (water, honey and yeast in 9:1:1) for 48 hours. One pair of C. Partellus were aspirated from the rearing cages and were detained in large test tube plugged with diet soaked cotton. A set of four plants for each treatment were prepared and randomized inside the large oviposition chamber. The test tubes were opened and fitted in the hole made in the wall of oviposition chamber in front of each treatment. The oviposition chamber was placed in a completely dark laboratory to eliminate the effect of light on moth’s behavior. The plants were removed from the oviposition chamber after the death of adults. The number of eggs deposited on the plant was counted. The results of 2nd experiment revealed that in all EPF and inoculation methods, the fecundity, egg fertility and growth index of C. partellus decreased with the increase in concentration being significantly higher at low concentration (5000ppm) and lower at higher concentration (20000ppm). Application of B. bassiana demonstrated that minimum fecundity (126.83), egg fertility (119.52) and growth index (15%) in C. partellus followed by M. anisopliae with fecundity (135.93), egg fertility (132.29) and growth index (17.50%) while V. lecanii show higher values of fecundity (137.37), egg fertility (1135.42) and growth index (20%). Overall leaf inoculation method showed least fecundity (123.89) with egg fertility (115.36) and growth index (14%) followed by whorl, shoot inoculation method and root inoculation method show higher values of fecundity, egg fertility and growth index.

Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Chilo partellus, entomopathoganic, Verticillium lecanii

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950 Male Oreochromis mossambica as Indicator for Water Pollution with Trace Elements in Relation to Condition Factor from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Ashraf, Syed M. Moeen-ud-Din Raheel, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Naeem Qaisar, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Zubair Ahmed

Abstract:

Iron, Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium levels were estimated to study the risk of trace elements on human consumption. The area of collection was Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan and was evaluated by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The standards find in favor of the six heavy metals were in accordance with the threshold edge concentrations on behalf of fish meat obligatory by European and other international normative. Regressions were achieved for both size (length and weight) and condition factor with concentrations of metal present in the fish body.

Keywords: body size, condition factor, Oreochromis mossambica, toxic analysis

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949 Comparative Efficacy of Prolene and Polyester Mesh for the Repair of Abdominal Wall Defect in Pigeons (Columba livia)

Authors: Muhammad Arif Khan, Abdul Basit, Muhammad Naveed Ali, Hamad Bin Rashid, Hafiz Muhammad Arshad

Abstract:

Abdominal defects are very common in pigeons. A new technique is known as intraabdominal mesh transplant that give better protection for herniorrhaphy. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of hernia mesh. In this study, an efficacy of two synthetic hernia mesh implants viz. conventional Prolene and a lightweight mesh monofilament polyester were assessed for the abdominal wall repair in pigeons. Twenty four healthy pigeons were selected and randomly distributed into three groups, A, B and C (n=8). In all groups, experimental laparotomy was performed; thereafter, abdominal muscles and peritoneum were sutured together, while, a 2 x 2 cm defect was created in the abdominal muscles. For onlay hernioplasty, the hernia mesh (Prolene mesh: group A; Polyester mesh: group B) was implanted over the external oblique muscles of the abdomen. In group C (control), the mesh was not implanted; instead, the laparotomy incision was closed after a herniorrhaphy. Post-operative pain wound healing, adhesion formation, histopathological findings and formation of hematoma, abscess and seroma were assessed as short-term complications. Post-operatively, pain at surgical site was significantly less (P < 0.001) in group B (Polyester mesh); wound healing was also significantly better and rapid in group B (P < 0.05) than in group A (Prolene mesh). Group B (Polyester mesh) also depicted less than 25% adhesions when assessed on the basis of a Quantitative Modified Diamond scale; a Qualitative Adhesion Tenacity scale also depicted either no adhesions or flimsy adhesions (n=2) in group B (Polyester mesh), in contrast to group A (Prolene), which manifested greater adhesion formation and presence of dense adhesions requiring blunt dissection. There were observed hematoma, seroma and abscess formations in birds treated by Prolene mesh only. Conclusively, the polyester mesh proved superior to the Prolene mesh regarding lesser adhesion, better in wound healing, and no short-term follow-up complications.

