Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Oreochromis mossambica

30 Male Oreochromis mossambica as Indicator for Water Pollution with Trace Elements in Relation to Condition Factor from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Syed M. Moeen-ud-Din Raheel, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Naeem Qaisar, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Zubair Ahmed, Muhammad Ashraf

Abstract:

Iron, Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium levels were estimated to study the risk of trace elements on human consumption. The area of collection was Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan and was evaluated by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The standards find in favor of the six heavy metals were in accordance with the threshold edge concentrations on behalf of fish meat obligatory by European and other international normative. Regressions were achieved for both size (length and weight) and condition factor with concentrations of metal present in the fish body.

Keywords: Oreochromis mossambica, toxic analysis, body size, condition factor

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29 Feeding Habits and Condition Factor of Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Alau, Northeastern Nigeria

Authors: Zahra Ali Lawan, Ali Abdulhakim

Abstract:

The stomach contents of 100 Oreochromis niloticus, sampled between April and August, 2011 in Alau Lake, northeastern Nigeria, were examined. Herbs and algae were the main contents representing 40.15%, 23.36% followed by some mud / sand components, insect parts and fish remains representing 14.60%, 13.87% and 8.03% respectively. Oreochromis niloticus was affirmed as an herbivore and a benthic feeder due to the presence of both herbs and mud/sand among its stomach content. The mean stomach fullness percentage was 70.94% and stomach emptiness was 29.06%. The average condition factor of the fishes was 1.69 with the best conditions recorded in the dry months of April and May at 1.74 and 1.94 respectively. The general trend in the condition factor for this species in this study is that relatively higher condition factors were recorded for relatively higher lengths.

Keywords: stomach contents, oreochromis niloticus, herbivores, Lake Alau

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28 Morphometric Relationships of Length-Weight and Length-Length of Oreochromis aureus in Relation to Body Size and Condition Factor from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdus Salam, Sumera Yasmin, Abir Ishtiaq

Abstract:

In the present study, eighty-three wild Oreochromis aureus of different body size ranging 5.3-14.6 cm in total length were collected from the River Chenab, District Muzzafer Garh, Pakistan to investigate the parameters of length –weight, length-length relationships and condition factor in relation to size. Each fish was measured and weighed on arrival at laboratory. Log transformed regressions were used to test the allometric growth. Length-weight relationship was found highly significant (r = 0.964; P < 0.01). The values of exponent “ b” in Length–weight regression (W=aL^b), deviated from 3, showing isometric growth (b = 2.75). Results for LLRs indicated that these are highly correlated (P < 0.001). Condition factor (K) found constant with increasing body weight, however, showed negative influence with increasing total length.

Keywords: lenght-weight, Oreochromis aureus, morphometric study

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27 Length-Weight and Length-Length Relationships of Oreochromis aureus in Relation to Body Size from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Amina Zubari, Abdus Salam, Summera Yasmeen, Syed Ali Ayub Bukhari, Abir Ishtiaq

Abstract:

In the present study, eighty three wild Oreochromis aureus of different body size ranging 5.3-14.6 cm in total length were collected from the River Chenab, District Muzzafer Garh, Pakistan to investigate the parameters of length –weight, length-length relationships and condition factor in relation to size. Each fish was measured and weighed on arrival at laboratory. Log transformed regressions were used to test the allometric growth. Length-weight relationship was found highly significant (r = 0.964; P < 0.01). The values of exponent “ b” in Length–weight regression (W=aLb), deviated from 3, showing isometric growth (b = 2.75). Results for LLRs indicated that these are highly correlated (P< 0.001). Condition factor (K) found constant with increasing body weight, however, showed negative influence with increasing total length.

Keywords: Oreochromis aureus, weight-length relationship, condition factor, predictive equations

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26 Effect of Dietary Cellulose Levels on the Growth Parameters of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus Fingerlings

Authors: Keri Alhadi Ighwela, Aziz Bin Ahmad, A. B. Abol-Munafi

Abstract:

Three purified diets were formulated using fish meal, soya bean, wheat flour, palm oil, minerals and maltose. The carbohydrate in the diets was increased from 5 to 15% by changing the cellulose content to study the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on the growth parameters of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.The protein and the lipid contents were kept constant in all the diets. The results showed that, weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilisation and hepatosomatic index of fish fed the diet containing 15% cellulose were the lowest among all groups. Addition, the fish fed the diet containing 5% cellulose had the best specific growth rate, and food conversion ratio. While, there was no effect of the dietary cellulose levels on condition factor and survival rate. These results indicate that Nile tilapia fingerlings are able to utilize dietary cellulose does not exceed 10% in their feed for optimum growth.

Keywords: dietary cellulose, growth parameters, oreochromis niloticus, purified diets

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25 Growth Pattern and Condition Factor of Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus in Epe Lagoon, Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Ahmed Bolaji Alarape, Oluwatobi Damilola Aba

Abstract:

The growth pattern of Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus in Epe Lagoon Lagos State was investigated. One hundred (100) samples of each species were collected from fishermen at the landing site. They were transported to the Fisheries Laboratory of National Institute of Oceanography for identification, sexing morphometric measurement. The results showed that 58.0% and 56.0 % of the O.niloticus and S.galilaeus were female respectively while 42.0% and 44.0% were male respectively. The length-weight relationship of O.niloticus showed a strong regression coefficient (r = 0.944) (p<0.05) for the combined sex, (r =0.901) (p<0.05) for female and (r=0.985) (p<.05) for male with b-value of 2.5, 3.1 and 2.8 respectively. The S.galilaeus also showed a regression coefficient of r=0.970; p<0.05 for the combined sex, r=0.953; p<0.05 for the female and r= 0.979; p<0.05 for the male with b-value of 3.4, 3.1 and 3.6 respectively. O.niloticus showed an isometric growth pattern both in male and female. The condition factor in O.niloticus are 1.93 and 1.95 for male and female respectively while that of S.galilaeus is 1.95 for both sexes. Positive allometric was observed in both species except the male O.niloticus that showed negative allometric growth pattern. From the results of this study, the growth pattern of the two species indicated a good healthy environment.

