Search results for: Muhammad Naeem Qaisar
1153 Male Oreochromis mossambica as Indicator for Water Pollution with Trace Elements in Relation to Condition Factor from Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Syed M. Moeen-ud-Din Raheel, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Naeem Qaisar, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Zubair Ahmed, Muhammad Ashraf
Abstract:Iron, Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium levels were estimated to study the risk of trace elements on human consumption. The area of collection was Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan and was evaluated by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The standards find in favor of the six heavy metals were in accordance with the threshold edge concentrations on behalf of fish meat obligatory by European and other international normative. Regressions were achieved for both size (length and weight) and condition factor with concentrations of metal present in the fish body.
Keywords: Oreochromis mossambica, toxic analysis, body size, condition factorProcedia PDF Downloads 491
1152 Pharmacological Activities and Potential Uses of Cyperus Rotundus: A Review
Authors: Arslan Masood Pirzada, Muhammad Naeem, Hafiz Haider Ali, Muhammad Latif, Aown Sammar Raza, Asad Hussain Bukhari, Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad Ijaz
Abstract:Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae), a medicinal herb, is being traditionally used as a home remedy for the treatment of various clinical conditions like diarrhea, diabetic, pyretic, inflammation, malaria, and for treating stomach and bowel disorders. Its current status is one of the most widespread, troublesome, and economically damaging agronomic weeds, growing wildly in various tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Tuber and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus possess a higher concentration of active ingredients in the form of essential oils, phenolic acids, ascorbic acids and flavonoids, responsible for its remedial properties. Exploitation of any medicinal plant application depends on the crucial and comprehensive information about the therapeutic potential of a plant. Researchers have evaluated and characterized the significance of Cyperus rotundus as an anti-androgenic, anti-bacterial, anti-cancerous, anti-convulsant, anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, anti-genotoxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-lipidemic, anti-malarial, anti-mutagenic, anti-obesity, anti-oxidant, anti-uropathogenic, hepato-, cardio-, neuroprotective, and nootropic agent. This paper comprises a broad review to summarize the current state of knowledge about chemical constituents, potential economic uses and therapeutic aspects of Cyperus rotundus that will aid in the development of bioethanol and modern herbal medicine through latest technologies that will promote the ability of this plant in the cure of many clinical disorders.
Keywords: purple nutsedge, chemical composition, economic uses, therapeutic values, future directionsProcedia PDF Downloads 428
1151 Minimizing Fresh and Wastewater Using Water Pinch Technique in Petrochemical Industries
Authors: Wasif Mughees, Malik Al-Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem
Abstract:This research involves the design and analysis of pinch-based water/wastewater networks to minimize water utility in the petrochemical and petroleum industries. A study has been done on Tehran Oil Refinery to analyze feasibilities of regeneration, reuse and recycling of water network. COD is considered as a single key contaminant. Amount of freshwater was reduced about 149m3/h (43.8%) regarding COD. Re-design (or retrofitting) of water allocation in the networks was undertaken. The results were analyzed through graphical method and mathematical programming technique which clearly demonstrated that amount of required water would be determined by mass transfer of COD.
Keywords: minimization, water pinch, water management, pollution preventionProcedia PDF Downloads 380
1150 Evaluation of Flange Effects on the Lateral In-Plane Response of Brick Masonry Walls
Authors: Hizb Ullah Sajid, Muhammad Ashraf, Naveed Ahmad Qaisar Ali, Sikandar Hayat Sajid
Abstract:This research study investigates experimentally the effects of flanges (transverse walls) on the lateral in-plane response of brick masonry walls. The experimental work included lateral in-plane quasi-static cyclic tests on full-scale walls (both with & without flanges). The flanges were introduced at both ends of the in-plane wall. In particular the damage mechanism, lateral in-plane stiffness & strength, deformability and energy dissipation of the two classes of walls are compared and the differences are quantified to help understand the effects of flanges on the in-plane response of masonry walls. The available analytical models for the in-plane shear strength & deformation evaluation of masonry walls are critically analyzed. Recommendations are made for the lateral in-plane capacity assessment of brick masonry walls including the contribution of transverse walls.
