Search results for: Zularisam A. Wahid
37 Production of Biodiesel Using Tannery Fleshing as a Feedstock via Solid-State Fermentation
Authors: C. Santhana Krishnan, A. M. Mimi Sakinah, Lakhveer Singh, Zularisam A. Wahid
Abstract:This study was initiated to evaluate and optimize the conversion of animal fat from tannery wastes into methyl ester. In the pre-treatment stage, animal fats feedstock was hydrolysed and esterified through solid state fermentation (SSF) using Microbacterium species immobilized onto sand silica matrix. After 72 hours of fermentation, predominant esters in the animal fats were found to be with 83.9% conversion rate. Later, esterified animal fats were transesterified at 3 hour reaction time with 1% NaOH (w/v %), 6% methanol to oil ratio (w/v %) to produce 89% conversion rate. C13 NMR revealed long carbon chain in fatty acid methyl esters at 22.2817-31.9727 ppm. Methyl esters of palmitic, stearic, oleic represented the major components in biodiesel.
Keywords: tannery wastes, fatty animal fleshing, trans-esterification, immobilization, solid state fermentationProcedia PDF Downloads 195
36 High Rate Bio-Methane Generation from Petrochemical Wastewater Using Improved CSTR
Authors: Md. Nurul Islam Siddique, A. W. Zularisam
Abstract:The effect of gradual increase in organic loading rate (OLR) and temperature on biomethanation from petrochemical wastewater treatment was investigated using CSTR. The digester performance was measured at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 to 2d, and start up procedure of the reactor was monitored for 60 days via chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, biogas and methane production. By enhancing the temperature from 30 to 55 ˚C Thermophilic condition was attained, and pH was adjusted at 7 ± 0.5 during the experiment. Supreme COD removal competence was 98±0.5% (r = 0.84) at an OLR of 7.5 g-COD/Ld and 4d HRT. Biogas and methane yield were logged to an extreme of 0.80 L/g-CODremoved d (r = 0.81), 0.60 L/g-CODremoved d (r = 0.83), and mean methane content of biogas was 65.49%. The full acclimatization was established at 55 ˚C with high COD removal efficiency and biogas production. An OLR of 7.5 g-COD/L d and HRT of 4 days were apposite for petrochemical wastewater treatment.
Keywords: anaerobic digestion, petrochemical wastewater, CSTR, methaneProcedia PDF Downloads 288
35 The Effect of Immobilization Conditions on Hydrogen Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Authors: A. W. Zularisam, Lakhveer Singh, Mimi Sakinah Abdul Munaim
Abstract:In this study, the optimization of hydrogen production using polyethylene glycol (PEG) immobilized sludge was investigated in batch tests. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is used as a substrate that can act as a carbon source. Experiment focus on the effect of some important affecting factors on fermentative hydrogen production. Results showed that immobilized sludge demonstrated the maximum hydrogen production rate of 340 mL/L-POME/h under follow optimal condition: amount of biomass 10 mg VSS/ g bead, PEG concentration 10%, and cell age 24 h or 40 h. More importantly, immobilized sludge not only enhanced hydrogen production but can also tolerate the harsh environment and produce hydrogen at the wide ranges of pH. The present results indicate the potential of PEG-immobilized sludge for large-scale operations as well; these factors play an important role in stable and continuous hydrogen production.
Keywords: bioydrogen, immobilization, polyethylene glycol, palm oil mill effluent, dark fermentationProcedia PDF Downloads 273
34 Performance of Phytogreen Zone for BOD5 and SS Removal for Refurbishment Conventional Oxidation Pond in an Integrated Phytogreen System
Authors: A. R. Abdul Syukor, A. W. Zularisam, Z. Ideris, M. S. Mohd Ismid, H. M. Nakmal, S. Sulaiman, A. H. Hasmanie, M. R. Siti Norsita, M. Nasrullah
Abstract:In this study, the effectiveness of integrated aquatic plants in phytogreen zone was studied and statistical analysis for the promotional integrated phytogreen system approached was discussed. It was found that the effectiveness of using aquatic plant such as Typha angustifolia sp., Lepironia articulata sp., Limnocharis flava sp., Monochoria vaginalis sp., Pistia stratiotes sp., and Eichhornia crassipes sp. in the conventional oxidation pond process in order to comply the standard A according to Malaysia Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127); Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulation 2009 for effluent discharge into inland water near the residential area was successfully shown. It was concluded that the integrated phytogreen system developed in this study has great potential for refurbishment wastewater in conventional oxidation pond.