Keywords: Epe Lagoon, length-weight relationship, Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus

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24 Determinants of Selenium Intake in a High HIV Prevalence Fishing Community in Bondo District, Kenya

Authors: Samwel Boaz Otieno, Fred Were, Ephantus Kabiru, Kaunda Waza

Abstract:

A study was done to establish determinants of selenium intake in a high HIV prevalence fishing community in the Pala Bondo district, Kenya. It was established that most of the respondents (61%) were small holder Farmers and Fishermen {χ2 (1, N=386) p<0.000}, and that most of them (91.2%) had up to college level education {χ2.(1, N=386) p<0.000}, while the number of males and females were not significantly different {χ (1, N=386) p=0.263} and 83.5% of respondents were married {χ2 (1, N=386) p=0.000}. The study showed that adults take on average 2.68 meals a day (N=382, SD=0.603), while children take 3.02 meals (N=386, SD=1.031) a day, and that in most households (82.6%) food is prepared by the women {χ2 (1, N=386) p=0.000} and further that 50% of foods eaten in that community are purchased {χ2 (1, N=386)=0.1818, p=0.6698}. The foods eaten by 75.2% of the respondents were Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus, and Sorghum bicolour, 64.1% vegetables and that both children and adults eat same types of food, and further that traditional foods which have become extinct are mainly vegetables (46%). The study established that selenium levels in foods eaten in Pala sub-locations varies with traditional vegetables having higher levels of selenium; for example, Laurnea cornuta (148.5 mg/kg), Cleome gynandra (121.5 mg/kg), Vignia ungulata (21.97 mg/kg), while Rastrineobola argentea (51 mg/kg), Lates niloticus (0), Oreochromis niloticus (0) Sorgum bicolour (19.97 mg/kg), and Sorgum bicolour (0). The study showed that there is an inverse relationship between foods eaten and selenium levels {RR=1.21, p=0.000}, with foods eaten by 75.2% of respondents (Oreochromis niloticus/Lates niloticus) having no detectable selenium. The four soil types identified in the study area had varying selenium levels with pleat loam (13.3 mg/kg), sandy loam (10.7 mg/kg), clay (2.8 mg/kg) and loam (4.8 mg/kg). It was concluded from this study that for the foods eaten by most of the respondents the selenium levels were below Daily Reference Intake.

Keywords: determinants, HIV, food, fishing, Selenium

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23 NMR-Based Metabolomics Reveals Dietary Effects in Liver Extracts of Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) Fed Different Levels of Starch

Authors: Rani Abro, Ali Ata Moazzami, Jan Erik Lindberg, Torbjörn Lundh

Abstract:

The effect of dietary starch level on liver metabolism in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) was studied using 1H-NMR based metabolomics. Fingerlings were fed iso-nitrogenous diets containing 0, 10 and 20 % starch for two months before liver samples were collected for metabolite analysis. Metabolite profiling was performed using 600 MHz NMR Chenomx software. In total, 48 metabolites were profiled in liver extracts from both fish species. Following the profiling, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLC-DA) were performed. These revealed that differences in the concentration of significant metabolites were correlated to the dietary starch level in both species. The most prominent difference in metabolic response to starch feeding between the omnivorous tilapia and the carnivorous Arctic charr was an indication of higher anaerobic metabolism in Arctic charr. The data also indicated that amino acid and pyrimidine metabolism was higher in Artic charr than in tilapia.

Keywords: arctic charr, metabolomics, starch, tilapia

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22 Characteristics of Edible Film Made from Skin and Bone Fish Gelatin, Spotted Oceanic Triggerfish (Canthidermis maculata) and Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)

Authors: Normalina Arpi, Fahrizal Fahrizal, Dewi Yunita

Abstract:

Edible films can increase the shelf life of various food products by acting as water, oxygen, and lipid barrier. Fish gelatin as a film-forming agent has unique characteristics but varies depending on fish species. The purpose of this research is to characterize edible film made using skin and bone fish gelatin with the addition of plasticizer. Gelatin of spotted oceanic triggerfish (Canthidermis maculata) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were used. Glycerol and sorbitol with concentration of 0.25 and 0.5 % were added as a plasticizer. Spotted oceanic triggerfish gelatin with sorbitol resulted film with higher tensile strength and oxygen permeability, whereas tilapia gelatin with glycerol produced an edible film with higher elongation and water vapor permeability. The edible film made of spotted oceanic triggerfish gelatin and 0.25% sorbitol had the best characteristics.

Keywords: edible film, fish gelatin , glycerol, sorbitol

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21 Condition Optimization for Trypsin and Chymotrypsin Activities in Economic Animals

Authors: Mallika Supa-Aksorn, Buaream Maneewan, Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn

Abstract:

For animals, trypsin and chymotrypsin are the 2 proteases that play the important role in protein digestion and involving in growth rate. In many animals, these two enzymes are indicated as growth parameter by feed. Although enzyme assay at optimal condition is significant for its accuracy activity determination. There is less report of trypsin and chymotrypsin. Therefore, in this study, optimization of pH and temperature for trypsin (T) and chymotrypsin (C) in economic species; i.e. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), sand goby (Oxyeleotoris marmoratus), giant freshwater prawn (Macrobachium rosenberchii) and native chicken (Gallus gallus) were investigated. Each enzyme of each species was assaying for its specific activity with variation of pH in range of 2-12 and temperature in range of 30-80 °C. It revealed that, for Nile tilapia, T had optimal condition at pH 9 and temperature 50-80 °C, whereas C had optimal condition at pH 8 and temperature 60 °C. For sand goby, T had optimal condition at pH 7 and temperature of 50 °C, while C had optimal condition at pH 11 and temperature of 70-75 °C. For juvenile freshwater prawn, T had optimal condition at pH 10-11 and temperature of 60-65 °C, C had optimal condition at pH 8 and temperature of 70°C. For starter native chicken, T has optimal condition at pH 7 and temperature of 70 °C, whereas C had o optimal condition at pH 8 and temperature of 60°C. This information of optimal conditions will be high valuable in further for, actual enzyme measurement of T and C activities that benefit for growth and feed analysis.