Keywords: Adhesion, Mesh, polyester, prolene

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948 Managers’ Mobile Information Behavior in an Openness Paradigm Era

Authors: Abd Latif Abdul Rahman, Asmadi Mohammed Ghazali, Zuraidah Arif, Muhammad Faizal Iylia, Mohd Ghazali

Abstract:

Mobile information is a significant access point for human information activities. Theories and models of human information behavior have developed over several decades but have not yet considered the role of the user’s computing device in digital information interactions. This paper reviews the literature that leads to developing a conceptual framework of a study on the managers mobile information behavior. Based on the literature review, dimensions of mobile information behavior are identified, namely, dimension information needs, dimension information access, information retrieval and dimension of information use. The study is significant to understand the nature of librarians’ behavior in searching, retrieving and using information via the mobile device. Secondly, the study would provide suggestions about various kinds of mobile applications which organization can provide for their staff to improve their services.

Keywords: mobile devices, information behavior, Mobile Information, mobile information behavior

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947 Online Community Suitable for e-Masjid ?

Authors: Hidayah bt Rahmalan, Muhammad Faisal Ashaari, Norlizam Md Sukiban

Abstract:

The role that a mosque or masjid have applied during the life of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was magnificent. Masjid managed to gather the community in lots of ways. It was the center of the first Islamic community and nation, with greatest triumphs and tragedies. It was a place to accommodate for the community center, homeless refuge, university and mosque all rolled into one. However, the role of masjid applied today was less than the time of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was alive. The advanced technology such as the internet has a major impact to the community nowadays. For example, community online has been chosen for lots of people to maintain their relationship and suggest various events among the communities members. This study is to investigate the possibility of the role of e-Masjid in adapting the concept of community online in order to remain the role played as such as role of masjid during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). Definition and the characteristic of the online community were listed, along with the benefits of the online community. Later, discussion on the possibility of the online community to be adapted in e-Masjid.

Keywords: virtual community, Online Community, e-masjid, e-community

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946 Bio-Oil Production and Chromatographic Characterization from the Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

Authors: Arif Ferdiyanto, Fajar Hamida, Arif Hidayat

Abstract:

Oil palm empty fruit bunches, derived biomass available in Indonesia, is one of the potential biomass to produce biofuels like bio-oil due to its abundant supply and favorable physicochemical characteristics. An interesting alternative of utilising the oil palm empty fruit bunches is in the production of bio-oil by pyrolysis. Pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches to bio-oil is being considered for national energy security and environmental advantages. The aim of this study was to produce bio-oil by pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches at various temperature and observe its detailed chemical composition. The biomass was submitted to a pyrolysis in a batch reactor. Experiments were carried out at a temperature range of 450–600°C and heating rate range of 10-20°C/min. The yield of bio-oil was found to be maximum at the temperature of 600°C. The bio-oils detailed compositions were investigated using FTIR and GC-MS. The bio-char produced as a co-product can be a potential soil amendment with multiple benefits including soil fertility and for solid fuel applications that also contributes to the preservation of the environment. The present investigation suggests the suitability of oil palm empty fruit bunches as a potential feedstock for exploitation of energy and biomaterials through pyrolysis process.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, pyrolysis, Bio-Oil, oil palm empty fruit bunches

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945 Antiprotozoal Activity of Peganum harmala against Babesiosis in Cattle

Authors: Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Mustafa Jafar, Syed Ashar Mahfooz, Muhammad Ejaz Saleem, Muhammad Asif Raza, Asghar Abbas, Muhammad Kasib Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq

Abstract:

The Babesia gradually attained resistance against the synthetic medicines. To overcome the drug resistance, herbal therapy has gained more attention as compared to allopathic therapy. Peganumharmala (harmal) is a plant which has shown effective results against various protozoal diseases. Therefore, the present study was planned to monitor the efficacy of Peganumharmala (aqueous extract) against Babesiosis in cattle. For this purpose, a total of forty (n=40) infected animals were randomly divided into four equal groups (A, B, C, and D). Group A was treated with aqueous extract of Peganum harmala at 7.5 mg/kg, group B at 10 mg/kg and group C at 12.5 mg/kg of body weight. Group D served as a control group (normal). It was observed that there was a stabilization in hematological parameters (white and red blood cells, hemoglobin and Packed cell volume) in infected animals treated with Peganum harmala at different doses. Results of this study hence indicated that Peganum harmala extract at 12.5mg/kg BW is more effective against Babesiosis than lower doses.