Keywords: phytoremediation, integrated phytogreen system, sewage treatment plant, oxidation pond, aquatic plantsProcedia PDF Downloads 315
33 A Comparative and Critical Analysis of Some Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: Ishtiaq Wahid, Masood Ahmad, Nighat Ayub, Sajad Ali
Abstract:Lifetime of a wireless sensor network (WSN) is directly proportional to the energy consumption of its constituent nodes. Routing in wireless sensor network is very challenging due its inherit characteristics. In hierarchal routing the sensor ﬁled is divided into clusters. The cluster-heads are selected from each cluster, which forms a hierarchy of nodes. The cluster-heads are used to transmit the data to the base station while other nodes perform the sensing task. In this way the lifetime of the network is increased. In this paper a comparative study of hierarchal routing protocols are conducted. The simulation is done in NS-2 for validation.
Keywords: WSN, cluster, routing, sensor networksProcedia PDF Downloads 399
32 The Optimization of Immobilization Conditions for Biohydrogen Production from Palm Industry Wastewater
Authors: A. W. Zularisam, Sveta Thakur, Lakhveer Singh, Mimi Sakinah Abdul Munaim
Abstract:Clostridium sp. LS2 was immobilised by entrapment in polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel beads to improve the biohydrogen production rate from palm oil mill effluent (POME). We sought to explore and optimise the hydrogen production capability of the immobilised cells by studying the conditions for cell immobilisation, including PEG concentration, cell loading and curing times, as well as the effects of temperature and K2HPO4 (500–2000 mg/L), NiCl2 (0.1–5.0 mg/L), FeCl2 (100–400 mg/L) MgSO4 (50–200 mg/L) concentrations on hydrogen production rate. The results showed that by optimising the PEG concentration (10% w/v), initial biomass (2.2 g dry weight), curing time (80 min) and temperature (37 °C), as well as the concentrations of K2HPO4 (2000 mg/L), NiCl2 (1 mg/L), FeCl2 (300 mg/L) and MgSO4 (100 mg/L), a maximum hydrogen production rate of 7.3 L/L-POME/day and a yield of 0.31 L H2/g chemical oxygen demand were obtained during continuous operation. We believe that this process may be potentially expanded for sustained and large-scale hydrogen production.
Keywords: hydrogen, polyethylene glycol, immobilised cell, fermentation, palm oil mill effluentProcedia PDF Downloads 212
31 Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Bacterial Properties of Camellia sinensis, Tea Plant
Authors: Rini Jarial, Puranjan Mishra, Lakhveer Singh, Sveta Thakur, A. W. Zularisam, Mimi Sakinah
Abstract:The aim of the present study was to assess the biological properties of Camellia sinensis and to identify its functional compounds. The methanolic leaves-extract (MLE) of commercial green tea (Camellia sinensis) was assessed for anti-bacterial activities by measuring inhibition zones against a panel of pathogenic bacterial strains using agar diffusion method. The flavonoid (5.0 to 8.0 mg/ml) and protein content (10 to 15 mg/ml) of the MLE were recorded. MLE at a concentration of 25 μg/ml showed marked anti-bacterial activity against all bacterial strains (11-30 mm zone of inhibition) and was maximum against Staphylococcus aureus (30 mm). The MLE of Camellia sinensis had the best MIC values of 2.25 and 0.56 mg/ml against S. aureus and Enterobacter sp., respectively. The MLE also possessed good anti-lipolytic activity (65%) against a Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) and cholesterol oxidase inhibition (79%). The present study provided strong experimental evidences that the MLE of Camellia sinensis is not only a potent source of natural anti-oxidants and anti-bacterial activity but also possesses efficient cholesterol degradation and anti-lipolytic activities that might be beneficial in the body weight management.
