Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 256

Search results for: antioxidants

256 Future Trends in Sources of Natural Antioxidants from Indigenous Foods

Authors: Ahmed El-Ghorab

Abstract:

Indigenous foods are promising sources of various chemical bioactive compounds such as vitamins, phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Therefore, the presence o different bioactive compounds in fruits could be used to retard or prevent various diseases such as cardiovascular and cancer. This is an update report on nutritional compositions and health promoting phytochemicals of different indigenous food . This different type of fruits and/ or other sources such as spices, aromatic plants, grains by-products, which containing bioactive compounds might be used as functional foods or for nutraceutical purposes. most common bioactive compounds are vitamin C, polyphenol, β- carotene and lycopene contents. In recent years, there has been a global trend toward the use of natural phytochemical as antioxidants and functional ingredients, which are present in natural resources such as vegetables, fruits, oilseeds and herbs.. Our future trend the Use of Natural antioxidants as a promising alternative to use of synthetic antioxidants and the Production of natural antioxidant on commercial scale to maximize the value addition of indigenous food waste as a good source of bioactive compounds such as antioxidants.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, antioxidants, by-product, indigenous foods, phenolic compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
255 Gethuk Marillo: The New Product Development of Anti-Cancer Snacks Utilizing Xanthones and Anthocyanin in Mangosteen Pericarp and Tamarillo Fruit

Authors: Desi Meriyanti, Delina Puspa Rosana Firdaus, Ristia Rinati

Abstract:

Nowadays, the presence of free radicals become a big concern due to its negative impact to the body, which can triggers the formation of degenerative diseases such as cancer, heart disease cardiovascular, diabetic mellitus and others. Free radical oxidation can be prevented by the presence of antioxidants. Naturally, the human body produces its own antioxidants. Because of the free radicals exposure are so intense, especially from the environment, it is necessary to supply antioxidants needed from outside, through the consumption of functional foods with high antioxidant content. Gethuk is one of the traditional snacks in Indonesia. Gethuk is made from cassava with minimal processing such as boiling, destructing, and forming. Gethuk is classified as a familiar snack in the community, so it has a potential for developing, especially into a functional food. The low content of antioxidants in gethuk can be overcome with the development of a product called Gethuk Marillo. Gethuk Marillo is gethuk with the addition of natural antioxidants from mangosteen pericarp extract which has a high content of xanthones, these compounds are classified into flavonoids and act as antioxidants in the body. Gethuk Marillo served along with tamarillo fruit sauce which is also high in antioxidants such as anthocyanin. The combination between 300 grams gethuk Marillo and sauce contain flavonoid about 31% of human antioxidant needs per day. Gethuk Marillo called as a functional food because of high flavonoids content which can prevent degenerative diseases namely cancer, as many studies that the xanthone and anthocyanins compounds can effectively prevent the formation of cancer cells in human body.

Keywords: Gethuk marillo, xanthones, anthocyanin, high antioxidants, anti-cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 568
254 Extraction and Identification of Natural Antioxidants from Liquorices (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) and Its Application in El-Mewled El-Nabawy Sweets (Sesames and Folia)

Authors: Mervet A. El-sherif, Ginat M El-sherif, Kadry H Tolba

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The objective of this study was to determine, identify and investigate the effects of natural antioxidants of licorice and carob. Besides, their effects as powder and antioxidant extracts addition on refined sunflower oil stability as natural antioxidants were evaluated. Total polyphenol contents as total phenols, total carotenoids and total tannins were 353.93mg/100g (gallic acid), 10.62mg/100g (carotenoids) and 83.33mg/100g (tannic acid), respectively in licorice, while in carob, it was 186.07, 18.66 and 106.67, respectively. Polyphenol compounds of the studied licorice and carob extracts were determined and identified by HPLC. The stability of refined sunflower oil (which determined by peroxide value and Rancimat) was increased with increasing the level of polyphenols extracts addition. Also, our study shows the effect of addition of these polyphenols extracts to El-mewled El-nabawy sweets fortified by full cream milk powder (sesames and folia). We found that, licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts were delayed the rancidity of sesame and peanut significantly. That encourages using licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts as a good natural antioxidants source instead of synthetic antioxidants.

Keywords: licorice, carob, natural antioxidants, antioxidant activity, applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
253 The Effect of Irgafos 168 in the Thermostabilization of High Density Polyethylene

Authors: Mahdi Almaky

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The thermostabilization of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is realized through the action of primary antioxidant such as phenolic antioxidants and secondary antioxidants as aryl phosphates. The efficiency of two secondary antioxidants, commercially named Irgafos 168 and Weston 399, was investigated using different physical, mechanical, spectroscopic, and calorimetric methods. The effect of both antioxidants on the processing stability and long term stability of HDPE produced in Ras Lanuf oil and gas processing Company were measured and compared. The combination of Irgafos 168 with Irganox 1010, as used in smaller concentration, results in a synergetic effect against thermo-oxidation and protect better than the combination of Weston 399 with Irganox 1010 against the colour change at processing temperature and during long term oxidation process.