Keywords: trypsin, chymotrypsin, Oreochromis niloticus, Oxyeleotoris marmoratus, Macrobachium rosenberchii, Gallus gallus

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20 Fermented Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiacal) Peel Meal as a Replacement for Maize in the Diet of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings

Authors: N. A. Bamidele, S. O. Obasa, I. O. Taiwo, I. Abdulraheem, O. C. Odebiyi, A. A. Adeoye, O. E. Babalola, O. V. Uzamere

Abstract:

A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented unripe plantain peel meal (FUP) on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and economic indices of production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. Fingerlings (150) of Nile tilapia (1.70±0.1g) were stocked at 10 per plastic tank. Five iso-nitrogenous diets containing 40% crude protein in which maize meal was replaced by fermented unripe plantain peel meal at 0% (FUP0), 25% (FUP25), 50% (FUP50), 75% (FUP75) and 100% (FUP100) were formulated and prepared. The fingerlings were fed at 5% body weight per day for 56 days. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in all the growth parameters among the treatments. Feed conversion ratio of 1.35 in fish fed diet FUP25 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from 1.42 of fish fed diet FUP0. Apparent protein digestibility of 86.94% in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than 70.37% in fish fed diet FUP0 while apparent carbohydrate of 88.34% in fish fed diet FUP0 was significantly different (p < 0.05) from 70.29% of FUP100. Red blood cell (4.30 ml/mm3) of fish fed diet FUP100 was not significantly different from 4.13 ml/mm3 of fish fed diet FUP50. The highest percentage profit of 88.85% in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly higher than 66.68% in fish fed diet FUP0 while the profit index of 1.89 in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly different from 1.67 in fish fed diet FUP0. Therefore, fermented unripe plantain peel meal can completely replace maize in the diet of O. niloticus fingerlings.

Keywords: fermentation, fish diets, plantain peel, tilapia

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19 Effect of Zinc Nanoparticles on Oxidative Stress-Related Genes and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in the Brain of Oreochromis Niloticus and Tilapia Zillii

Authors: Salina Saddick, Mohamed Afifi, Osama Abuznadah

Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the median lethal concentrations (LC50) of Zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) on Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zillii. The biochemical and molecular potential effects of ZnNPs (500 and 2000 μg L−1) on the antioxidant system in the brain tissue of O. niloticus and T. zillii were investigated. Four hundred fish were used for acute and sub-acute studies. ZnNP LC50 concentrations were investigated in O. niloticus and T. zillii. The effect of 500 and 2000 μg L−1 ZnNPs on brain antioxidants of O. niloticus and T. zillii was investigated. The result indicated that 69 h LC50 was 5.5 ± 0.6 and 5.6 ± 0.4 for O. nilotica and T. zillii, respectively. Fish exposed to 500 μg L−1 ZnNPs showed a significant increase in reduced glutathione (GSH), total glutathione (tGSH) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and gene expression. On the contrary, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels significantly decreased. Meanwhile, fish exposed to 2000 μg L−1 ZnNPs showed a significant decrease of GSH, tGSH levels, SOD, CAT, GR, GPx and GST activity and gene expression. On the contrary, MDA levels significantly increased. It was concluded that, the 96 h LC50 of ZnNPs was 5.5 ± 0.6 and 5.6 ± 0.4 for O. nilotica and T. zillii, respectively. ZnNPs in exposure concentrations of 2000 μg/L induced a deleterious effect on the brain antioxidant system of O. nilotica and T. zillii. In contrast, ZnNPs in exposure concentrations of 500 μg L−1 produced an inductive effect on the brain antioxidant system of O. nilotica and T. zillii.

Keywords: ZnNPs, LC50, antioxidants, O. nilotica

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18 Effect of Substituting Groundnut Cake with Remnant of Food Composite on Survival and Growth of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus Fingerlings

Authors: M. Y. Abubakar, M. Yunisa, A. N. Muhammad

Abstract:

Constraining the production Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus culture is the prohibitive cost of feed. We assess the performance of the species fingerlings on diets substituted with composite. Four dietary treatments (0%, 25%, 45%, and 75%) for C. gariepinus and five (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and whole food composite) for O. niloticus were formulated and each fed to 15 fingerlings for C. gariepinus and 10 fingerlings for O. niloticus stocked in 75ltrs plastic bowls, replicated trice in a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted 56 days. Percent survival rate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (57.78 ± 9.69) in C. gariepinus fed diet III. The growth and nutrient utilization indices were least in the fish fed diet IV, which was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in other treatments. Fish fed dietary treatment III, recorded the best in growth and nutrient utilization indices and was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those fed dietary treatments I & II which were non-significant (p > 0.05) and higher than those fed 75% substitution. Better profit index was in the fish fed diet with 50% substitution level. For O. niloticus, the survival (172.62 ± 39.03) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in those fed 25% substituted diet. For growth indices, the least performed were those fed whole composite while other treatments were non-significant (p > 0.05) different from each other. In terms of nutrient utilization, fish fed diet substituted at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% food composite had similar food conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. However, there was no significant difference in the profit index among the whole treatment. It can be concluded that food composite from Sokoto house-holds can optimally replace groundnut cake up to 50% level as a protein source in the diets of Clarias gariepinus and O. niloticus fingerlings without adverse effects on survival, growth, and nutrient utilization.

Keywords: food composite, nutrient utilization, C. gariepinus, O. niloticus household, substitution levels

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17 Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals Influence on Growth of Silver Catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus) Collected from Brackish and Freshwater, South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Atilola O. Abidemi-Iromini, Oluayo A. Bello-Olusoji, Immanuel A. Adebayo

Abstract:

Ecological studies were carried out in Asejire Reservoir (AR) and Lagos Lagoon (LL), Southwest Nigeria from January 2012 to December 2013 to determine the health status of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (CN) and Oreochromis niloticus (ON). The fish species samples were collected every month, these were separated into sexes, and growth pattern {length, (cm); weight (g), Isometric index, condition factor} were measured. Heavy metals (lead (Pb), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and chromium (Cr) in ppm concentrations were also determined while bacteria occurrence(s), (load and prevalence) on fish skins, gills and intestine in the two ecological zones were determined. The fish ratio collected is in range with normal aquatic (1: 1+) male: female ratio. Growth assessment determined revealed no significant difference in length and weight in O. niloticus between locations, but a significant difference in weight occurred in C. nigrodigitatus between locations, with a higher weight (196.06 ±0.16 g) from Lagos Lagoon. Highest condition factor (5.25) was recorded in Asejire Reservoir O. niloticus, (ARON); and lowest condition factor (1.64) was observed in Asejire Reservoir C. nigrodigitatus (ARCN); as this indicated a negative allometric value which is normal in Bagridae species because it increases more in Length to weight gain than for the Cichlidae growth status. Normal growth rate (K > 1) occurred between sexes, with the male species having higher K - factors than female species within locations, between locations, between species, and within species, except for female C. nigrodigitatus having higher condition factor (K = 1.75) than male C. nigrodigitatus (K = 1.54) in Asejire Reservoir. The highest isometric value (3.05) was recorded in Asejire Reservoir O. niloticus and lowest in Lagos Lagoon C. nigrodigitatus. Male O. niloticus from Asejire Reservoir had highest isometric value, and O. niloticus species had higher condition factor which ranged between isometric (b ≤ 3) and positive allometric (b > 3), hence, denoted robustness of fish to grow more in weight than in length; while C. nigrodigitatus fish has negative allometric (b < 3) indicating fish add more length than in weight on growth. The status of condition factors and isometric values obtained is species-specific, and environmental influence, food availability or reproduction factor may as well be contributing factors. The concentrations of heavy metals in fish flesh revealed that Zn (6.52 ±0.82) had the highest, while Cr (0.01±0.00) was ranked lowest; for O. niloticus in Asejire Reservoir. In Lagos Lagoon, heavy metals concentration level revealed that O. niloticus flesh had highest in Zn (4.71±0.25) and lowest in Pb (0.01±0.00). Lagos Lagoon C. nigrodigitatus heavy metal concentration level revealed Zn (9.56±0.96) had highest, while Cr (0.06±0.01) had lowest; and Asejire Reservoir C. nigrodigitatus heavy metal level revealed that Zn (8.26 ±0.74) had highest, and Cr (0.08±0.00) had lowest. In all, Zinc (Zn) was top-ranked in level among species.

Keywords: Oreochromis niloticus, growth status, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, environments, heavy metals

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16 Moringa olifera Curate The Toxic Potential of CuO Nanoparticles in Oreochromis mossambicus

Authors: Farhat Jabeen, Muhammad Asad

Abstract:

The study assessed the curative potential of Moringa olifera seeds against copper oxide nanoparticles induced toxicity in Oreochromis mossambicus. In order to investigate the curative potential of M. olifera seeds, firstly we examine its chemical composition, secondary metabolites, and bioactive compounds including hydroxyl-cinnamic acids, flavanols and hydroxybenzoic acids through standard methods and high performance liquid chromatography. In current study, the potential sub-lethal toxic dose of CuO-NPs (0.12 mg/l) was investigated through pilot experiment and three non-lethal doses (low=32, medium=48 and high=96 mg/l) of M. olifera were selected on the basis of its LC50 value for O. mossambicus. The experimental fish, O. mossambicus (n=100 of approximately 20 g each) were procured from Manawan Fisheries Complex, Lahore, and acclimatized for two weeks in glass aquaria. Experiment was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of Institutional Animal Ethics Committee, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. During acclimatization and experimental period, fish received the commercial fish feed at 2.5% body weight daily. In order to assess the curative effect of M. olifera against CuO NPs induced toxicity, O. mossambicus were randomly divided into five groups and were designated as control (C) without any treatment, positive control (G*) exposed to potential toxic dose of CuO-NPs at 0.12 mg/l, and three treated groups namely G1, G2, and G3 co-treated with 0.12 mg/l of CuO-NPs plus different doses of M. olifera seed extract at 32, 48, and 96 mg/l, respectively for 56 days. Fish were exposed to waterborne CuO NPs and M. olifera seed extract. CuO-NPs treatment was ceased after 28 days but the doses of M. olifera were continued for 56 days. Blood was taken after 28 and 56 days through caudal venipuncture. Liver and intestine were taken for oxidative stress and histological studies after 56 days. In M. olifera seeds, moisture contents, crude protein, lipids, carbohydrates and ash were recorded as 3.8, 37.83, 32.52, 46.12, and 7.75%, respectively on dry weight basis. Total energy was recorded as 627.36 kcal/100g. Qualitative analysis of M. olifera seeds showed the presence of terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and phenolics, while its quantitative analysis showed the considerable amount of total phenolics, flavonoids, saponins, and alkaloids as 134.75, 170.15, 1.57, and 0.4 µg/mg, respectively. Analysis of bioactive compounds in M. olifera seeds showed the presence of hydroxy-cinnamic acids (6.07 µg/ml), flavanols (71.72 µg/ml), and hydroxyl benzoic acids (97.82 µg/ml). The results showed that M. oliefera seed extract at 48 and 56 mg/l was able to cure against the toxic effects of CuO-NPs. The significant changes were observed in G* and G1 for sero-hepatic enzymes, anti-oxidants and histological profile. The investigations of this study showed that M. olifera is a good curative agent against potential induced toxicity of CuO-NPs in O. mossambicus. The curative effect of M. olifera is attributed to the presence of higher amount of secondary metabolites and bioactive compounds. This study suggested the use of M. olifera to curate different ailments in fish and other organisms.

Keywords: CuO nanoparticles, curative, Moringa olifera, Oreochromis mossambicus

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15 Evaluation of Molasses and Sucrose as Cabohydrate Sources for Biofloc System on Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Performances

Authors: A. M. Nour, M. A. Zaki, E. A. Omer, Nourhan Mohamed

Abstract:

Performances of mixed-sex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings (11.33 ± 1.78 g /fish) reared under biofloc system developed by molasses and sucrose as carbon sources in indoor fiberglass tanks were evaluated. Six indoor fiberglass tanks (1m 3 each filled with 1000 l of underground fresh water), each was stocked with 2kg fish were used for 14 weeks experimental period. Three experimental groups were designed (each group 2 tanks) as following: 1-control: 20% daily without biofloc, 2-zero water exchange rate with biofloc (molasses as C source) and 3-zero water exchange rate with biofloc (sucrose as C source). Fish in all aquariums were fed on floating feed pellets (30% crude protein, 3 mm in diameter) at a rate of 3% of the actual live fish body, 3 times daily and 6 days a week. Carbohydrate supplementations were applied daily to each tank two hrs, after feeding to maintain the carbon: nitrogen ratio (C: N) ratio 20:1. Fish were reared under continuous aeration by pumping air into the water in the tank bottom using two sandy diffusers and constant temperature between 27.0-28.0 ºC by using electrical heaters for 10 weeks. Criteria's for assessment of water quality parameters, biofloc production and fish growth performances were collected and evaluated. The results showed that total ammonia nitrogen in control group was higher than biofloc groups. The biofloc volumes were 19.13 mg/l and 13.96 mg/l for sucrose and molasses, respectively. Biofloc protein (%), ether extract (%) and gross energy (kcal/100g DM), they were higher in biofloc molasses group than biofloc sucrose group. Tilapia growth performances were significantly higher (P < 0.05) with molasses group than in sucrose and control groups, respectively. The highest feed and nutrient utilization values for protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein productive (PPV%) and energy utilization (EU, %) were higher in molasses group followed by sucrose group and control group respectively.