Keywords: Control, Cattle, Peganum harmala, Babesiosis

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944 Impact of ‎Foliar ‎Formulations of Macro and Micro Nutrients on ‎the ‎Tritrophic Association of Wheat Aphid ‎and Entomophagous Insects

Authors: Muhammad Sufyan, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad J. Arif, Usman Shoukat

Abstract:

In Pakistan, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is seriously attacked by the wheat ‎aphid. Naturally, bio control agents play an important role in managing wheat aphid. However, association ‎among pest, natural enemies and host plant is highly affected by food resource ‎concentration and predator/parasitoid factor of any ecosystem. The present ‎study was conducted to estimate the effect of different dose levels of macro ‎and micronutrients on the aphid population and its entomophagous insect ‎on wheat and their tri-trophic association. The experiment was laid out in ‎RCBD with six different combinations of macro and micronutrients and a control treatment. The data was initiated from the second week of ‎the February till the maturity of the crop. Data regarding aphid population and ‎coccinellids counts were collected on weekly basis and subjected to analysis of ‎variance and mean comparison. The data revealed that aphid ‎population was at peak in the last week of March. Coccinellids population ‎increased side by side with aphid population and declined after second week of ‎April. Aphid parasitism was maximum 25% on recommended dose of Double and ‎Flasher and minimum 8.67% on control treatment. Maximum aphid population was observed on first April with 687.2 specimens. However, this maximum population was shown against the application of Double + Flasher treatment. The minimum aphid population was recorded after the application of HiK Gold + Flasher recommended dose on 15th April. The coccinellids population was at peak level at on 8th April and against the treatment double recommended dose of HiK gold + Flasher. Amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium percentage dry leaves ‎components was maximum (2.33, 0.18 and 2.62 % dry leaves. respectively) in ‎plots treated with recommended double dose mixture of Double + Flasher and ‎Hi-K Gold + Flasher while it was minimum (1.43, 0.12 and 1.77 dry leaves ‎respectively) in plots where no nutrients applied. The result revealed that maximum parasitism was at recommended level of micro and macro nutrients application.‎ Maximum micro nutrients zinc, copper, manganese, iron and boron found with values 46.67 ppm, 21.81 ppm, 62.35 ppm, 152.69 ppm and 36.78 respectively. The result also showed that Over application of macro and micro nutrients should be avoided because it do not help in pest control, conversely it may cause stress on plant. The treatment Double and Flasher recommended dose ratio is almost comparable with recommended dose and present studies confirm its usefulness on wheat.

Keywords: entomophagous insects, macro and micro nutrients, tri-trophic, wheat aphid

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943 The Importance of Political Advice in Islam: Hadith Thematical Study

Authors: Nurzarimah Jamil, Mohd Nazaruddin Jamil

Abstract:

This paper is a preliminary study about The Importance of Political Advice in Islam: Ḥadīth Thematical Study by showing the concept and proper ways to advice to politician based on hadith Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The unique of political advice in Islam that Muslim already have the strong and fulfil example that can be apply in nowadays governance that is the way of political and leadership Prophet Muhammad show in his time. As a political leader, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) established a great state whose capital was Madinah. However, his real political leadership was in the realm of morality and spirituality in which he conducted himself perfectly in situations of weakness as well as strength. His way of dealing in Makkah and Madinah indicates his great political leadership. Based on fact nowadays some of the country not practicing the proper way to advice to rulers or governance that make a lot of madness around them. This paper also aims the concept and the proper way that can be following to all Muslim to advising by the politeness, justice and kindness.

Keywords: Leadership, Hadith, political advice, Prophet Muhammad

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942 Muhammad`s Vision of Interaction with Supernatural Beings According to the Hadith in Comparison to Parallels of Other Cultures

Authors: Vladimir A. Rozov

Abstract:

Comparative studies of religion and ritual could contribute better understanding of human culture universalities. Belief in supernatural beings seems to be a common feature of the religion. A significant part of the Islamic concepts that concern supernatural beings is based on a tradition based on the Hadiths. They reflect, among other things, his ideas about a proper way to interact with supernatural beings. These ideas to a large extent follow from the pre-Islamic religious experience of the Arabs and had been reflected in a number of ritual actions. Some of those beliefs concern a particular function of clothing. For example, it is known that Muhammad was wrapped in clothes during the revelation of the Quran. The same thing was performed by pre-Islamic soothsayers (kāhin) and by rival opponents of Muhammad during their trances. Muhammad also turned the clothes inside out during religious rituals (prayer for rain). Besides these specific ways of clothing which prove the external similarity of Muhammad with the soothsayers and other people who claimed the connection with supernatural forces, the pre-Islamic soothsayers had another characteristic feature which is physical flaws. In this regard, it is worth to note Muhammad's so-called "Seal the Prophecy" (h̠ ātam an- nubūwwa) -protrusion or outgrowth on his back. Another interesting feature of Muhammad's behavior was his attitude to eating onion and garlic. In particular, the Prophet didn`t eat them and forbade people who had tasted these vegetables to enter mosques, until the smell ceases to be felt. The reason for this ban on eating onion and garlic is caused by a belief that the smell of these products prevents communication with otherworldly forces. The materials of the Hadith also suggest that Muhammad shared faith in the apotropical properties of water. Both of these ideas have parallels in other cultures of the world. Muhammad's actions supposed to provide an interaction with the supernatural beings are not accidental. They have parallels in the culture of pre-Islamic Arabia as well as in many past and present world cultures. The latter fact can be explained by the similarity of the universal human beliefs in supernatural beings and how they should be interacted with. Later a number of similar ideas shared by the Prophet Muhammad was legitimized by the Islamic tradition and formed the basis of popular Islamic rituals. Thus, these parallels emphasize the commonality of human notions of supernatural beings and also demonstrate the significance of the pre-Islamic cultural context in analyzing the genesis of Islamic religious beliefs.

Keywords: Hadith, ritual, Prophet Muhammad, supernatural beings

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941 Geospatial Techniques and VHR Imagery Use for Identification and Classification of Slums in Gujrat City, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Ameer Nawaz Akram

Abstract:

The 21st century has been revealed that many individuals around the world are living in urban settlements than in rural zones. The evolution of numerous cities in emerging and newly developed countries is accompanied by the rise of slums. The precise definition of a slum varies countries to countries, but the universal harmony is that slums are dilapidated settlements facing severe poverty and have lacked access to sanitation, water, electricity, good living styles, and land tenure. The slum settlements always vary in unique patterns within and among the countries and cities. The core objective of this study is the spatial identification and classification of slums in Gujrat city Pakistan from very high-resolution GeoEye-1 (0.41m) satellite imagery. Slums were first identified using GPS for sample site identification and ground-truthing; through this process, 425 slums were identified. Then Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA) was applied to classify slums on digital image. Spatial analysis softwares, e.g., ArcGIS 10.3, Erdas Imagine 9.3, and Envi 5.1, were used for processing data and performing the analysis. Results show that OOA provides up to 90% accuracy for the identification of slums. Jalal Cheema and Allah Ho colonies are severely affected by slum settlements. The ratio of criminal activities is also higher here than in other areas. Slums are increasing with the passage of time in urban areas, and they will be like a hazardous problem in coming future. So now, the executive bodies need to make effective policies and move towards the amelioration process of the city.

Keywords: GPS, Satellite Imagery, slums, object oriented analysis, zonal change detection

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940 Seersucker Fabrics Development Using Single Warp Beam

Authors: Yasir Nawab, Muhammad Maqsood, Muhammad Umair, Khubab Shaker, Muhammad Usman Javed

Abstract:

Seersucker is a thin and puckered fabric commonly striped or chequered, used to make clothing for spring and woven in such a way that some threads bunch together, giving the fabric a wrinkled appearance in places. Due to use of two warp beams, such fabrics were not possible to weave on conventional weaving machines. Objective of this study was to weave a seersucker fabric on conventional looms using single warp beam. This objective was achieved using two types of yarns, forming stripes in weft: one being 100% cotton yarn and the other core spun elastane yarn with sheath of cotton (95.7% cotton and 4.3% elastane). Stress-strain behaviour of the produced fabric samples were tested and explained.