Keywords: thermostabilization, high density polyethylene, primary antioxidant, phenolic antioxidant, Irgafos 168, Irganox 1010, Weston 399

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
252 The Effect of 6 Weeks Endurance Swimming Training on Blood Glucose and Cardiac Tissue Antioxidants in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Kh. Dehkordi, R. Sharifi Gholam, S. Arshadi

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Objective: Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and possibly causes various forms of tissue damage inpatients with diabetes. Antioxidants defend against the harmful effect of free radicals, which are associated with heart disease, cancer, arthritis, aging and many other diseases1). Antioxidants are very stable molecules capable of neutralizing free radicals by donating an electron to them.The aim of this study was to examine the effect of swimming training, fenugreek seed extract and glibenclamide on plasma glucose and cardiac antioxidants activity in diabetic rats. Design: For this purpose, fifty male wistar rats were divided into five groups, two groups of control rats (diabetic control [DC] and healthy control [HC]), one group of endurance swimming training (EST), one group of fenugreek seed extract highdose (F1, 1.74 g/kg b.w), one group of fenugreek seed extract middle dose (F2, 0.87 g/kg b.w), one group of glibenclamide (G, 0.5 mg/kg b.w). Materials and Methods: Diabetes induced by streptozotocine (STZ), data was analyzed using the one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey test. Significance level was 0.05. Results: All of the groups' exception of HC showed significant decrease in body weight (P < 0.05), but the diabetic control and swimming training group exhibited a more decrease. All of the groups have shown a significant decrease in plasma glucose than DC group (P < 0.05) but this reduction was more in G group than DC no HC group. S, G and HC groups have shown significant increase in cardiac antioxidant than DC group (P < 0.05) but there wasn't significant difference in other groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The present results indicate that regular swimming training lead to decrease in plasma glucose and enhanced cardiac antioxidants in diabetic rats.

Keywords: swimming, glucose, cardiac, antioxidants

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251 The Correlation of Total Phenol Content with Free Radicals Scavenging Activity and Effect of Ethanol Concentration in Extraction Process of Mangosteen Rind (Garcinia mangostana)

Authors: Ririn Lestari Sri Rahayu, Mustofa Ahda

Abstract:

The use of synthetic antioxidants often causes a negative effect on health and increases the incidence of carcinogenesis. Development of the natural antioxidants should be investigated. However, natural antioxidants have a low toxicity and are safe for human consumption. Ethanol extract of mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana) contains natural antioxidant compounds that have various pharmacological activities. Antioxidants from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind have free radicals scavenging activities. The scavenging activity of ethanol extract of mangosteen rind was determined by DPPH method. The phenolic compound from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind is determined with Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results showed that the absolute ethanol extract of mangosteen rind has IC50 of 40.072 ug/mL. The correlation of total phenols content with free radical scavenging activity has an equation y: 5.207x + 205.51 and determination value (R2) of 0.9329. Total phenols content from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind has a good correlation with free radicals scavenging activity of DPPH.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Garcinia mangostana, Inhibition concentration 50%, Phenolic.

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250 Comparative Study in Evaluating the Antioxidation Efficiency for Native Types Antioxidants Extracted from Crude Oil with the Synthesized Class

Authors: Mohammad Jamil Abd AlGhani

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The natural native antioxidants N,N-P-methyl phenyl acetone and N,N-phenyl acetone were isolated from the Iraqi crude oil region of Kirkuk by ion exchange and their structure was characterized by spectral and chemical analysis methods. Tetraline was used as a liquid hydrocarbon to detect the efficiency of isolated molecules at elevated temperature (393 K) that it has physicochemical specifications and structure closed to hydrocarbons fractionated from crude oil. The synthesized universal antioxidant 2,6-ditertiaryisobutyl-p-methyl phenol (Unol) with known stochiometric coefficient of inhibition equal to (2) was used as a model for comparative evaluation at the same conditions. Modified chemiluminescence method was used to find the amount of absorbed oxygen and the induction periods in and without the existence of isolated antioxidants molecules. The results of induction periods and quantity of absorbed oxygen during the oxidation process were measured by manometric installation. It was seen that at specific equal concentrations of N,N-phenyl acetone and N, N-P-methyl phenyl acetone in comparison with Unol at 393 K were with (2) and (2.5) times efficient than do Unol. It means that they had the ability to inhibit the formation of new free radicals and prevent the chain reaction to pass from the propagation to the termination step rather than decomposition of formed hydroperoxides.

Keywords: antioxidants, chemiluminescence, inhibition, Unol

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
249 Effect of Antioxidants Addition in Combination with Milk Re Pasteurization on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Condensed Yoghurt

Authors: Mahmoud Abu-Ghoush, Murad Al Holy

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Our main goal in this project is to study the causes and finding solutions for both the hydrolytic and the oxidative rancidity that can be produced during condensed yoghurt production. The re pasteurization of the pasteurized milk and the addition of different types of antioxidants (ascorbic acid and propyl gallate) were used to achieve this goal. Chemical, physical, microbial and sensory tests were done to evaluate the product. It was found that there were significant differences between the different treatments and the control regarding the peroxide value. This means that the addition of both types of antioxidants have a positive effect in decreasing the rancidity value. However, it was found that there were some samples have hydrolytic rancidity flavour without any type of oxidative rancidity (low peroxide value). To overcome this problem the re pasteurization step was used to destroy all the vegetative form of microbes. It was found that this treatment was very useful in controlling the rancidity flavour according to the sensory evaluation of the condensed yoghurt products for several batches. The best condensed yoghurt which contains 0.25% ascorbic acid exhibited the highest sensory properties values. Also, it has the ability in lowering the oxidative rancidity in the combination with the re pasteurization step of the pasteurized milk. This suggests that a higher quality and stable condensed yoghurt can be obtained upon using this combination. These results may help producers in selecting the best treatment methods to overcome the rancidity flavor in this type of condensed yoghurt.