Keywords: brick masonry, damage mechanism, flanges effects, in-plane responseProcedia PDF Downloads 302
1149 Insect Diversity Assessment of Maize Crop (Zea mays L.) by Using Sweep Net, Pitfall Trap and Plant Inspection Methods
Authors: Muhammad Naeem Mushtaq, Muhammad Arshad, Shahid Majeed
Abstract:Maize is known as queen of cereals because of its highest genetic yield potential and multipurpose characteristics in human being and animal diet. Maize crop visited by many major, minor, visitors and sporadic insect pests. This study was conducted during 2014 to evaluate the richness and evenness of these insect pests and their interaction with metrological conditions at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. In this experiment, two localities were selected; one was treated with pesticide and second was untreated. Maize field visited by many insect pests. Those insect pests were collected by using three collection method: sweep net, pitfall trap and plant inspection. The data was collected weekly interval from August to October and statistically analyzed by using Shannon Index which showed the results of insect pest richness and evenness. The value of Shannon Index was higher with the increase in number of species and abundance of insects. Camponotus nearcticus was most abundant in sweep net and pitfall trap method while Rhopalosiphum maidis was abundant in plant inspection method. Temperature was negatively co-relate with the insect population in all three collection methods while the relative humidity and rainfall had varying results.
Keywords: abundance, evenness, maize, richnessProcedia PDF Downloads 120
1148 Behavioral Responses of Coccinella septempunctata and Diaeretiella rapae toward Semiochemicals and Plant Extract
Authors: Muhammad Tariq, Bushra Siddique, Muhammad Naeem, Asim Gulzar
Abstract:The chemical ecology of natural enemies can play a pivotal role in any Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program. Different chemical cues help to correspond in the diversity of associations between prey and host plant species. Coccinellaseptempunctata and Diaeretiellarapae have the abilities to explore several chemical cues released by plants under herbivore attack that may enhance their efficiency of foraging. In this study, the behavioral responses of Coccinellaseptempunctata and Diaeretiellarapae were examined under the application of two semiochemicals and a plant extract and their combinations using four-arm olfactometer. The bioassay was consists of a pairwise treatment comparison. Data pertaining to the preference of C. septempunctata and D. rapae after treatment application were recorded and analyzed statistically. The mean number of entries and time spent of Coccinellaseptempunctata and D. rapaewere greater in arms treated with E-β-Farnesene. However, the efficacy of E-β-Farnesene was enhanced when combined with β-pinene. Thus, the mean number of entries and time spent of C. septempunctata and D. rapaewere highest in arms treated with the combination of E-β-Farnesene x β-pinene as compared with other treatments. The current work has demonstrated that the insect-derived semiochemicals may enhance the efficacy of natural enemies when applied in combination.
Keywords: olfectometer, parasitoid, predator, preferenceProcedia PDF Downloads 72
1147 Determining the Constituents of the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) in the Light of the Quran: A Clinical Approach
Authors: Aamir I. Yazdani, Dr. Muhammad Nasir J. Qureshi
Abstract:The term Sunnah has been used both, for Allah Himself and for his messengers in the Quran. The way Allah dealt with people where the messengers (rasuls) were sent is called Sunnatullāh by the Quran. Likewise, the same term is used in the Quran, for Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) as in following the trodden path (Sunnah) of his forefather Prophet Abraham, Alaihissalam. It implies; therefore, the word Sunnah cannot be applied to things which relates to theoretical knowledge like faith etc. Its ambit remains the practices, actions linked to practical things only. In the case of the Quran, we find that there is complete agreement among all Muslims on what constitutes the book of Allah, based on ijma (unanimity, total agreement, consensus) and tawatur (uninterrupted continuity, without any gap). There seems to be no unanimity on the question on what constitutes Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). There are, therefore, several approaches towards Sunnah adopted by Muslims. This paper is based on Qualitative Methodology to determine the criterion of what constitutes the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and which practices constitute the precincts of the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).
Keywords: Al-hikmah, Hereafter, practices, TazkiyaProcedia PDF Downloads 44
1146 Serotype Distribution and Demographics of Dengue Patients in a Tertiary Hospital of Lahore, Pakistan During the 2011 Epidemic
Authors: Muhammad Munir, Riffat Mehboob, Samina Naeem, Muhammad Salman, Shehryar Ahmed, Irshad Hussain Qureshi, Tahira Murtaza Cheema, Ashraf Sultan, Akmal Laeeq, Nakhshab Choudhry, Asad Aslam Khan, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad
Abstract:A dengue outbreak in Lahore, Pakistan during 2011 was unprecedented in terms of severity and magnitude. This research aims to determine the serotype distribution of dengue virus during this outbreak and classify the patients demographically. 5ml of venous blood was drawn aseptically from 166 patients with dengue-like signs to test for the virus between the months of August to November 2011. The samples were sent to the CDC, Atlanta, Georgia for the purpose of molecular assays to determine their serotype. RT-PCR protocol was performed targeting at the 4 dengue serotypes. Out of 166 cases, dengue infection was detected with RT-PCR in 95 cases, all infected with same serotype DEN-2. 75% of positive cases were males while 25% were females. Most positive patients were in the age range of 16-30 years. 33% positive cases had accompanying bleeding. This is first study during the 2011 dengue epidemic in Lahore that reports DEN-2 as the only prevalent serotype. It also indicates that more infected patients were males, adults, within age range of 16-30 years, peaked in the month of November, Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is manifested more in females, Ravi town was heavily hit by dengue virus infection.