Keywords: anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial activity, anti-lipolytic activity, Camellia sinensis, phyto-chemicalsProcedia PDF Downloads 227
30 The Unsteady Non-Equilibrium Distribution Function and Exact Equilibrium Time for a Dilute Gas Affected by Thermal Radiation Field
Authors: Taha Zakaraia Abdel Wahid
Abstract:The behavior of the unsteady non-equilibrium distribution function for a dilute gas under the effect of non-linear thermal radiation field is presented. For the best of our knowledge this is done for the first time at all. The distinction and comparisons between the unsteady perturbed and the unsteady equilibrium velocity distribution functions are illustrated. The equilibrium time for the dilute gas is determined for the first time. The non-equilibrium thermodynamic properties of the system (gas+the heated plate) are investigated. The results are applied to the Argon gas, for various values of radiation field intensity. 3D-Graphics illustrating the calculated variables are drawn to predict their behavior. The results are discussed.
Keywords: dilute gas, radiation field, exact solutions, travelling wave method, unsteady BGK model, irreversible thermodynamics, unsteady non-equilibrium distribution functionsProcedia PDF Downloads 435
29 Forensic Challenges in Source Device Identification for Digital Videos
Authors: Mustapha Aminu Bagiwa, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab, Mohd Yamani Idna Idris, Suleman Khan
Abstract:Video source device identification has become a problem of concern in numerous domains especially in multimedia security and digital investigation. This is because videos are now used as evidence in legal proceedings. Source device identification aim at identifying the source of digital devices using the content they produced. However, due to affordable processing tools and the influx in digital content generating devices, source device identification is still a major problem within the digital forensic community. In this paper, we discuss source device identification for digital videos by identifying techniques that were proposed in the literature for model or specific device identification. This is aimed at identifying salient open challenges for future research.
Keywords: video forgery, source camcorder, device identification, forgery detectionProcedia PDF Downloads 524
28 The Behavior of Unsteady Non-Equilibrium Distribution Function and Exact Equilibrium Time for a Dilute Gas Mixture Affected by Thermal Radiation Field
Authors: Taha Zakaraia Abdel Wahid
Abstract:In the present study, a development of the papers is introduced. The behavior of the unsteady non-equilibrium distribution functions for a rarefied gas mixture under the effect of non-linear thermal radiation field is presented. For the best of our knowledge this is done for the first time at all. The distinction and comparisons between the unsteady perturbed and the unsteady equilibrium velocity distribution functions are illustrated. The equilibrium time for the rarefied gas mixture is determined for the first time. The non-equilibrium thermodynamic properties of the system is investigated. The results are applied to the Argon-Neon binary gas mixture, for various values of both of molar fraction parameters and radiation field intensity. 3D-Graphics illustrating the calculated variables are drawn to predict their behavior and the results are discussed.
Keywords: radiation field, binary gas mixture, exact solutions, travelling wave method, unsteady BGK model, irreversible thermodynamicsProcedia PDF Downloads 388
27 Risk Factors for Significant Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury in a District General Hospital
Authors: A. Wahid Uddin
Abstract:Obstetric anal sphincter injury carries significant morbidity for a woman and affects the quality of life to the extent of permanent damage to anal sphincter musculature. The study was undertaken in a district general hospital by retrospectively reviewing random 63 case notes of patients diagnosed with a significant third or fourth-degree perineal tear admitted between the year of 2015 to 2018. The observations were collected by a pre-designed questionnaire. All variables were expressed as percentages. The major risk factors noted were nulliparity (37%), instrumental delivery (25%), and birth weight of more than 4 kg (14%). Forceps delivery with or without episiotomy was the major contributing factor (75%). In the majority of the cases (71%), no record of any perineal protection measures undertaken. The study concluded that recommended perineal protection measures should be adopted as a routine practise.