Keywords: antioxidants, condensed yoghurt, repasturization, condensed milk

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
248 Differential Response of Cellular Antioxidants and Proteome Expression to Salt, Cadmium and Their Combination in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea)

Authors: Rita Bagheri, Javed Ahmed, Humayra Bashir, M. Irfan Qureshi

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Agriculture lands suffer from a combination of stresses such as salinity and metal contamination including cadmium at the same time. Under such condition of multiple stresses, plant may exhibit unique responses different from the stress occurring individually. Thus, it would be interesting to investigate that how plant respond to combined stress at level of antioxidants and proteome expression, and identifying the proteins which are involved in imparting stress tolerance. With an approach of comparative proteomics and antioxidant analysis, present study investigates the response of Spinacia oleracea to salt (NaCl), cadmium (Cd), and their combination (NaCl+Cd) stress. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used for resolving leaf proteome, and proteins of interest were identified using PDQuest software. A number of proteins expressed differentially, those indicated towards their roles in imparting stress tolerance, were digested by trypsin and analyzed on mass spectrometer for peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). Data signals were then matched with protein databases using MASCOT. Results show that NaCl, Cd and both together (NaCl+Cd) induce oxidative stress which was highest in combined stress of Cd+NaCl. Correspondingly, the activities of enzymatic antioxidants viz., SOD, APX, GR and CAT, and non-enzymatic antioxidants had highest changes under combined stress compares to single stress over their respective controls. Among the identified proteins, several interesting proteins were identified that may be have role in Spinacia oleracia tolerance in individual and combinatorial stress of salt and cadmium. The functional classification of identified proteins indicates the importance and necessity of keeping higher ratio of defence and disease responsive proteins.

Keywords: Spinacia oleracea, Cd, salinity, proteomics, antioxidants, combinatorial stress

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247 Production of Date Juice Infused with Natural Antioxidants from Qatari Herbs

Authors: Tahra ElObeid, Noura Al-Wahiemed, Jawaher Al-shammari, Wedad Al-Asmar

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The aim of this study is to utilize Qatari raw materials in the production of a date juice high in antioxidants. The antioxidants were extracted from five Qatari herbs: Caspian manna, Tetraena mongolica, Capparis spinosa, Ziziphus Vulgaris and Lycium shawii. The date juice was prepared in the lab and was infused with the polyphenolic extracts from the 5 different Qatari herbs. The date juice was then infused with the antioxidant containing the highest antioxidant activity and was within the acceptable range in sensory evaluation scale. The phenolic content for Lycium shawii, Alhagi maurorum, Ziziphus Vulgaris, Capparis spinosa and Tetraena mongolica was 4294 ppm, 3843 ppm, 804.59 ppm, 189.14 ppm and 226 ppm respectively, whereas their antioxidant capacity of was 6.21 %, 45.27 %, 69.81 %, 2.96 % and 8.63 % respectively. The highest antioxidant capacity was found in Ziziphus Vulgaris 69.8 % and the highest phenolic content was found in Lycium shawii 4294 ppm. Alhagi maurorum, Tetraena mongolica and Lycium shawii showed good results in terms of taste and aroma however Ziziphus Vulgaris exhibited bitter flavor. Alhagi maurorum antioxidant extract was used to be added to the date juice due to its high phenolic content, high antioxidant capacity, good taste and aroma.

Keywords: Qatar, dates, herbs, antioxidants

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246 Oxidative Stability of Methyl and Ethyl Microalgae Biodiesel with Synthetic Antioxidants

Authors: Willian L. G. Silva, Fabio R. M. Batista, Matthieu Tubino

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Microalgae can be considered a potential source of oil for biodiesel synthesis since this microorganism can grow rapidly in either fresh or salty water, not competing with food production. There are several favorable conditions in Brazil for this type of culture due to the country’s great amount of water. Another very positive aspect of this type of culture is its ability to fix atmospheric CO2, contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases and their effects on global warming. Despite this biodiesel environmental advantages it degrades resulting in changes in its physical and chemical properties. In this work, the methyl and ethyl microalgae biodiesel oxidative stability was studied in the absence and presence of a synthetic antioxidant. The synthetic antioxidants used were propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), at a 0,12% (w/w) concentration. The biodiesel mixture was kept in a sealed glass flask, sheltered from light, and at room temperature (about 25 ºC) for 180 days. During this period, aliquots from this biodiesel were subjected to induced degradation by the Rancimat method, which determines an important quality parameter, provided in the current methods, and is used to monitor the degradation processes that occur in the biodiesel over time. The induction period (IP) expresses the biodiesel oxidative stability. It was stablished that the minimum accepted IP value for biodiesel is 8 hours. The results show that ethylic biodiesel increased its IP value from 7,6 hours to 31 hours when using PG, and to 67 hours when using TBHQ, exceeding the minimum accepted IP value. When the antioxidants were added to the methylic biodiesel samples, the IP was raised to 28 hours when using PG, and to 62 hours when using TBHQ. These values were maintained throughout the entire period of study (180 days). On the other hand, the biodiesel samples without additives maintained an IP above the allowed value for only 30 days. Therefore, in order to preserve microalgae biodiesel for longer periods of time, it is necessary to add antioxidants to both derivatives, i.e., the ethylic and methylic.