Keywords: dengue, serotypes, Pakistan, DEN 2, Lahore, demography, serotype distrbution, 2011 epidemicProcedia PDF Downloads 422
1145 Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal Toxins
Authors: Muhammad Jawad Saleem, Faisal Hafeez, Muhammad Arshad, Afifa Naeem, Ayesha Iftekhar
Abstract:Bacillus thuringiensis is a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that belongs to the Bacillus cereus group of Bacilli and it produces ICP (insecticidal crystal protein) Cry toxins or Cysts toxins. Spores are produced as parasporal crystalline inclusions bodies (also known as endotoxins) at the onset of sporulation during the stationary growth phase. During vegetative growth that does not form crystals and is called vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIP) and secreted an insecticidal protein (SIP). Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is important for pest management either in the form of insecticides or through incorporated in the gene of the crop. Bioassays were conducted on the F2 generation of 1st instar larvae of H. armigera by the diet incorporation method to determine the susceptibility to Bt Cry toxins (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A). The median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) of Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A ranged from 0.11 to 1.06 µg/ml and moult inhibitory concentration (MIC₅₀) of Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A ranged from 0.05 to 0.25 µg/ml. Cry1Ac was found most toxic to 1st instar larvae of H. armigera as compared to other Bt Cry toxins (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A). The experimental results are important to policy-makers and technology providers to develop strategies for the exploitation of transgenic Bt cotton varieties as a component of integrated pest management.
Keywords: Bt toxin, Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A, susceptibility, Helicoverpa armigeraProcedia PDF Downloads 112
1144 Avifauna of Bara Gali Summer Campus, University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Authors: Saif Ullah, Zaigham Hasan, Muhammad Ali, Qaisar Jamal, Kiran Salahuddin, Muhammad Awais
Abstract:Survey of avian fauna of Bara Gali Summer Campus, University of Peshawar situated in Abbottabad was conducted from April to October, 2013. A total of 21 species belonging to 5 orders and 15 families were recorded. Out of these, 6 were resident, 12 summer visitor and 3 rare. Order Passeriformes was represented by 16 species which are Certhia himalayana, Megalaima virens, Phylloscopus trochiloides, Garrulax lineatus, Passer rutilans, Corvus macrorhynchos, Hypsipetes leucocephalus, Acridotheres tristis, Delichon dasypus cashmeriensis, Hirundo rustica, Muscicapa thalassina, Saxicola ferrea, Myiophoneus caeruleus, Parus melonolophus, Parus rufonuchalis, Parus monticolus, belonging to 11 families. Two species Dendrocopos himalayansis and Picus squamatus belong to only one family Picidae of order Piciformes. Among rest of the three orders each is represented by only a single species; Accipitriformes by Accipiter virgatus, Coraciformes by Upupa epops while order Psittaciformes has been represented by Psittacula himalayana. The distribution and abundance varied with season and maximum number of species were found during the monsoon season when most of the birds migrate for breeding. Some habits and behaviors like nesting, feeding, breeding and vocalizations were also studied which are very unique from other birds found at lower elevations. Among bird species adapted to diverse habitat in the field, Himalayan Jungle Crow, Common Mynas, Bulbuls, Barn Swallows, barbets were prominent. Interesting feature of the avian fauna is its familiarity with flora, was also observed during the present studies that some birds are very quick and active in their movement on a tree surface i.e Certhia himalayana.