Keywords: biofloc, Nile tilapia, cabohydrates, performances

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14 Protection and Immune Responses of DNA Vaccines Targeting Virulence Factors of Streptococcus iniae in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Authors: Pattanapon Kayansamruaj, Ha Thanh Dong, Nopadon Pirarat, Channarong Rodkhum

Abstract:

Streptococcus iniae (SI) is a devastating pathogenic bacteria causing heavy mortality in farmed fish. The application of commercialized bacterin vaccine has been reported failures as the outbreaks of the new serotype of SI were emerged in farms after vaccination and subsequently caused severe losses. In the present study, we attempted to develop effective DNA vaccines against SI infection using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as an animal model. Two monovalent DNA vaccines were constructed by the insertion of coding sequences of cell wall-associated virulence factors-encoding genes, comprised of eno (α-enolase) and mtsB (hydrophobic membrane protein), into cytomegalovirus expression vector (pCI-neo). In the animal trial, 30-g Nile tilapia were injected intramuscularly with 15 µg of each vaccine (mock vaccine group was injected by naked pCI-neo) and maintained for 35 days prior challenging with pathogenic SI at the dosage of 107 CFU/fish. At 13 days post-challenge, the relative percent survival of pEno, pMtsB and mock vaccine were 57%, 45% and 27%, respectively. The expression levels of immune responses-associated genes, namely, IL1β, TNF-α, TGF-β, COX2, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-13, were investigated from the spleen of experimental animal at 7 days post-vaccination (PV) and 7 days post-challenge (PC) using quantitative RT-PCR technique. Generally, at 7 days PV, the pEno vaccinated group exhibited highest level of up-regulation (1.7 to 2.9 folds) of every gene, but TGF-β, comparing to pMtsB and mock vaccine groups. However, at 7 days PC, pEno group showed significant up-regulation (1.4 to 8.5 folds) of immune-related genes as similar as mock vaccine group, while pMtsB group had lowest level of up-regulation (0.7 to 3.3 folds). Summarily, this study indicated that the pEno and pMtsB vaccines could elicit the immune responses of the fish and the magnitude of gene expression at 7 days PV was also consistent with the protection level conferred by the vaccine.

Keywords: gene expression, DNA vaccine, Nile tilapia, Streptococcus iniae

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13 Snails and Fish as Pollution Biomarkers in Lake Manzala and Laboratory B: Lake Manzala Fish

Authors: Hanaa M. M. El-Khayat, Hanan S. Gaber, Hoda Abdel-Hamid, Kadria M. A. Mahmoud, Hoda M. A. Abu Taleb

Abstract:

This work aimed to examine Oreochromis niloticus fish from Lake Manzala in Port Said, Dakahlya and Damietta governorates, Egypt, as a bio-indicator for the lake water pollution through recording alterations in their hematological, physiological, and histopathological parameters. All fish samples showed a significant increase in levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); only Dakahlya samples showed a significant increase (p<0.01) in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level and most Dakahlya and Damietta samples showed reversed albumin and globulin ratio and a significant increase in γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level. Port-Said and Damietta samples showed a significant decrease of hemoglobin (Hb) while Dakahlya samples showed a significant decrease in white blood cell (WBC) count. Histopathological investigation for different fish organs showed that Port-Said and Dakahlya samples were more altered than Damietta. The muscle and gill followed by intestine were the most affected organs. The muscle sections showed severe edema, neoplasia, necrotic change, fat vacuoles and splitting of muscle fiber. The gill sections showed dilated blood vessels of the filaments, curling of gill lamellae, severe hyperplasia, edema and blood vessels congestion of filaments. The intestine sections revealed degeneration, atrophy, dilation in blood vessels and necrotic changes in sub-mucosa and mucosa with edema in between. The recorded significant alterations, in most of the physiological and histological parameters in O. niloticus samples from Lake Manzala, were alarming for water pollution impacts on lake fish community, which constitutes the main diet and the main source of income for the people inhabiting these areas, and were threatening their public health and economy. Also, results evaluate the use of O. niloticus fish as important bio-indicator for their habitat stressors.

Keywords: Lake Manzala, Oreochromis niloticus fish, water pollution, physiological, hematological and histopathological parameters

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12 Appraisal of Different Levels of Soybean Meal in Diets on Growth, Digestive Enzyme Activity, Antioxidation and Gut Histology of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Authors: Zakir Hossain, Arzu Pervin, Halima Jahan, Rabeya Akter, Abdel Omri

Abstract:

Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal is an effective way to relieve the pressure on fish meal as the supply of this feed ingredient is dwindling and certainly is not sustainable in long term at present levels in commercial feeds. This study was designed to determine the effect of fishmeal (FM) replacement with soybean meal (SBM) in diet on growth, digestive enzyme activity, antioxidation and gut histomorphology of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Five diets were formulated where SBM0 contained 100% FM, FM substituted with graded levels of a mix of SBM to replace 25% (SBM25), 50% (SBM50), 75% (SBM75) and 100% (SBM100) of FM. Juvenile tilapia having weight and length of 6.60±0.13 g and 5.42±0.17 cm were randomly divided into five treatment groups having 40 individual each group and fed to visual satiation for 90 days. Diet with SBM was increased significant in body weight gain and specific growth rate in fish compared to the fish fed with SBM100. Fish having the similar weight (74.34±5.41 g) fed the diets SBM50, SBM75 and SBM100 containing higher level of SBM showed significantly longer intestine compared to SBM0. Villus height of stomach and intestine were significantly greater in the fish fed with the diets SBM0, SBM25 and SBM50 compared to SBM100. Muscular thickness was inversely changed with the increasing villus height. Protease activity was increased significantly in stomach, anterior and posterior intestine of fish fed with SBM0 and SBM25 compared to SBM100. In anterior and posterior segment of intestine, significantly higher lipase activity was observed in fish fed with the diets SBM0 and SBM25 compared to diet SBM100. In stomach, amylase activity was also significantly greater in SBM0 compared to SBM100. The antioxidant enzymes including catalase and superoxide dismutase of liver were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the O. niloticus fed SBM100 compared to the ones fed SBM0. These results suggest that the replacement of FM upto 75% with SBM could be possible considering the growth performances, gut health and activities digestive enzymes and antioxidant enzymes in O. niloticus.