Keywords: biodiesel, microalgae, oxidative stability, storage, synthetic antioxidants

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245 Effect of Phenolic Compounds on Off-Odor Development and Oxidative Stability of Camel Meat during Refrigerated Storage

Authors: Sajid Maqsood, Aysha Al Rashedi, Aisha Abushelaibi, Kusaimah Manheem

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Impact of different natural antioxidants on lipid oxidation, microbial load and sensorial quality in ground camel meat (leg region) during 9 days of refrigerated storage were investigated. Control camel meat showed higher lipid oxidation products (Peroxide value and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) during the storage period. Upon addition of different natural antioxidants PV and TBARS were retarded, especially in samples added with tannic acid (TA), catechin (CT) and gallic acid (GA) (p<0.05). Haem iron content decreased with increasing storage period and was found to be lower in samples added with caffeic acid (CA) and gallic acid (GA) at the end of storage period (p<0.05). Furthermore, lower mesophilic bacterial count (MBC) and psychrophilic bacterial counts (PBC) were observed in TA and CT treated samples compared to control and other samples (p<0.05). Camel meat treated with TA and CT also received higher likeness scores for colour, odor and overall appearance compared to control samples (p<0.05). Therefore, adding different natural antioxidants especially TA and CT showed retarding effect on lipid oxidation and microbial growth and were also effective in maintaining sensory attributes (color and odor) of ground camel meat during storage at 4°C. Hence, TA and CT could be considered as the potential natural antioxidant for preserving the quality of the camel meat displayed at refrigerated shelves.

Keywords: natural antioxidants, lipid oxidation, quality, camel meat

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
244 Optimization of Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants and Phenolic Compounds from Coleus Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Reihaneh Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel

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Free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) have detrimental effects on human health through several mechanisms. On the other hand, antioxidant molecules reduce free radical generation in biologic systems. Synthetic antioxidants, which are used in food industry, have also negative impact on human health. Therefore recognition of natural antioxidants such as anthocyanins can solve these problems simultaneously. Coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides) with red leaves is a rich source of anthocyanins compounds. In this study we evaluated the effect of time (10, 20 and 30 min) and temperature (40, 50 and 60° C) on optimization of anthocyanin extraction using surface response method. In addition, the study was aimed to determine maximum extraction for anthocyanin from coleus plant using ultrasound method. The results indicated that the optimum conditions for extraction were 39.84 min at 69.25° C. At this point, total compounds were achieved 3.7451 mg 100 ml⁻¹. Furthermore, under optimum conditions, anthocyanin concentration, extraction efficiency, ferric reducing ability, total phenolic compounds and EC50 were registered 3.221931, 6.692765, 223.062, 3355.605 and 2.614045, respectively.

Keywords: anthocyanin, antioxidant, coleus, extraction, sonication

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
243 Study on the Efficiency of Some Antioxidants on Reduction of Maillard Reaction in Low Lactose Milk

Authors: Farnaz Alaeimoghadam, Farzad Alaeimoghadam

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In low-lactose milk, due to lactose hydrolysis and its conversion to monosaccharides like glucose and galactose, the Maillard reaction (non-enzymatic browning) occurs more readily compared to non-hydrolyzed milk. This reaction incurs off-flavor and dark color, as well as a decrease in the nutritional value of milk. The target of this research was to evaluate the effect of natural antioxidants in diminishing the browning in low-lactose milk. In this research, three antioxidants, namely ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and pantothenic acid in the concentration range of 0-1 mM/L, either in combination with each other or separately, were added to low-lactose milk. After heat treatment (120 0C for 3 min.), milk samples incubated at 55 0C for one day and then stored at 4 0C for 9 days. Quality indices, including total phenol content, antioxidant activity, color indices, and sensory characters, were measured during intervals of 0, 2, 5, 7, and 9 days. Results of this research showed that the effect of storage time and adding antioxidants were significant on pH, antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds either before or after heating, index L*, color change, and sensational characteristics (p < 0.05); however, acidity, a* and b* indices, chroma, and hue angle showed no significant changes (p > 0.05). The findings showed that the simultaneous application of gallic acid and ascorbic in the diminishing of non-enzymatic browning and color change, increasing pH, longevity, and antioxidant activity after heat treatment, and augmenting phenolic compounds before heat treatment was better than that of pantothenic acid.

Keywords: Maillard, low-lactose milk, non-enzymatic browning, natural antioxidant

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
242 Functional Compounds Activity of Analog Rice Based on Purple Yam and Bran as Alternative Food for People with Diabetes Mellitus Type II

Authors: A. Iqbal Banauaji, Muchamad Sholikun

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolism disorder that tends to increase its prevalence in the world, including in Indonesia. The development of DM type 2 can cause oxidative stress characterized by an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in the body Increased oxidative stress causes type 2 diabetes mellitus to require intake of exogenous antioxidants in large quantities to inhibit oxidative damage in the body. Bran can be defined as a functional food because it consists of 11.39% fiberand 28.7% antioxidants and the purple yam consists of anthocyanin which functions as an antioxidant. With abundant amount and low price, purple yam and bran can be used for analog rice as the effort to diversify functional food. The antioxidant’s activity of analog rice from purple yam and bran which is measured by using DPPH’s method is 12,963%. The rough fiber’s level on the analog rice from purple yam is 2.985%. The water amount of analog rice from purple yam and bran is 8.726%. Analog rice from purple yam and bran has the similar texture as the usual rice, tasted slightly sweet, light purple colored, and smelled like bran.