Keywords: avifauna diversity, distribution, Bara Gali, AbbottabadProcedia PDF Downloads 254
1143 Detection of Selected Heavy Metals in Raw Milk: Lahore, Pakistan
Authors: Huma Naeem, Saif-Ur-Rehman Kashif, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry
Abstract:Milk plays a significant role in the dietary requirements of human beings as it is a single source that provides various essential nutrients. A study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal concentration in the raw milk marketed in Data Gunj Baksh Town of Lahore. A total of 180 samples of raw milk were collected in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon season from five colonies of Data Gunj Baksh Town, Lahore. The milk samples were subjected to heavy metal analysis (Cr, Cu) by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results indicated high levels of Cr and Cu in post-monsoon seasons. Heavy metals were detected in milk in all samples under study and exceeded the standards given by FAO.
Keywords: atomic absorption spectrophotometer, chromium, copper, heavy metalProcedia PDF Downloads 367
1142 Olefin and Paraffin Separation Using Simulations on Extractive Distillation
Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah
Abstract:Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with respect to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent shows an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator; moreover NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99 % pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1 : 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column, previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the proposed plates were 30, which can economize the separation process.
Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, Aspen Plus, ACN solventProcedia PDF Downloads 372
1141 Process Simulation of 1-Butene Separation from C4 Mixture by Extractive Distillation
Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah, Wasif Mughees
Abstract:Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with regard to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent plays an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator. Moreover, NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99% pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1: 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column. Previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the number of proposed plates were 30, which shows that the separation process can be economized.
Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, aspen plus, ACN solventProcedia PDF Downloads 435
1140 Estimating Heavy Metal Leakage and Environmental Damage from Cigarette Butt Disposal in Urban Areas through CBPI Evaluation
Authors: Muhammad Faisal, Zai-Jin You, Muhammad Naeem
Abstract:Concerns about the environment, public health, and the economy are raised by the fact that the world produces around 6 trillion cigarettes annually. Arguably the most pervasive forms of environmental litter, this dangerous trash must be eliminated. The researchers wanted to get an idea of how much pollution is seeping out of cigarette butts in metropolitan areas by studying their distribution and concentration. In order to accomplish this goal, the cigarette butt pollution indicator was applied in 29 different areas. The locations were monitored monthly for a full calendar year. The conditions for conducting the investigation of the venues were the same on both weekends and during the weekdays. By averaging the metal leakage ratio in various climates and the average weight of cigarette butts, we were able to estimate the total amount of heavy metal leakage. The findings revealed that the annual average value of the index for the areas that were investigated ranged from 1.38 to 10.4. According to these numbers, just 27.5% of the areas had a low pollution rating, while 43.5% had a major pollution status or worse. Weekends witnessed the largest fall (31% on average) in all locations' indices, while spring and summer saw the largest increase (26% on average) compared to autumn and winter. It was calculated that the average amount of heavy metals such as Cr, Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb that seep into the environment from discarded cigarette butts in commercial, residential, and park areas, respectively, is 0.25 µg/m2, 0.078 µg/m2, and 0.18 µg/m2. Butt from cigarettes is one of the most prevalent forms of litter in the area that was examined. This litter is the origin of a wide variety of contaminants, including heavy metals. This toxic garbage poses a significant risk to the city.
Keywords: heavy metal, hazardous waste, waste management, litterProcedia PDF Downloads 5
1139 Analytical Solutions of Time Space Fractional, Advection-Dispersion and Whitham-Broer-Kaup Equations
Authors: Muhammad Danish Khan, Imran Naeem, Mudassar Imran
Abstract:In this article, we study time-space Fractional Advection-Dispersion (FADE) equation and time-space Fractional Whitham-Broer-Kaup (FWBK) equation that have a significant role in hydrology. We introduce suitable transformations to convert fractional order derivatives to integer order derivatives and as a result these equations transform into Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). Then the Lie symmetries and corresponding optimal systems of the resulting PDEs are derived. The symmetry reductions and exact independent solutions based on optimal system are investigated which constitute the exact solutions of original fractional differential equations.
Keywords: modified Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, lie-symmetries, optimal system, invariant solutionsProcedia PDF Downloads 367
1138 Ergonomics: Solutions for the Prevention of Injuries
Authors: Muhamad Ammar Bin Mohd Asri, Muhammad Hamizan Bin Yusof, Muhammad Haziq Bin Abdul Khalil, Esman Hanief Bin Khairul Anuar, Muhammad Fikri Bin Ishak, Amril Azim Bin Mohd Norrahim, Muhammad Danial Fakhri Bin Fakhruddin, Muhammad Khairul Nizam in Hosnodin, Muhammad Ezzat Hariz Bin Norhisam
Abstract:Ergonomics is the science of creating and arranging workplaces, products, and systems to increase human performance, comfort, and safety. This study researched ergonomics as a solution for preventing workplace injuries, specifically musculoskeletal disorders, among employers and employees. The method will be used in this project is a literature review which means conducting a study about ergonomics with peer-reviewed journal articles and books. It focuses on employees and employers who are in one company on other departments under the protection of Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA). These solutions include ergonomic assessments, workplace design improvements, effective training and education, and the use of ergonomic tools and equipment. Employers can build workplaces that are safer and more productive by putting these solutions in place, and employees can work comfortably and prevent accidents from bad ergonomics. Overall, the paper highlights how crucial it is to take injury prevention measures and consider ergonomics at work.