Keywords: Weaving, seersucker fabrics, elastane yarns, single warp beam

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939 Sustainable Improvement in Soil Properties and Maize Performance by Organic Fertilizers at Different Levels

Authors: Shahid Iqbal, Haroon Z. Khan, Muhammad Arif

Abstract:

A sustainable agricultural system involving the improvement in soil properties and crop performance cannot be developed without organic fertilizer use. The effects of poultry manure compost (PMC) and pressmud compost (PrMC) at different levels on improving the soil properties and maize performance has not been yet described by any study comprehensively. Thus, field experiments (2011 and 2012) were conducted at Agronomy Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad (31°26'5" N and 73°4'6" E) in sandy loam soil to determine the improvement in soil properties and maize performance due to application of PMC and PrMC each at five different levels (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 t ha-1). A control (unamended) treatment was also included for comparison. The results indicated that performance of PMC levels was superior to PrMC levels. Increasing both composts levels improved soil properties, maize growth, and stover yield. Results showed that during both years’ highest rates of PMC i.e. 10 and 8 t ha-1 improved the soil properties: ECe, pH, inorganic N, OM, and WHC higher than other treatments. While, 10 and 8 t PMC ha-1 also significantly increased leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR), and stover yield. Similarly, 10 and 8 t PMC ha-1 also improved the grain protein content, but contrarily, grain oil was lowest for 10 and 8 t ha-1 PMC during both years. Moreover, in both years highest gross and net income, and benefit cost ratio was also achieved by 10 and 8 t ha-1 PMC. It is concluded that PMC at rate of 10 and 8 t ha-1 sustainably improved soil properties and maize performance.

Keywords: Growth, Soil, Yield, compost, maize

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938 Petrography and Mineral Chemical Study of Younger Quartzofeldspathic Bodies in Chakdara Granite Gneiss, Northwest Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Arif, Natasha Khan

Abstract:

The Chakdara granite gneiss is an extension of Swat granite gneisses. It is characterized by biotite bands and the occurrence of fluorite and blue beryl. Younger phases (quartzofeldspathic veins) occur within gneisses are characterized by various mineral phases that include beryl, biotite, phlogopite, annite, muscovite, ilmenite-pyrophanite, monazite, zircon, apatite, magnetite and minor amounts of sphene, rutile, and ulvöspinel. The present paper is an attempt to address the detailed mineral chemistry and genesis of minerals occurring in these younger phases. These quartzofeldspathic veins are assumed to be of hydrothermal origin on the basis of Th2O content in monazite, Zr/Hf ratio in zircon, REE enrichment, and Ce/Y ratio of allanite. Biotite in the present study is characterized by high F content. Muscovite is phengitic and contains very high amounts of Fe as compared to the normal muscovites. The Th2O content for monazite is low (0.81-1.56 wt. %) like those of hydrothermal origin. The Zr/Hf ratio in zircon is variable for different analyses but mostly falls in the range of ~ 41 and above. Allanite is generally unaltered and characterized by LREE enrichment. The properties of beryl and columbite in the present study show pegmatitic features.

Keywords: Beryl, Chakdarra granite gneiss, micas, quartzofeldspathic veins

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937 Urgency of Islamic Economic System Implementation in Indonesian Banking

Authors: Muhammad Rifqi Hafizhudin Arif, Mukhamad Zulfal Faradis, Ahmad Hidayatullah

Abstract:

Indonesia is the country that uses conventional financial system adopted from European countries as a form of finance in the national banking system. Many of the derivative products of conventional banks either investment, buy and sell, saving and loan, which is not in accordance with Islamic Ethics. While the majority population in Indonesia are belief in Islam, which Islam has had financial management guide is written in the Quran, the Hadith, as well as the opinions of experts who strongly prohibits the use of interest in each transaction activities. Many different expert opinions on the application of the Islamic financial system in Indonesia. However, as the majority of the population of Indonesia, Islamic community have not been able to get the opportunities to choose the Islamic financial system that has mutual benefit between consumers and banks, particularly fairness in transactions, ethical investment, uphold the values of solidarity and brotherhood in every transaction activities, and avoid speculation. In this paper, we will discuss the reasons for the importance of providing an option for Islamic community as the majority of the population of Indonesia to use the banking system which adopted the Islamic ethical values that have been much discussed by other researchers in various countries. The existence of this research is expected to Government, academia and the general public aware of the urgency of Islamic economic system implementation in Indonesian banking as the solution and justice especially for the Islamic community to use the values which they held.