Keywords: antioxidant, analog rice, functional food, diabetes mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
241 Effects of Dietary Copper Supplementation on the Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Authors: Muralisankar Thirunavukkarasu, Saravana Bhavan Periyakali, Santhanam Perumal

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The present study was performed to assess the effects of dietary copper (Cu) on growth, biochemical constituents, digestive enzyme activities, enzymatic antioxidant and metabolic enzymes of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The Cu was supplemented at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg-1 with the basal diets. Cu supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for a period of 90 days. At the end of the feeding experiment, 40 mg kg-1 Cu supplemented feeds fed PL showed significant (P < 0.05) improvement in survival, growth, digestive enzyme activities and concentrations of biochemical constituents. However, PL fed with 60 to 80 mg Cu kg-1 showed negative performance. Activities of enzymatic antioxidants, metabolic enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the muscle and hepatopancreas showed insignificant alterations (P > 0.05) up to 40 mg kg-1 Cu supplemented feeds fed PL. Whereas, 60 and 80 mg of Cu kg-1 supplemented feeds fed PL showed significant alterations on these antioxidants and metabolic enzymes levels. It indicates that beyond 40 mg Cu kg-1 diets were produced some toxic to M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, the present study suggests that 40 mg Cu kg-1 can be supplemented in the diets of M. rosenbergii PL for regulating better survival and growth.

Keywords: antioxidants, biochemical constituents, copper, growth, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
240 In Vitro Study of Antioxidant Capacity of Chrysanthemum Indicum Extract

Authors: Puchita Chokcharoenying

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Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants found in plants, and they are highly effective at scavenging oxidative free radicals. Antioxidants are substances found in medicinal plants to help prevent heart disease, stroke, and some cancers. This study focused on evaluating the flavonoids content of Chrysanthemum Indicum and determine their antioxidant capacity by using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacity assay. The total flavonoid content of C. indicumextract was determined and expressed as quercetin equivalents (QE)/g measured by an aluminiumchloride colorimetric method. The results showed that the IC50 of C. indicum extract were 83.57μg/mL ± 0.875 and52.57μg/mL ± 0.632for DPPH and ABTS, respectively. C. indicumextract exhibited antioxidant activities as a concentration dependent manner. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. In summary, C. indicum extract is rich in flavonoids, which have potent antioxidant properties. Thus, C. indicum extract is a good source of antioxidants and can be developed for medicinal purposes. Nevertheless, more research on the antioxidant activity of C. indicum extract and in vivo antioxidant studies are still needed.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant, chrysanthemum indicum, DPPH assay, total flavonoid content

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239 Rooibos Extract Antioxidants: In vitro Models to Assess Their Bioavailability

Authors: Ntokozo Dambuza, Maryna Van De Venter, Trevor Koekemoer

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Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases and consequently antioxidant therapy has attracted much attention as a potential therapeutic strategy. Regardless of the quantities ingested, antioxidants need to reach the diseased tissues at concentrations sufficient to combat oxidative stress. Bioavailability is thus a defining criterion for the therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants. In addition, therapeutic antioxidants must possess biologically relevant characteristics which can target the specific molecular mechanisms responsible for disease related oxidative stress. While many chemical antioxidant assays are available to quantify antioxidant capacity, they relate poorly to the biological environment and provide no information as to the bioavailability. The present comparative study thus aims to characterise green and fermented rooibos extracts, well recognized for their exceptional antioxidant capacity, in terms of antioxidant bioavailability and efficacy in a disease relevant cellular setting. Chinese green tea antioxidant activity was also evaluated. Chemical antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH and ORAC) confirmed the potent antioxidant capacity of both green and fermented rooibos, with green rooibos possessing antioxidant activity superior to that of fermented rooibos and Chinese green tea. Bioavailability was assessed using the PAMPA assay and the results indicate that green and fermented rooibos have a permeation coefficient of 5.7 x 10-6 and 6.9 x 10-6 cm/s, respectively. Chinese green tea permeability coefficient was 8.5 x 10-6 cm/s. These values were comparable to those of rifampicin, which is known to have a high permeability across intestinal epithelium with a permeability coefficient of 5 x 10 -6 cm/s. To assess the antioxidant efficacy in a cellular context, U937 and red blood cells were pre-treated with rooibos and Chinese green tea extracts in the presence of a dye DCFH-DA and then exposed to oxidative stress. Green rooibos exhibited highest activity with an IC50 value of 29 μg/ml and 70 μg/ml, when U937 and red blood cells were exposed oxidative stress, respectively. Fermented rooibos and Chinese green tea had IC50 values of 61 μg/ml and 57 μg/ml for U937, respectively, and 221 μg/ml and 405 μg/ml for red blood cells, respectively. These results indicate that fermented and green rooibos extracts were able to permeate the U937 cells and red blood cell membrane and inhibited oxidation of DCFH-DA to a fluorescent DCF within the cells.