Keywords: occupational safety and health, musculoskeletal disorders, ergonomic, ergonomic riskProcedia PDF Downloads 4
1137 Morphometric Relationships of Length-Weight and Length-Length of Oreochromis aureus in Relation to Body Size and Condition Factor from Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdus Salam, Sumera Yasmin, Abir Ishtiaq
Abstract:In the present study, eighty-three wild Oreochromis aureus of different body size ranging 5.3-14.6 cm in total length were collected from the River Chenab, District Muzzafer Garh, Pakistan to investigate the parameters of length –weight, length-length relationships and condition factor in relation to size. Each fish was measured and weighed on arrival at laboratory. Log transformed regressions were used to test the allometric growth. Length-weight relationship was found highly significant (r = 0.964; P < 0.01). The values of exponent “ b” in Length–weight regression (W=aL^b), deviated from 3, showing isometric growth (b = 2.75). Results for LLRs indicated that these are highly correlated (P < 0.001). Condition factor (K) found constant with increasing body weight, however, showed negative influence with increasing total length.
Keywords: lenght-weight, Oreochromis aureus, morphometric studyProcedia PDF Downloads 347
1136 Lethal and Sub-Lethal Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Demography of Convergent Lady Beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Goeze) (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera)
Authors: Ayesha Iftikhar, Faisal Hafeez, Muhammad Jawad Saleem, Afifa Naeem, Muhammad Sohaib
Abstract:To further develop integrated pest management (IPM) tactics against insect pests, demographic toxicology is considered important and efficient to evaluate the long-term effects of pesticides on biological control agents. In this study, lethal and sub-lethal effects of Pyriproxyfen (insect growth regulator) two concentrations of LC10 and LC30 were tested on second instar larvae of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Goeze) in order to evaluate the effect of insecticide on demographic parameters of the predator under laboratory conditions. The life table parameters were analysed statistically by using age-stage, two sex life table procedure. The results of this study show that developmental time for immature was prolonged in treated population (LC30 and LC10) rather than in control. Similarly, male and female longevity was also longer in the control group as compared to the treated population. Adult pre-oviposition period and fecundity were also greater in control as compared to the treated population. In addition, population parameters such as net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) were also greater in control group rather than treated population. However, mean generation time (T) was greater in the treated group. The results revealed that pyriproxyfen, even at low concentrations, has potential to greatly affect the population growth of predatory lady beetle, therefore care should be taken when insect growth regulators are used within an IPM framework.
Keywords: ladybird beetle, IGR, integrated pest management, population inhibitionProcedia PDF Downloads 69
1135 Online Community Suitable for e-Masjid ?
Authors: Norlizam Md Sukiban, Muhammad Faisal Ashaari, Hidayah bt Rahmalan
Abstract:The role that a mosque or masjid have applied during the life of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was magnificent. Masjid managed to gather the community in lots of ways. It was the center of the first Islamic community and nation, with greatest triumphs and tragedies. It was a place to accommodate for the community center, homeless refuge, university and mosque all rolled into one. However, the role of masjid applied today was less than the time of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was alive. The advanced technology such as the internet has a major impact to the community nowadays. For example, community online has been chosen for lots of people to maintain their relationship and suggest various events among the communities members. This study is to investigate the possibility of the role of e-Masjid in adapting the concept of community online in order to remain the role played as such as role of masjid during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). Definition and the characteristic of the online community were listed, along with the benefits of the online community. Later, discussion on the possibility of the online community to be adapted in e-Masjid.