Keywords: soybean meal, fish meal, digestive enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes

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11 Assessment of Water Pollution in the River Nile (Egypt) by Applying Blood Biomarkers in Two Excellent Model Species Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Clarias gariepinus

Authors: Alaa G. M. Osman, Abd-El –Baset M. Abd El Reheem, Khaled Y. Abouelfadl, Usama M. Mahmoud, Mohsen A. Moustafa

Abstract:

This study aimed to explore new sites of biomarker research and to establish the use of blood parameters in wild fish populations. Four hundred and twenty fish samples were collected from six sites along the whole course of the river Nile, Egypt. The mean values of erythrocytes, thrombocytes, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit value, and mean corpuscular volume were significantly lower in the blood of Nile tilapia and African catfish collected from downstream (contaminated) compared to upstream sites. In contrast, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in the peripheral blood of both fish species significantly increased from upstream to downstream river Nile. The leukocytes count was significantly decreased in contaminated sites compared to upstream area. Hematological variables in the peripheral blood of Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Clarias gariepinus exhibited significant (p<0.05) correlation with nearly all the detected chemical and physical parameters along the Nile course. In the present study, lower cellular and nuclear areas and cellular and nuclear shape factor were recorded in the erythrocytes of fish collected from downstream compared to those caught from upstream sites. This was confirmed by higher immature ratios of red cells in the blood of fish sampled from downstream river Nile. Karyorrhetic and enucleated erythrocytes were significantly correlated with physiochemical parameters in water samples collected from the same sites is being higher in the blood of fish collected from downstream sites. To see if there was any correlation between fish altered physiological fitness and environmental stress, we measured serum biochemical variables namely; total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, chlorides, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), uric acid activity, creatinine, and serum glucose. The level of all the selected biochemical variables in the blood of O. niloticus niloticus and C. gariepinus were recorded to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in downstream sites. According to the present results, nearly all the detected haematological and blood biochemical variables are suitable indicators of contaminant exposure in O. niloticus niloticus and C. gariepinus. Also the detected erythrocytes malformations in blood collected from Nile tilapia and African catfish were proven to be suitable for bio-monitoring aquatic pollution. The results revealed species-specific differences in sensitivities, suggesting that Nile tilapia may serve as a more sensitive test species compared to African catfish.

Keywords: biomarkers, water pollution, blood parameters, river nile, african catfish, nile tilapia

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10 Analysis of Fertilizer Effect in the Tilapia Growth of Mozambique (Oreochromis mossambicus)

Authors: Sérgio Afonso Mulema, Andrés Carrión García, Vicente Ernesto

Abstract:

This paper analyses the effect of fertilizer (organic and inorganic) in the growth of tilapia. An experiment was implemented in the Aquapesca Company of Mozambique; there were considered four different treatments. Each type of fertilizer was applied in two of these treatments; a feed was supplied to the third treatment, and the fourth was taken as control. The weight and length of the tilapia were used as the growth parameters, and to measure the water quality, the physical-chemical parameters were registered. The results show that the weight and length were different for tilapias cultivated in different treatments. These differences were evidenced mainly by organic and feed treatments, where there was the largest and smallest value of these parameters, respectively. In order to prove that these differences were caused only by applied treatment without interference for the aquatic environment, a Fisher discriminant analysis was applied, which confirmed that the treatments were exposed to the same environment condition.

Keywords: fertilizer, tilapia, growth, statistical methods

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9 Fish Species Composition and Distribution of a Semi-Oxbow Lake in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Adeyemi, Samuel Olusegun

Abstract:

The paper reports on the result of experimental gill net assessment of the fishery of Gbedikere Lake in Kogi State between October 2006 and September 2008. Three stations A-C were sampled. Twelve species from ten families were represented in the experimental gill-net catches. These composed of families Protopteridae, Mormyridae, Clariidae, Mochokidae, Cichlidae, Cyprinidae, Malapteruridae, Osteoglossidae, Gymnarchidae, and Citharinidae. The Cichlids dominated the catches. This is made up of Oreochromis niloticus (17.90%), and Tilapia zilli (13.01%). These combined to make up 30.91% of the total number of fish caught. Also, the Cichlids formed 30.91% of the total catch by weight followed Heterotis niloticus (15.56%), Clarias gariepinus (13.16%), Gmynarchus niloticus (8.78%), Heterobranchus bidorsalis (7.14%), Synodontis nigrita (6.69%), Mormyrus rume (5.68%), Citharinus citharus (3.91%), Labeo senegalensis (2.93%), and Protopterus annectens (2.74%), respectively.

Keywords: experimental gill net, species diversity, abundance, distribution, Oxbow Lake and yield

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8 Cloning and Analysis of Nile Tilapia Toll-like receptors Type-3 mRNA

Authors: Abdelazeem Algammal, Reham Abouelmaatti, Xiaokun Li, Jisheng Ma, Eman Abdelnaby, Wael Elfeil

Abstract:

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best understood of the innate immune receptors that detect infections in vertebrates. However, the fish TLRs also exhibit very distinct features and a large diversity, which is likely derived from their diverse evolutionary history and the distinct environments that they occupy. Little is known about the fish immune system structure. Our work was aimed to identify and clone the Nile tilapiaTLR-3 as a model of freshwater fish species; we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) TLR-3 and according to our knowledge, it is the first report illustrating tilapia TLR-3. The complete cDNA sequence of Nile tilapia TLR-3 was 2736 pair base and it encodes a polypeptide of 912 amino acids. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that Nile tilapia TLR-3 has typical structural features and main components of proteins belonging to the TLR family. Our results illustrate a complete and functional Nile tilapia TLR-3 and it is considered an ortholog of the other vertebrate’s receptor.