Keywords: rooibos, antioxidants, permeability, bioavailability

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238 Protective Effects of Ethanolic Purslane Extracts on Doxorubicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Osama M. Ahmed, Walaa G. Hozayen, Haidy Tamer Abo Sree

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The effect of doxorubicin (4 mg/kg b.w.week) without or with oral administration of ethanolic purslane (Portulaca oleracea) shoot (leaves and stems) extract (50 mg/kg b.w.day) or ethanolic purslane seeds extract (50 mg/kg b.w.day) co-treatments for 6 weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. There was an increase in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and total bilirubin. In addition, hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, CAT activities were decreased while lipid peroxidation in the liver was increased. Co-administration of ethanolic purslane and seed extracts successfully improved the adverse changes in the liver functions with an increase in antioxidants activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: antioxidants, doxorubicin, hepatotoxicity, purslane

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
237 Stabilization of y-Sterilized Food, Packaging Materials by Synergistic Mixtures of Food-Contact Approval Stabilizers

Authors: Sameh A. S. Thabit Alariqi

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Food is widely packaged with plastic materials to prevent microbial contamination and spoilage. Ionizing radiation is widely used to sterilize the food-packaging materials. Sterilization by γ-radiation causes degradation for the plastic packaging materials such as embrittlement, stiffening, softening, discoloration, odour generation, and decrease in molecular weight. Many antioxidants can prevent γ-degradation but most of them are toxic. The migration of antioxidants to its environment gives rise to major concerns in case of food packaging plastics. In this attempt, we have aimed to utilize synergistic mixtures of stabilizers which are approved for food-contact applications. Ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM) have been melt-mixed with hindered amine stabilizers (HAS), phenolic antioxidants and organo-phosphites (hydroperoxide decomposer). Results were discussed by comparing the stabilizing efficiency of mixtures with and without phenol system. Among phenol containing systems where we mostly observed discoloration due to the oxidation of hindered phenol, the combination of secondary HAS, tertiary HAS, organo-phosphite and hindered phenol exhibited improved stabilization efficiency than single or binary additive systems. The mixture of secondary HAS and tertiary HAS, has shown antagonistic effect of stabilization. However, the combination of organo-phosphite with secondary HAS, tertiary HAS and phenol antioxidants have been found to give synergistic even at higher doses of -sterilization. The effects have been explained through the interaction between the stabilizers. After γ-irradiation, the consumption of oligomeric stabilizer significantly depends on the components of stabilization mixture. The effect of the organo-phosphite antioxidant on the overall stability has been discussed.

Keywords: ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer, synergistic mixtures, gamma sterilization, gamma stabilization

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236 Study of Some Aromatic Thiourea Derivatives as Lube Oil Antioxidant

Authors: Rasha S. Kamal, Nehal S. Ahmed, Amal M. Nassar, Nour E. A. Abd El-Sattar

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In the present work, some lube oil antioxidants based on ester of some aromatic thiourea derivative were prepared by two steps: the first step is the reaction of succinyl chloride with ammonium thiocyanate in addition to anthranilic acid as three component system to prepare thiourea derivative (A); the second step is esterification of compound (A) by different alcohol (decyl C₁₀, tetradecyl C₁₄, and octadecyl C₁₈) alcohol. The structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed by infra-red spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, elemental analysis and determination of the molecular weights. All the prepared compounds were soluble in lube oil. The efficiency of the prepared compounds as antioxidants lube oil additives was investigated and it was found that these prepared compounds give good result as lube oil antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant lube oil, three component system, aromatic thiourea derivatives, esterification

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
235 Studies on the Physicochemical Properties of Biolubricants Obtained from Vegetable Oils and Their Oxidative Stability

Authors: Expedito J. S. Parente Jr., Italo C. Rios, Joao Paulo C. Marques, Rosana M. A. Saboya, F. Murilo T. Luna, Célio L. Cavalcante Jr.

Abstract:

Increasing constraints of environmental regulation around the world have led to higher demand for biodegradable products. Vegetable oils present some properties that may favor their use as biolubricants; however, there are others, such as resistance to oxidation and pour point, which affect possible commercial applications. In this study, the physicochemical properties of biolubricants synthesized from different vegetable oils were evaluated and compared with petroleum-based lubricant and pure vegetable oil. Chemical modifications applied to the original vegetable oil improved their oxidative stability and pour point significantly. The addition of commercial antioxidants to the bio-based lubricants was evaluated, yielding values of oxidative stability close to those of mineral basestock oil.

Keywords: biolubricant, vegetable oil, oxidative stability, pour point, antioxidants

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234 Polyphenols from Winery Wastes as Potential Source of Antioxidants

Authors: Lucia Gharwalova, Irena Kolouchova, Jan Masak

Abstract:

A large amount of waste products is generated throughout the whole winemaking process as well as during work in the vineyard. This waste is as a source of phenolic compounds, such as resveratrol and polydatin, which possess a strong antioxidant capacity. Changes in the amounts of phenols were compared depending on the growing conditions and wine variety. Wastes (grape stems, marc and shoots) from two wineries in the Czech Republic were analyzed. Phenols from these samples were extracted by 40% ethanol. The amount of polyphenols in these extracts was determined by HPLC and their antioxidant capacity by DPPH. We compared changes in the amounts of phenols depending on the type of waste and the wine variety. The most significant source of stilbenoids was waste from pruning (shoots). These results show that winery waste could be further reused thanks to their antioxidant content.