Keywords: e-masjid, online community, virtual community, e-communityProcedia PDF Downloads 387
1134 Length-Weight and Length-Length Relationships of Oreochromis aureus in Relation to Body Size from Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Amina Zubari, Abdus Salam, Summera Yasmeen, Syed Ali Ayub Bukhari, Abir Ishtiaq
Abstract:In the present study, eighty three wild Oreochromis aureus of different body size ranging 5.3-14.6 cm in total length were collected from the River Chenab, District Muzzafer Garh, Pakistan to investigate the parameters of length –weight, length-length relationships and condition factor in relation to size. Each fish was measured and weighed on arrival at laboratory. Log transformed regressions were used to test the allometric growth. Length-weight relationship was found highly significant (r = 0.964; P < 0.01). The values of exponent “ b” in Length–weight regression (W=aLb), deviated from 3, showing isometric growth (b = 2.75). Results for LLRs indicated that these are highly correlated (P< 0.001). Condition factor (K) found constant with increasing body weight, however, showed negative influence with increasing total length.
Keywords: Oreochromis aureus, weight-length relationship, condition factor, predictive equationsProcedia PDF Downloads 693
1133 Antiprotozoal Activity of Peganum harmala against Babesiosis in Cattle
Authors: Muhammad Mustafa Jafar, Syed Ashar Mahfooz, Muhammad Ejaz Saleem, Muhammad Asif Raza, Asghar Abbas, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Kasib Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq
Abstract:The Babesia gradually attained resistance against the synthetic medicines. To overcome the drug resistance, herbal therapy has gained more attention as compared to allopathic therapy. Peganumharmala (harmal) is a plant which has shown effective results against various protozoal diseases. Therefore, the present study was planned to monitor the efficacy of Peganumharmala (aqueous extract) against Babesiosis in cattle. For this purpose, a total of forty (n=40) infected animals were randomly divided into four equal groups (A, B, C, and D). Group A was treated with aqueous extract of Peganum harmala at 7.5 mg/kg, group B at 10 mg/kg and group C at 12.5 mg/kg of body weight. Group D served as a control group (normal). It was observed that there was a stabilization in hematological parameters (white and red blood cells, hemoglobin and Packed cell volume) in infected animals treated with Peganum harmala at different doses. Results of this study hence indicated that Peganum harmala extract at 12.5mg/kg BW is more effective against Babesiosis than lower doses.
Keywords: Babesiosis, cattle, control, Peganum harmalaProcedia PDF Downloads 169
1132 Comparison of Small Ruminants (Sheep) Production Efficiency of Nomadic and Transhumance Flocks in Malakand, Pakistan
Authors: Akbar Nawaz Khan, Abdul Ghaffar, Abdur Rehman, Muhammad Naeem Riaz, Sayed Muhammad Hassan Andrabi
Abstract:The present study was conducted to compare sheep rearing in nomadic with transhumance system in term of production parameters. The following parameters which studied for comparison were household size, landholding area, flock size, body condition score, fecal egg count and live weight change in sheep under nomadic and transhumance systems of management in Malakand since October 2010 to March 2011. Further the effects of Body Condition Score (BCS) and Fecal Egg Count (FEC) on production were also examined. Two systems were checked for the purpose to check the efficiency of production. A total of eight flocks, four each from nomadic and transhumance system were selected for the study; each flock was divided into treatment and controlled groups to check the effect of treatment or de-wormers. A total of 160 animals were selected randomly (80 treated, 80 controlled). The adult ram average weight transhumance system was 55.58 kg while in nomadic that was 54.16 kg, weight change was positive, and the highest change was recorded in transhumance treated which was 13%. Fecal egg count was record low (75 EPG) in transhumance treated group while high (330 EPG) in nomadic controlled. Body condition score was recorded 3.6 for transhumance treated and 3.32 for nomadic treated. It is concluded from the present study that transhumance system performed significantly (p < 0.05) better in respect of live weight, BCS, FEC, family size, Landholding area, number of animals in a flock, offspring record, culling, and mortality. Mean values are 7.367 ± 0221, 0.900 ± 0.071, 63.167 ± 1.559, 55.600 ± 1.480, 8.300 ± 0.321 and 2.500 ± 0.158 respectively. De-wormer effect on FEC showed a significant reduction in egg load in mature sheep on both systems.
Keywords: small ruminant, sheep, nomadic, transhumance, Malakand, production efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 153
1131 Biomass For Energy In Improving Sustainable Economic Development
Authors: Dahiru Muhammad, Muhammad Danladi, Muhammad Yahaya, Adamu Garba
Abstract:This paper put forward the potentialities of biomass for energy as divers means of sustainable economic development. The paper explains, in brief, the ways or methods that are used to generate energy from biomass, such as combustion, pyrolysis, anaerobic, and gasification, and also how biomass for energy can enhance the sustainable economic development of a Nation. Currently, the nation depends on fossil fuels as a sources of generating its energy which is finite and deflectable with time, while on the other hand, biomass is an alternative and endless product which consists of forest biomass, agricultural residues, and energy crops. Finally, recommendations and conclusion were made on the role of biomass for energy in improving sustainable economic development.