Keywords: forceps, obstetrics, perineal, sphincterProcedia PDF Downloads 81
26 Preparation of 3D Graphene with Microwave-Hydrothermal Assistance for Ultrahigh Performance of Capacitive Deionization
Authors: Wahid Dianbudiyanto, Shou Heng Liu
Abstract:Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a prospective desalination technology, which can be operated at low voltage, low temperature and potentially consume low energy for brackish water desalination. To obtain the optimal electrosorption, an electrode should possess high electrical conductivity, large surface area, good wettability, highly mesoporous structure which provide efficient pathways for ion distribution. In this work, a 3D structure graphene was fabricated using hydrothermal method which is assisted with microwave treatments to form 3D rGO (3DG-Mw-Hyd). The prepared samples have excellent specific capacitance (189.2 F / g) and ultrahigh electrosorption capacity (30 mg/g) for the desalination of 500 mg / l NaCl. These results are superior to the electrode which is fabricated only using the hydrothermal method without microwave assistance (3DG-Hyd) and traditional reflux method. Physical characterizations such as SEM, TEM, and XRD have been used to study the property difference of the materials. The preliminary results show that 3DG-Mw-Hyd is one of the promising electrodes for CDI in the practical applications.
Keywords: capacitive deionization, graphene, microwave, hydrothermal, electrosorptionProcedia PDF Downloads 191
25 A Memetic Algorithm Approach to Clustering in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: Masood Ahmad, Ataul Aziz Ikram, Ishtiaq Wahid
Abstract:Wireless sensor network (WSN) is the interconnection of mobile wireless nodes with limited energy and memory. These networks can be deployed formany critical applications like military operations, rescue management, ﬁre detection and so on. In ﬂat routing structure, every node plays an equal role of sensor and router. The topology may change very frequently due to the mobile nature of nodes in WSNs. The topology maintenance may produce more overhead messages. To avoid topology maintenance overhead messages, an optimized cluster based mobile wireless sensor network using memetic algorithm is proposed in this paper. The nodes in this network are ﬁrst divided into clusters. The cluster leaders then transmit data to that base station. The network is validated through extensive simulation study. The results show that the proposed technique has superior results compared to existing techniques.
Keywords: WSN, routing, cluster based, meme, memetic algorithmProcedia PDF Downloads 396
24 Social Media and Student-Teacher Relationship: A Case Study Form Kashmir University
Authors: Wahid Ahmad Dar, Irshad Ahmad Najar
Abstract:The influence of social media is percolating to every corner of our social life. It is also changing the social sphere of the classroom in particular and education in general. This paper tries to explore the ways in which social media is influencing student-teacher relationship. Differences have been found in student’s ability to draw benefits from using ICT. Besides digital divides in access and usage, there are attitudinal differences among students towards ICT aligned with traditional forms of social differences. The paper particularly focusses on how students from diverse backgrounds are using social media to interact with their teachers and how such interactions differ on the basis of social class, gender and residential background of students. A qualitative research methodology has been used for answering these questions. Open-ended questionnaire has been designed and administered to a sample of postgraduate students from University of Kashmir drawn purposively ensuring optimum number of subjects from all backgrounds. The data were analyzed by content analysis, deciphering general patterns in the data.
Keywords: social media, student-teacher relationship, social class, genderProcedia PDF Downloads 156
23 Corporate Governance and Firms` Performance: Evidence from Quoted Firms on the Nigerian Stock Exchange
Authors: Ogunwole Cecilia Oluwakemi, Wahid Damilola Olanipekun, Omoyele Olufemi Samuel, Timothy Ayomitunde Aderemi
Abstract:The issues relating to corporate governance in both locally and internationally managed firms cannot be overemphasized because the lack of efficient corporate governance could orchestrate serious problems in any organization. Against this backdrop, this study examines the nexus between corporate governance and performance of firms from 2012 to 2020, using the case study of the Nigerian stock exchange. Consequently, data was collected from forty (40) listed firms on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The study employed a fixed effect technique of estimation to address the objective of the study. It was discovered from the study that the influence of corporate governance components such as gender diversity, board independence and managerial ownership led to a significant positive impact on the performance of the firms under the investigation. In view of the above finding, this study makes the following recommendations for the policymakers in Nigeria that anytime the goal of the policymakers is the improvement of performance of the listed firms in the Nigerian stock exchange, board independence and a balance in the inclusion of male and female among the board of directors should be encouraged in these firms.