Keywords: Banking, Islamic Economic System, conventional system, Islamic value

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
936 Physiological and Biochemical Based Analysis to Assess the Efficacy of Mulch under Partial Root Zone Drying in Wheat

Authors: Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Salman Ahmad, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Rashid Iqbal, Imran Haider, Muhammad Usman Aslam, Muhammad Adnan Nazar

Abstract:

Among the various abiotic stresses, drought stress is one of the most challenging for field crops. Wheat is one of the major staple food of the world, which is highly affected by water deficit stress in the current scenario of climate change. In order to ensure food security by depleting water resources, there is an urgent need to adopt technologies which result in sufficient crop yield with less water consumption. Mulching and partial rootzone drying (PRD) are two important management techniques used for water conservation and to mitigate the negative impacts of drought. The experiment was conducted to screen out the best-suited mulch for wheat under PRD system. Two water application techniques (I1= full irrigation I2= PRD irrigation) and four mulch treatments (M0= un-mulched, M1= black plastic mulch, M2= wheat straw mulch and M4= cotton sticks mulch) were conducted in completely randomized design with four replications. The treatment, black plastic mulch was performed the best than other mulch treatments. For irrigation levels, higher values of growth, physiological and water-related parameters were recorded in control treatment while, quality traits and enzymatic activities were higher under partial root zone drying. The current study concluded that adverse effects of drought on wheat can be significantly mitigated by using mulches but black plastic mulch was best suited for partial rootzone drying irrigation system in wheat.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, Antioxidants, osmolytes, partial root zone drying, leaf water relations, Mulches

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935 Assesment of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Euginol with Carnauba Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashir Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Waqas Amjad, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq

Abstract:

Present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of methyl eugenol with Carnauba wax in orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Carnauba wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFCN-9 trapped 35.3 flies/day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 50.35%, proved strongly attractive SRFCN for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (Attractive Index > 50%). The SRFCN-1, SRFCN-2, SRFCN-3, SRFCN-4, SRFCN-5, SRFCN-6, SRFCN-7 and SRFCN-8 trapped 2.0, 5.3, 3.3, 4.0, 5.7, 12.0, 9.7 and 14.3 flies/day/trap respectively exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of -70.73%, -37.25%, -55.55%, -48.93%, -34.61%, 1.40%, -9.37% and 10.25% Attractive Index respectively, proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (Attractive Index < 11%). Results revealed that the Slow-Released Formulation containing 10% Carnauba wax with 90% methyl eugenol trapped maximum number of flies of over 30 days.

Keywords: Bactrocera zonata, slow-released formulation, methyl euginol, Carnauba wax

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934 Quantification of Pollution Loads for the Rehabilitation of Pusu River

Authors: Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Abdullah Al-Mamun, Md. Nuruzzaman, Md. Noor Salleh, Ahmad Jalal Khan Chowdhury, Mohd. Zaki M. Amin, Norlida Mohd. Dom

Abstract:

Identification of pollution sources and determination of pollution loads from all areas are very important for sustainable rehabilitation of any contaminated river. Pusu is a small river which, flows through the main campus of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) at Gombak. Poor aesthetics of the river, which is flowing through the entrance of the campus, gives negative impression to the local and international visitors. As such, this study is being conducted to find ways to rehabilitate the river in a sustainable manner. The point and non-point pollution sources of the river basin are identified. Upper part of the 12.6 km2 river basin is covered with secondary forest. However, it is the lower-middle reaches of the river basin which is being cleared for residential development and source of high sediment load. Flow and concentrations of the common pollutants, important for a healthy river, such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Suspended Solids (SS), Turbidity, pH, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (AN), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) are determined. Annual pollution loading to the river was calculated based on the primary and secondary data. Concentrations of SS were high during the rainy day due to contribution from the non-point sources. There are 7 ponds along the river system within the campus, which are severely affected by high sediment load from the land clearing activities. On the other hand, concentrations of other pollutants were high during the non-rainy days. The main sources of point pollution are the hostels, cafeterias, sewage treatment plants located in the campus. Therefore, both pollution sources need to be controlled in order to rehabilitate the river in a sustainable manner.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, River Pollution, point pollution source, non-point pollution sources, pollution loading

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933 The Role of Islam in the Political Thought of Muhammad Abduh

Authors: Mehdi Beyad

Abstract:

Muhammad Abduh stands as a founding thinker of Islamic revivalism and modernism, the political phenomenon which began with him and Jamal al-Din al-Afghani in the 19th century which sought to address the perceived regression of Islamic societies in the face of western colonialism and the onslaught of modernity. The scholarship on Abduh and al-Afghani, and Islamic modernism in general, is vast. This paper, however, provides a critical approach to some of this scholarship and attempts to re-think the epistemic framework of Abduh's political thought and the place of Islam therein. Much of the current work on Abduh falls into the trap of seeing his task as one of "compromising" Islam for the values of European modernity. This paper argues that for Abduh, Islam was not just a compartmentalised theological framework: it was at the nexus of societal emancipation, intellectual and cultural rejuvenation, and political progress. Far from “modernising” and diluting Islam to the extent that it became irrelevant in the face of rationality as defined by European modernity, Islam remained central to Abduh’s political framework.

Keywords: Epistemology, Modernism, Islamic Revivalism, Islamic political thought, Muhammad Abduh

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932 Physician and Theologian: An Analysis of Ibn Rabban’s Approach on Sīra Nabawiyya

Authors: Ahmad Sanusi Azmi, Amiruddin Mohd Sobali, Zulhilmi Mohamed Nor, Mohd Yusuf Ismail, Amran Abdul Halim

Abstract:

The non-Muslim communities’ reactions to the denials of the prophethood of Muḥammad in the ninth century created an impact on the development of Islamic prophetology. Vigorous refutations from non-Muslim community, specifically the Jews, Christians and Brahmins urged Muslims to develop a solid mechanism in defense of the status of their beloved prophet. One of the works that has been recognized as an apparatus to defend the Prophet Muḥammad veracity is al-Dīn wa al-Dawla composed by Ibn Rabban, a physician of the Caliph’s court. This study analyses the novelty of his approaches in exploring Sīra Nabawiyya and defending the prophethood of Muḥammad. The study employed a descriptive, comparative and critical approach where it analyses and extracts the author original approach in explaining the legitimacy of Muḥammad’s prophethood and enlightening the Prophet’s biography. The study in its finding argues that most of Ibn Rabban arguments in this work are actually developed from the foundations of Biblical scripture. His style of interpreting Biblical passages indicates a possible dependence on Ibn al-Layth’s letter. However, the way in which he presents Qur’ānic references seems not to be in accordance with Ibn al-Layth’s perspective. This is where the novelty of his approach is distinguished. As a result, the study also affirms that Ibn Rabban imposes his own standards of selection and interpretation of Qur’ānic verses when he applies it as reference to the Prophet life.

Keywords: Christian, Sīra Nabawiyya, Ibn Rabban, al-Dīn wa al-Dawla, Dalāil Nubuwwa

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
931 Investigating the Significance of Ground Covers and Partial Root Zone Drying Irrigation for Water Conservation Weed Suppression and Quality Traits of Wheat

Authors: Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Salman Ahmad, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Rashid Iqbal, Imran Haider, Muhammad Usman Aslam, Muhammad Adnan Nazar

Abstract:

One of the main negative effects of climate change is the increasing scarcity of water worldwide, especially for irrigation purpose. In order to ensure food security with less available water, there is a need to adopt easy and economic techniques. Two of the effective techniques are; use of ground covers and partial root zone drying (PRD). A field experiment was arranged to find out the most suitable mulch for PRD irrigation system in wheat. The experiment was comprised of two irrigation methods (I0 = irrigation on both sides of roots and I1= irrigation to only one side of the root as alternate irrigation) and four ground covers (M0= open ground without any cover, M1= black plastic cover, M2= wheat straw cover and M4= cotton sticks cover). More plant height, spike length, number of spikelets and number of grains were found in full irrigation treatment. While water use efficiency and grain nutrient (NPK) contents were more in PRD irrigation. All soil covers suppress the weeds and significantly influenced the yield attributes, final yield as well as the grain nutrient contents. However black plastic cover performed the best. It was concluded that joint use of both techniques was more effective for water conservation and increasing grain yield than their sole application and combination of PRD with black plastic mulch performed the best than other ground covers combination used in the experiment.