Keywords: biomass, energy, sustainability, economicProcedia PDF Downloads 19
1130 In-Vitro Stability of Aspergillus terreus Phytases in Relation to Different Physico-Chemical Factors
Authors: Qaiser Akram, Ahsan Naeem, Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan, Waqas Ahmad, Rubeena Yasmeen
Abstract:Aspergillus has good secretory potential for phytases. Morphologically and microscopically identified Aspergillus terreus (A. terreus) (n=20) were screened for phytase production and non-toxicity. Phytases produced by non-toxigenic A. terreus under optimum conditions were quantified. Phytases of highest producer A. terreus were evaluated for stability after exposure to temperature (35, 55, 75 and 95ºC) and pH (2, 4, 6 and 8). Effect of metal ions (Fe⁺³, Ba⁺², Ca⁺², Cu⁺², Mg⁺², Mn⁺², K⁺¹ and Na⁺¹) was assessed on phytase activity. Log reduction in phytase activity was calculated. The highest activity units of phytase produced by A. terreus were 271.49 ± 8.14 phytase unit / mL (FTU/ mL). The lowest reduction in phytase activity was 50.20 ± 7.36 (18.5%) and 68.22 ± 10.3 FTU/mL (25.13%) at 35ºC and pH 6, respectively for 15 minutes. The highest reduction 259 ± 0.84 (95.5%) and 211.99 ± 4.39 FTU/mL (78.1%) was recorded at 95ºC for 60 minutes and pH 2.0 for 45 minutes exposure, respectively. All metal ions negatively affected phytase activity. Phytase activity was inhibited minimum (45.32 ± 28.54 FTU/mL, 16.69%) by K⁺¹(1 mM) and maximum (231.48 ± 3.68 FTU/mL, 80.8%) by Cu⁺² (10 mM). It was concluded that A. terreus phytase stability and activity was dependent on physio-chemical factors.
Keywords: stability, phytase, aspergillus terreus, physio-chemical factors and metal ionsProcedia PDF Downloads 45
1129 Body Composition Analysis of Wild Labeo Bata in Relation to Body Size and Condition Factor from Chenab, Multan, Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Amina Zubari, Abdus Salam, Syed Ali Ayub Bukhari, Naveed Ahmad Khan
Abstract:Seventy three wild Labeo bata of different body sizes, ranging from 8.20-16.00 cm total length and 7.4-86.19 g body weight, were studied for the analysis of body composition parameters (Water content, ash content, fat content, protein content) in relation to body size and condition factor. Mean percentage is found as for water 77.71 %, ash 3.42 %, fat 2.20 % and protein content 16.65 % in whole wet body weight. Highly significant positive correlations were observed between condition factor and body weight (r = 0.243). Protein contents, organic content and ash (% wet body weight) increase with increasing percent water contents for Labeo bata while these constituents (% dry body weight) and fat contents (% wet and dry body weight) have no influence on percent water. It was observed that variations in the body constituents have no association to body weight or length.
Keywords: Labeo bata, body size, body composition, condition factorProcedia PDF Downloads 422
1128 Biomass Energy In Improving Sustainable Economic Development
Authors: Dahiru Muhammad, Muhammad Danladi, Adamu Garba, Muhammad Yahaya
Abstract:This paper put forward the potentialities of biomass for energy as divers means of sustainable economic development. The paper explains in brief the ways or methods that are used to generate energy from biomass, such as combustion, pyrolysis, anaerobic, and gasification, and also how biomass for energy can enhance the sustainable economic development of a Nation. Currently, the nation depends on fossil fuels as a sources of generating its energy which is finite and deflectable with time, while on the other hand, biomass is an alternative and endless product which consists of a forest biomass, agricultural residues, and energy crops. Finally, recommendations and conclusion were made on the role of biomass for energy in improving sustainable economic development.