Keywords: Nile tilapia, TLR-3, cloning, gene expression

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
7 Carbohydrates Quantification from Agro-Industrial Waste and Fermentation with Lactic Acid Bacteria

Authors: Prittesh Patel, Bhavika Patel, Ramar Krishnamurthy

Abstract:

Present study was conducted to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from Oreochromis niloticus and Nemipterus japonicus fish gut. The LAB isolated were confirmed through 16s rRNA sequencing. It was observed that isolated Lactococcus spp. were able to tolerate NaCl and bile acid up to certain range. The isolated Lactococcus spp. were also able to survive in acidic and alkaline conditions. Further agro-industrial waste like peels of pineapple, orange, lemon, sugarcane, pomegranate; sweet lemon was analyzed for their polysaccharide contents and prebiotic properties. In the present study, orange peels, sweet lemon peels, and pineapple peels give maximum indigestible polysaccharide. To evaluate synbiotic effect combination of probiotic and prebiotic were analyzed under in vitro conditions. Isolates Lactococcus garvieae R3 and Lactococcus sp. R4 reported to have better fermentation efficiency with orange, sweet lemon and pineapple compare to lemon, sugarcane and pomegranate. The different agro-industrial waste evaluated in this research resulted in being a cheap and fermentable carbon source by LAB.

Keywords: agro-industrial waste, lactic acid bacteria, prebiotic, probiotic, synbiotic

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6 Effect of Chitosan and Ascorbic Acid Coating on the Refrigerated Tilapia Fish Fillet (Oreochromis niliticus)

Authors: Jau-Shya Lee, Rossita Shapawi, Vin Cent Pua

Abstract:

Tilapia is a popular cultured fresh-water fish in Malaysia. The highly perishable nature of the fish and increasing demand for high-quality ready-to-cook fish has intensified the search for better fish preservation method. Chitosan edible coating has been evident to extend the shelf life of fish fillet. This work was attempted to explore the potential of ascorbic acid in enhancing the shelf life extension ability of chitosan coated Tilapia fillet under refrigeration condition (4 ± 1oC). A 3 2 Factorial Design which comprising of three concentrations of chitosan (1, 1.5 and 2%) and two concentrations of ascorbic acids (2.5 and 5%) was used. The fish fillets were analyzed for total viable count, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, pH, aw and colour changes at 3-day interval over 15-day storage. The shelf life of chitosan coated (1.5% and 2%) fillet was increased to 15 days as compared to uncoated fish fillet which can only last for nine days. The inhibition of microbial growth of fish fillet was enhanced with the addition of 5% of ascorbic acids in 2% of chitosan. The TBA value, pH and aw for chitosan coated samples were found lower than that of uncoated sample (p<0.05). The colour stability of the fish fillet was also improved by the composite coating. Overall, 2% of chitosan and 5% of ascorbic acid formed the most effective coating to enhance the quality and to lengthen the shelf life of refrigerated Tilapia fillet.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, chitosan, edible coating, fish fillet

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5 The Production of Collagen and Collagen Peptides from Nile Tilapia Skin Using Membrane Technology

Authors: M. Thuanthong, W. Youravong, N. Sirinupong

Abstract:

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is one of fish species cultured in Thailand with a high production volume. A lot of skin is generated during fish processing. In addition, there are many research reported that fish skin contains abundant of collagen. Thus, the use of Nile tilapia skin as collagen source can increase the benefit of industrial waste. In this study, Acid soluble collagen (ASC) was extracted at 5, 15 or 25 ˚C with 0.5 M acetic acid then the acid was removed out and collagen was concentrated by ultrafiltration-diafiltration (UFDF). The triple helix collagen from UFDF process was used as substrate to produce collagen peptides by alcalase hydrolysis in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) coupling with 1 kDa molecular weight cut off (MWCO) polysulfone hollow fiber membrane. The results showed that ASC extracted at high temperature (25 ˚C) with 0.5 M acetic acid for 5 h still preserved triple helix structure. In the UFDF process, the acid removal was higher than 90 % without any effect on ASC properties, particularly triple helix structure as indicated by circular dichroism spectrum. Moreover, Collagen from UFDF was used to produce collagen peptides by EMR. In EMR, collagen was pre-hydrolyzed by alcalase for 60 min before introduced to membrane separation. The EMR operation was operated for 10 h and provided a good of protein conversion stability. The results suggested that there is a successfulness of UF in application for acid removal to produce ASC with desirable preservation of its quality. In addition, the EMR was proven to be an effective process to produce low molecular weight peptides with ACE-inhibitory activity properties.

Keywords: acid soluble collagen, ultrafiltration-diafiltration, enzymatic membrane reactor, ace-inhibitory activity

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4 Economics of Fish-Plantain Integrated Farm Enterprise in Southern Nigeria

Authors: S. O. Obasa, J. A. Soaga, O. I. Afolabi, N. A. Bamidele, O. E. Babalola

Abstract:

Attempt to improve the income of the rural population is a welcome development in Nigeria. Integrated fish-crop farming has been suggested as a means of raising farm income, reducing wastage and mitigating the risk component in production through the complementarity gain. A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the replacement of maize with fermented unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) peel meal in the diet of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The economics of the integrated enterprise was assessed using budgetary analysis techniques. The analysis incorporated the material and labour costs as well as the returns from sale of matured fish and plantain. A total of 60 fingerlings of Nile tilapia (1.70±0.1 g) were stocked at 10 per plastic tank. Two iso-nitrogenous diets containing 35% crude protein in which maize meal was replaced by fermented unripe plantain peel meal at 0% (FUP0/Control diet), and 100% (FUP100) were formulated and prepared. The fingerlings were fed at 5% body weight per day for 56 days. Lowest feed conversion ratio of 1.39 in fish fed diet FUP100 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the highest 1.42 of fish fed the Control diet. The highest percentage profit of 88.85% in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly higher than 66.68% in fish fed diet FUP0, while the profit index of 1.89 in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly different from 1.67 in fish fed diet FUP0. Therefore, fermented unripe plantain peel meal can completely replace maize in the diet of O. niloticus fingerlings. Profitability assessment shows that the net income from the integration was ₦ 463,000 per hectare and the integration resulted to an increase of ₦ 87,750.00 representing a 12.2% increase than in separate production.