Keywords: antioxidants, polyphenols, resveratrol, winery waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
233 Antioxidant Potential of Sunflower Seed Cake Extract in Stabilization of Soybean Oil

Authors: Ivanor Zardo, Fernanda Walper Da Cunha, Júlia Sarkis, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira Marczak

Abstract:

Lipid oxidation is one of the most important deteriorating processes in oil industry, resulting in the losses of nutritional value of oils as well as changes in color, flavor and other physiological properties. Autoxidation of lipids occurs naturally between molecular oxygen and the unsaturation of fatty acids, forming fat-free radicals, peroxide free radicals and hydroperoxides. In order to avoid the lipid oxidation in vegetable oils, synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tertiary butyl hydro-quinone (TBHQ) are commonly used. However, the use of synthetic antioxidants has been associated with several health side effects and toxicity. The use of natural antioxidants as stabilizers of vegetable oils is being suggested as a sustainable alternative to synthetic antioxidants. The alternative that has been studied is the use of natural extracts obtained mainly from fruits, vegetables and seeds, which have a well-known antioxidant activity related mainly to the presence of phenolic compounds. The sunflower seed cake is rich in phenolic compounds (1 4% of the total mass), being the chlorogenic acid the major constituent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro application of the phenolic extract obtained from the sunflower seed cake as a retarder of the lipid oxidation reaction in soybean oil and to compare the results with a synthetic antioxidant. For this, the soybean oil, provided from the industry without any addition of antioxidants, was subjected to an accelerated storage test for 17 days at 65 °C. Six samples with different treatments were submitted to the test: control sample, without any addition of antioxidants; 100 ppm of synthetic antioxidant BHT; mixture of 50 ppm of BHT and 50 ppm of phenolic compounds; and 100, 500 and 1200 ppm of phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds concentration in the extract was expressed in gallic acid equivalents. To evaluate the oxidative changes of the samples, aliquots were collected after 0, 3, 6, 10 and 17 days and analyzed for the peroxide, diene and triene conjugate values. The soybean oil sample initially had a peroxide content of 2.01 ± 0.27 meq of oxygen/kg of oil. On the third day of the treatment, only the samples treated with 100, 500 and 1200 ppm of phenolic compounds showed a considerable oxidation retard compared to the control sample. On the sixth day of the treatment, the samples presented a considerable increase in the peroxide value (higher than 13.57 meq/kg), and the higher the concentration of phenolic compounds, the lower the peroxide value verified. From the tenth day on, the samples had a very high peroxide value (higher than 55.39 meq/kg), where only the sample containing 1200 ppm of phenolic compounds presented significant oxidation retard. The samples containing the phenolic extract were more efficient to avoid the formation of the primary oxidation products, indicating effectiveness to retard the reaction. Similar results were observed for dienes and trienes. Based on the results, phenolic compounds, especially chlorogenic acid (the major phenolic compound of sunflower seed cake), can be considered as a potential partial or even total substitute for synthetic antioxidants.

Keywords: chlorogenic acid, natural antioxidant, vegetables oil deterioration, waste valorization

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
232 Evaluation of Polyphenolics Compounds in Cold Brewed Indian Tea

Authors: Chandrima Das, Sirshendu Chatterjee

Abstract:

Tea (Camellia sinensis) is known as nature's low calorie wonder drink. Since ancient times hot consumptions of tea is very much popular. We have observed that many heat sensitive secondary metabolites which get destroyed on heating, moreover by people, who are permanently live at higher altitude or the members of high altitude expedition team, are deprived of various tea brewing facilities like electricity, fuel, etc. and the hence cold decoction of tea might be a good alternative. In this backdrop present study aims at the analysis of antioxidants like polyphenols, flavonoids and free radical scavenging activity as well as the l-theanine concentration of different types of cold brewed teas like black, green, white and oolong and compared with its hot decoction. Further, we also analysed in details about the bioactive components by using HPLC followed by green synthesis of nanoparticles. The study highlighted that the difference between the concentration of antioxidant in cold and hot brewed tea is insignificant and hence intake of cold decoction will be beneficial to health.

Keywords: antioxidants, flavanoid, polyphenols, HPLC, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
231 Effects of Ethanolic Purslane Shoot and Seed Extracts on Doxorubicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Osama M. Ahmed, Walaa G. Hozayen, Haidy Tamer Abo Sree

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Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic is a broad-spectrum antineoplastic agent, which is commonly used in the treatment of uterine, ovarian, breast and lung cancers, Hodgkin's disease and soft tissue sarcomas as well as in several other cancer types. The effect of doxorubicin (4 mg/kg b.w.week) without or with oral administration of ethanolic purslane (Portulaca oleracea) shoot (leaves and stems) extract (50 mg/kg b.w. day) or ethanolic purslane seeds extract (50 mg/kg b.w.day) co-treatments for 6 weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. Serum ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, total bilirubin, total protein, and albumin levels were assayed. Lipid peroxidation (indexed by MDA) and antioxidants like hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, and CAT were assessed. There was an increase in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and total bilirubin. In addition, hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, and CAT activities were decreased while lipid peroxidation in the liver was increased. Co-administration of ethanolic purslane and seed extracts successfully improved the adverse changes in the liver functions with an increase in antioxidants activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, it can be supposed that dietary purslane extract supplementation may provide a cushion for a prolonged therapeutic option against DOX hepatopathy without harmful side effects. However, further clinical studies are required to assess the safety and efficacy of these extract in human beings.

Keywords: doxorubicin, purslane, hepatotoxicity, antioxidants

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
230 Screening of Nickel-Tolerant Genotype of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata) Based on Photosynthesis and Antioxidant System

Authors: Mohammad Yusuf, Qazi Fariduddin

Abstract:

The main aim of this study was to explore the different cultivars of Vigna radiata on basis of photosynthesis, antioxidants and proline to assess Ni-sensitive and Ni-tolerant cultivar. Seeds of five different cultivars were sown in soil amended with different levels of Ni (0, 50, 100, or 150 mg kg 1). At 30 d stage, plants were harvested to assess the various parameters. The Ni treatment diminished growth, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content and net photosynthesis along with nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activities in the concentration dependent manner whereas, it enhanced proline content and various antioxidant enzymes. The varieties T-44 found least affected, whereas PDM-139 experienced maximum damage at 150 mg kg-1 of Ni. Moreover, T-44 possessed maximum activity of antioxidant enzymes and proline content at all the levels of metal whereas PDM-139 possessed minimum values. Therefore, T-44 and PDM-139 were established as the most resistant and sensitive varieties, respectively.