Keywords: biomass, energy, sustainable, economic, developmentProcedia PDF Downloads 13
1127 Initial Dip: An Early Indicator of Neural Activity in Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy Waveform
Authors: Mannan Malik Muhammad Naeem, Jeong Myung Yung
Abstract:Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has a favorable position in non-invasive brain imaging techniques. The concentration change of oxygenated hemoglobin and de-oxygenated hemoglobin during particular cognitive activity is the basis for this neuro-imaging modality. Two wavelengths of near-infrared light can be used with modified Beer-Lambert law to explain the indirect status of neuronal activity inside brain. The temporal resolution of fNIRS is very good for real-time brain computer-interface applications. The portability, low cost and an acceptable temporal resolution of fNIRS put it on a better position in neuro-imaging modalities. In this study, an optimization model for impulse response function has been used to estimate/predict initial dip using fNIRS data. In addition, the activity strength parameter related to motor based cognitive task has been analyzed. We found an initial dip that remains around 200-300 millisecond and better localize neural activity.
Keywords: fNIRS, brain-computer interface, optimization algorithm, adaptive signal processingProcedia PDF Downloads 158
1126 Information Technology and Occupational Safety and Health
Authors: Muhammad Afiq Anaqi Bin Baharudin, Muhammad Izamuddin Bin Mohd Nasir, Syarifuddin Bin Sujuanda, Muhammad Syahmi Rusyaidi Bin Sham Suddin, Danish Hakimi Bin Kamaruzaman, Muhammad Haqimi Nazim Bin Hasmanizam, Mohammad Akmal Zakwan Bin Amran, Muhammad Alparizi Bin Latif
Abstract:By improving efficiency and production, information technology (IT) has transformed working environments, but it has also created new threats to occupational safety and health (OSH). This study evaluates the literature that has already been written on the subject of IT and OSH, identifies major findings and discussion points, and highlights gaps in the material that call for additional research. The study's findings, which look at how IT affects OSH in a sizable multinational organization, are also presented in the report. According to the report, IT poses a number of OSH problems, such as ergonomic dangers, eye strain, dangers related to cybersecurity, and psychological hazards. The report suggests using tactics like providing comfortable workstations, encouraging a healthy balance between work and life, and putting strong cybersecurity safeguards in place to reduce these dangers. The implications of these findings for OSH and IT are discussed in the paper's conclusion, and it emphasizes the need for more study and action to address these dangers and promote healthy and secure working environments in the age of digitization.
Keywords: information technology, occupational safety and health (OSH), ergonomic, hazards, workplace.Procedia PDF Downloads 16
1125 A Correlative Study of Heating Values of Saw Dust and Rice Husks in the Thermal Generation of Electricity
Authors: Muhammad Danladi, Muhammad Bura Garba, Muhammad Yahaya, Dahiru Muhammad
Abstract:Biomass is one of the primary sources of energy supply, which contributes to about 78% of Nigeria. In this work, a comparative analysis of the heating values of sawdust and rice husks in the thermal generation of electricity was carried out. In the study, different masses of biomass were used and the corresponding electromotive force in millivolts was obtained. A graph of e.m.f was plotted against the mass of each biomass and a gradient was obtained. Bar graphs were plotted to represent the values of e.m.f and masses of the biomass. Also, a graph of e.m.f against eating values of sawdust and rice husks was plotted, and in each case, as the e.m.f increases also, the heating values increases. The result shows that saw dust with 0.033Mv/g gradient and 3.5 points of intercept had the highest gradient, followed by rice husks with 0.026Mv/g gradient and 2.6 points of intercept. It is, therefore, concluded that sawdust is the most efficient of the two types of biomass in the thermal generation of electricity.
Keywords: biomass, electricity, thermal, generationProcedia PDF Downloads 16
1124 The Importance of Political Advice in Islam: Hadith Thematical Study
Authors: Nurzarimah Jamil, Mohd Nazaruddin Jamil
Abstract:This paper is a preliminary study about The Importance of Political Advice in Islam: Ḥadīth Thematical Study by showing the concept and proper ways to advice to politician based on hadith Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The unique of political advice in Islam that Muslim already have the strong and fulfil example that can be apply in nowadays governance that is the way of political and leadership Prophet Muhammad show in his time. As a political leader, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) established a great state whose capital was Madinah. However, his real political leadership was in the realm of morality and spirituality in which he conducted himself perfectly in situations of weakness as well as strength. His way of dealing in Makkah and Madinah indicates his great political leadership. Based on fact nowadays some of the country not practicing the proper way to advice to rulers or governance that make a lot of madness around them. This paper also aims the concept and the proper way that can be following to all Muslim to advising by the politeness, justice and kindness.
Keywords: Hadith, leadership, political advice, Prophet MuhammadProcedia PDF Downloads 304