Keywords: fish-crop, income, Nile tilapia, waste management

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3 Monitoring of Endocrine Disruptors in Surface Waters and Sediment from the River Nile (Egypt) by Yeast Assays

Authors: Alaa G. M. Osman, Khaled Y. AbouelFadl, Angela Krüger, Werner Kloas

Abstract:

In Egypt, no previous records are available regarding possible multiple hormonal activities in the aquatic systems and especially the river Nile. In this paper, the in vitro yeast estrogen screen (YES) and yeast androgen screen (YAS) were used to assess the multiple hormonal activities in surface waters and sediment from the Egyptian river Nile for the first time. This study sought to determine if river Nile water caused changes in gonadal histology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus). All water samples exhibited extremely low levels of estrogenicity. Estrogenicity was not detected nearly in any of the sediment samples. Unlike the estrogenicity, significant androgenic activities were recorded in the water and sediment samples along the Nile course. The present study reports for the first time quantified anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities with high levels in both water and sediment of the river Nile. The greatest anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities were observed in sample from downstream river Nile. These results indicated that the anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities along the Nile course were great and the pollution of the sites at the downstream was more serious than the upstream sites due to industrial activities at theses sites. Good correlations were observed among some hormonal activities, suggesting coexistence of these contaminants in the environmental matrices. There were no signs of sexual disruption in any of the gonads analysed from either male or female Nile tilapia, demonstrating that any hormonal activity present along the Nile course was not sufficient to induce adverse effects on reproductive development. Further investiga¬tion is necessary to identify the chemicals responsible for the hormonal activities in the river Nile and to examine the effect of very low levels of hormonally active chemicals on gonadal histology, as well as in the development of more sensitive biomarkers.

Keywords: multiple hormonal activities, YES, YAS, river Nile, Nile tilapia, gonadal histology

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2 Utilization and Proximate Composition of Nile Tilapia, Common Carp and African Mudfish Polycultured in Fertilized Ponds

Authors: I. A. Yola

Abstract:

Impact of poultry dropping, cow dung and rumen content on utilization and proximate composition of Oreochromis niliticus, Clarias gariepinus and Cyprinus capio in a polyculture system were studied. The research was conducted over a period of 52 weeks. Poultry droppings (PD), cow dung (CD) and rumen content (RC) were applied at three levels 30g,60g and 120g/m2/week, 25g,50g and 100g/m2/week and 22g, 44g and 88g/m2/week treatment, respectively. The control only conventional feed with 40% CP without manure application was used. Physicochemical and biological properties measured were higher in manure pond than control. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05) between and within treatments with exception of temperature with a combined mean of 27.900C. The water was consistently alkaline with mean values for pH of 6.61, transparency 22.6cm, conductivity 35.00µhos/cm, dissolved oxygen 4.6 mg/l, biological oxygen demand 2.8mg/l, nitrate and phosphates 0.9mg/l and 0.35mg/l, respectively. The three fish species increase in weight with increased manure rate, with a higher value in PD treatment on C. capio record 340g, O. niloticus weighed 310g and C. gariepinus 280g over the experimental period. Fishes fed supplementary diet (control) grew bigger with highest value on C. capio (685g) O. niloticus (620g) and then C. gariepinus (526g). The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The result of whole body proximate analysis indicated that various manures and rates had an irregular pattern on the protein and ash gain per 100g of fish body weight gain. The combined means for whole fish carcass protein, lipids, moisture, ash and gross energy were 11.84, 2.43, 74.63, 3.00 and 109.9 respectively. The notable exceptions were significant (p < 0.05) increases in body fat and gross energy gains in all fish species accompanied by decreases in percentages of moisture as manure rates increased. Survival percentage decreases from 80% to 70%. It is recommended to use poultry dropping as manure/feeds at the rate of 120kg/ha/week for good performances in polyculture.

Keywords: organic manure, Nile tilapia, African mud fish, common carp, proximate composition

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1 Review of the Nutritional Value of Spirulina as a Potential Replacement of Fishmeal in Aquafeed

Authors: Onada Olawale Ahmed

Abstract:

As the intensification of aquaculture production increases on global scale, the growing concern of fish farmers around the world is related to cost of fish production, where cost of feeding takes substantial percentage. Fishmeal (FM) is one of the most expensive ingredients, and its high dependence in aqua-feed production translates to high cost of feeding of stocked fish. However, to reach a sustainable aquaculture, new alternative protein sources including cheaper plant or animal origin proteins are needed to be introduced for stable aqua-feed production. Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that has good nutrient profile that could be useful in aquaculture. This review therefore emphasizes on the nutritional value of Spirulina as a potential replacement of FM in aqua-feed. Spirulina is a planktonic photosynthetic filamentous cyanobacterium that forms massive populations in tropical and subtropical bodies of water with high levels of carbonate and bicarbonate. Spirulina grows naturally in nutrient rich alkaline lake with water salinity ( > 30 g/l) and high pH (8.5–11.0). Its artificial production requires luminosity (photo-period 12/12, 4 luxes), temperature (30 °C), inoculum, water stirring device, dissolved solids (10–60 g/litre), pH (8.5– 10.5), good water quality, and macro and micronutrient presence (C, N, P, K, S, Mg, Na, Cl, Ca and Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Se). Spirulina has also been reported to grow on agro-industrial waste such as sugar mill waste effluent, poultry industry waste, fertilizer factory waste, and urban waste and organic matter. Chemical composition of Spirulina indicates that it has high nutritional value due to its content of 55-70% protein, 14-19% soluble carbohydrate, high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), 1.5–2.0 percent of 5–6 percent total lipid, all the essential minerals are available in spirulina which contributes about 7 percent (average range 2.76–3.00 percent of total weight) under laboratory conditions, β-carotene, B-group vitamin, vitamin E, iron, potassium and chlorophyll are also available in spirulina. Spirulina protein has a balanced composition of amino acids with concentration of methionine, tryptophan and other amino acids almost similar to those of casein, although, this depends upon the culture media used. Positive effects of spirulina on growth, feed utilization and stress and disease resistance of cultured fish have been reported in earlier studies. Spirulina was reported to replace up to 40% of fishmeal protein in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) diet and even higher replacement of fishmeal was possible in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), partial replacement of fish meal with spirulina in diets for parrot fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus) and Tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) has also been conducted. Spirulina have considerable potential for development, especially as a small-scale crop for nutritional enhancement and health improvement of fish. It is important therefore that more research needs to be conducted on its production, inclusion level in aqua-feed and its possible potential use of aquaculture.

Keywords: aquaculture, spirulina, fish nutrition, fish feed

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