Keywords: grain yield, quality traits, partial root zone drying, ground covers, WUE, weed control efficiency

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930 Overcoming 4-to-1 Decryption Failure of the Rabin Cryptosystem

Authors: Muhammad Rezal Kamel Ariffin, Muhammad Asyraf Asbullah

Abstract:

The square root modulo problem is a known primitive in designing an asymmetric cryptosystem. It was first attempted by Rabin. Decryption failure of the Rabin cryptosystem caused by the 4-to-1 decryption output is overcome efficiently in this work. The proposed scheme to overcome the decryption failure issue (known as the AAβ-cryptosystem) is constructed using a simple mathematical structure, it has low computational requirements and would enable communication devices with low computing power to deploy secure communication procedures efficiently.

Keywords: Rabin cryptosystem, square root modulo problem, integer factorization problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
929 Effect of Varying Diets on Growth, Development and Survival of Queen Bee (Apis mellifera L.) in Captivity

Authors: Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel, Zaighum Abbas, Mubasshir Sohail, Muhammad Abubakar, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Sami Ullah

Abstract:

Keeping in view the increasing demand, queen of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was reared artificially in this experiment at varying diets including royal jelly. Larval duration, pupal duration, weight, and size of pupae were evaluated at different diets including royal jelly. Queen larvae were raised by Doo Little grafting method. Four different diets were mixed with royal jelly and applied to larvae. Fructose, sugar, yeast, and honey were provided to rearing queen larvae along with same amount of royal jelly. Larval and pupal duration were longest (6.15 and 7.5 days, respectively) at yeast and shortest on honey (5.05 and 7.02 days, respectively). Heavier and bigger pupae were recorded on yeast (168.14 mg and 1.76 cm, respectively) followed by diets having sugar and honey. Due to production of heavier and bigger pupae, yeast was considered as best artificial diet for the growing queen larvae. So, in the second part of experiment, different amounts of yeast were provided to growing larvae along with fixed amount (0.5 g) of royal jelly. Survival rates of the larvae and queen bee were 70% and 40% in the 4-g food, 86.7% and 53.3% in the 6-g food, and 76.7% and 50% in the 8-g food. Weight of adult queen bee (1.459±0.191 g) and the number of ovarioles (41.7±21.3) were highest at 8 g of food. Results of this study are helpful for bee-keepers in producing fitter queen bees.

Keywords: apis melifera l, dietary effect, survival and development, honey bee queen

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928 Evaluating Effects of Health and Physical Maintenance on Academic Competencies of University Teachers in Pakistan

Authors: Asif Ali, Muhammad Badar Habib, Muhammad Shakir, Muhammad Zia ul Haq

Abstract:

Purpose of the research is to examine the university teachers’ health and physical activities regarding their academic competencies. Major objectives of this piece research were (a) to identify health problems of teachers at university level that affects academic competencies of university teachers and (b) to evaluate educational betterment through physical balance. This research is descriptive in nature and questionnaire was used as source of collecting data. Population of the present research comprises teachers, professors and professionals teaching in the universities of Pakistan. 580 university teachers were selected as a population of the study. Random sampling technique was used to identify recipients. Data was feed and filter in Ms-Excel. In the light of the analysis of the study following findings were drawn out. This study found that the university teachers in Pakistan do not adopt proper physical exercise program. They were less interested to burn their extra calories and face diseases such as cramping, contraction of the muscles, diabetics and stomach diseases. This study recommends that seminars/workshops may be held by University establishment; to develop overall awareness among the teachers.

Keywords: Pakistan, evaluating effects of health and physical maintenance, academic competencies, university teachers

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
927 Prevalence and Pattern of Modern Contraceptive Use among Chittagong City Slum Dwellers in Bangladesh

Authors: Tahera Begum, Sabina Yeasmin, Jalal Uddin

Abstract:

Ten slums of ten wards of Chittagong city corporation of Bangladesh were conveniently selected to know about modern contraceptive use by the slum dwellers. Total 300 family heads or their wives were interviewed with a questionnaire in February 2014. Family size was 4.62. Among 300 families 248 eligible couples were found. 57% eligible couples use different modern contraceptive measures. Remaining 43% eligible couples do not use modern contraceptive measures. Among the users 58% use oral pill, 30% injectables, 8% use condom, 3% were found with ligation and only 1% with vasectomy. Contraceptive prevalence rate has been increased and pattern as changed. A discussion is made with literature review.

Keywords: Family, Bangladesh, conraceptive, pill

Procedia PDF Downloads 280