Keywords: Vigna radiata, antioxidants, nickel, photosynthesis, proline

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
229 Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms in Murine Epidermis and Dermis and Their Responses to Ultraviolet Light

Authors: Ben Abderrahmane Ayoub El Fateh, Bnina Rachid

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A comprehensive comparison of antioxidant defenses in the dermis and epidermis and their response to exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation has not previously been attempted. In this study, enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of hairless mice were compared. Enzyme activities are presented both as units/gram of skin and units/milligram of protein; arguments are presented for the superiority of skin wet weight as a reference base. Catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase (units/gram of skin) were higher in the epidermis than dermis by 49%, 86%, and 74%, respectively. Superoxide dismutase did not follow this pattern. Lipophilic antioxidants ( -tocopherol, ubiquinol 9, and ubiquinone 9) and hydrophilic antioxidants (ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, and glutathione) were 24–95% higher in the epidermis than in dermis. In contrast, oxidized glutathione was 60% lower in the epidermis than in dermis. Mice were irradiated with solar light to examine the response of these cutaneous layers to UV irradiation. After irradiation with 25 J/cm2 (UVA + UVB, from a solar simulator), 10 times the minimum erythemal dose, epidermal and dermal catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were greatly decreased. Tocopherol, ubiquinol 9, ubiquinone 9, ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, and reduced glutathione decreased in both epidermis and dermis by 26-93%. Oxidizedgiutathione showed a slight, non-significant increase. Because the reduction in total ascorbate and catalase was much more severe in the epidermis than dermis, it can be concluded that UV light is more damaging to the antioxidant defenses in the epidermis than in the dermis.

Keywords: antioxidant defenses, enzymic, epidermis, oxidizedgiutathione

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
228 Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) Fruits

Authors: Ngoc Minh Quynh Pham, Quan V. Vuong, Michael C. Bowyer, Christopher J. Scarlett

Abstract:

Tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) is an Australian native plant and is grown in the coastal regions in New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. Its fruits have been eaten by birds; however there is no information on phytochemical and antioxidant capacity of these fruits. This study aimed to determine the phenolic compounds (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), proanthocyanidins (TPro) and antioxidant capacity in the whole or different parts of tuckeroo fruit including skin, flesh and seed. Whole and partly tuckeroo fruits were collected and immediately freeze dried to constant weight and then ground to small particle sizes (<1mm mesh). Samples were extracted in 50% methanol using an ultrasonic bath set at temperature 40 °C for 30 minutes. TPC, TFC, TPro and antioxidant capacity were measured by spectrophotometric analysis. The results showed that the whole fruits contained 106.23 mg GAE/g of TPC, 67.67 mg CAE/g of TFC and 56.74 mg CAE/g of TPro. These fruits also possessed high antioxidant capacity (DPPH: 263.78 mg TroE/g, ABTS: 346.98 mg TroE/g, CUPRAC: 370.12 mg TroE/g and FRAP: 176.30 mg TroE/g), revealing that these fruits are rich source of antioxidants. The results also showed that distribution of the antioxidants was varied in different parts of the fruits. Skin had the highest levels of TPC, TFC, and TPro as well as antioxidant properties, followed by the seed and flesh had the lowest levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. Of note, levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of the skin were significantly higher than those of the whole fruits. Therefore, the skin of tuckeroo fruits is recommended as a starting material for extraction and purification of phenolic compounds as potential antioxidants for further utilisation in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, Cupaniopsis anacardioides, phenolic compounds, tuckeroo fruit

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
227 Ameliorative Effect of Martynia annua Linn. on Collagen-Induced Arthritis via Modulating Cytokines and Oxidative Stress in Mice

Authors: Alok Pal Jain, Santram Lodhi

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Martynia annua Linn. (Martyniaccae) is traditionally used in inflammation and applied locally to tuberculosis glands of camel’s neck. The leaves used topically to bites of venomous insects and wounds of domestic animals. Chemical examination of Martynia annua leaves revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins, proteins, phenols and flavonoids. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of methanolic extract of Martynia annua leaves. Methanolic extract of Martynia annua leaves was tested by using in vivo collagen-induced arthritis mouse model to investigate the anti-rheumatoid arthritis activity. In addition, antioxidant effect of methanolic extract was determined by the estimation of antioxidants level in joint tissues. The severity of arthritis was assessed by arthritis score and edema. Levels of cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, in the joint tissue homogenate were measured using ELISA. A high dose (250 mg/kg) of methanolic extract was significantly reduced the degree of inflammation in mice as compared with reference drug. Antioxidants level and malondialdehyde (MDA) in joint tissue homogenate found significantly (p < 0.05) higher. Methanolic extract at dose of 250 mg/kg modulated the cytokines production and suppressed the oxidative stress in the mice with collagen-induced arthritis. This study suggested that Martynia annua might be alternative herbal medicine for the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: Martynia annua, collagen, rheumatoid arthritis, antioxidants

Procedia PDF Downloads 160