Keywords: corporate, governance, firms, performance, Nigeria, stock, exchangeProcedia PDF Downloads 80
22 Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Rutin in Cheddar Cheese
Authors: Haroon Jamshaid Qazi, Namrah Wahid, Sanaullah Iqbal, Raheel Suleman
Abstract:The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Rutin in cheddar cheese. The study was conducted by adding the Rutin in the cheddar cheese in different concentrations according to experimental design, i.e., T1 (20 ppm Rutin), T2 (40 ppm Rutin), T3 (60 ppm Rutin), T4 (80 ppm Rutin). BHT was taken as a positive control at a concentration of 200 ppm, and negative control had neither Rutin nor BHT. The ripening time for cheeses was 90 days at a temperature of 8°C. The results of the various antioxidants assays (Total phenolic contents (TPC) and Antioxidant activity (AA), with storage stability tests (Anisidine value (AV) and Thiobarbituric acid value (TBARS)) performed during different storage intervals 0, 30, 60 and 90 days exhibited that AA in linoleic acid and TPC were significantly (p < 0.05) increased by the addition of rutin to cheese at all concentrations. Moreover, significant reduction in the TBARS values was also observed during the storage period. Rutin also showed a good potential to inhibit the microbial proliferation in the treated samples of cheese. There was a significant decreasing trend seen in total plate count and yeasts and molds count. The sensorial attributes i.e., color, flavor, odor and overall acceptability were increased after adding Rutin to cheddar cheese.
Keywords: cheddar cheese, Rutin, antioxidant, antimicrobialProcedia PDF Downloads 125
21 Towards Islamic Sustainable Consumption: Micro Evidence from Muslim Household in Malaysia
Authors: Noorhaslinda Kulub Abd. Rashid, Zuraini Anang, Bayu Taufiq Possumah, Suriyani Muhamad, Fauziah Abu Hasan, Hairunnizam Wahid
Abstract:Reality of Malaysian lives today, especially the households, are not exempted from using a variety of good products and services that are particularly materialistic. In fact, the pace and sophistication of the technology is seen as a major catalyst to the pattern of community life. In facing the challenges of the current economy, the key role to be played by household is managing the pattern of expenditure, income and loan debts regularly and blessed by Allah. Unfortunately, the world today is witnessing the average household could owe solely to meet their needs with existing spending limits. This study aims to measure the ‘Religious Index of Household Expenditure’ (IKM) and analyze how far the religious influence to the pattern of household expenditure based on the 441 Muslim households. The results showed only a 5-item spending, food, housing, transportation, education, and recreation and entertainment that has a significant relationship with IKM. Therefore, Islamic consumer education is a must to establish sustainable consumptions in order to speed up the internalization of sustainable lifestyle among Malaysians.
Keywords: ‘Religious Index of Household Expenditure’ (IKM), income, sustainable consumptions, household expenditureProcedia PDF Downloads 175
20 Outcome of Induction of Labour by Cervical Ripening with an Osmotic Dilator in a District General Hospital
Authors: A. Wahid Uddin
Abstract:Osmotic dilator for cervical ripening bypasses the initial hormonal exposure necessary for a routine method of induction. The study was a clinical intervention with an osmotic dilator followed by prospective observation. The aim was to calculate the percentage of women who had successful cervical ripening using modified BISHOP score as evidenced by artificial rupture of membrane. The study also estimated the delivery interval following a single administration of osmotic dilators. Randomly selected patients booked for induction of labour accepting the intervention were included in the study. The study population comprised singleton term pregnancy, cephalic presentation, intact membranes with a modified BISHOP score of less than 6. Initial sample recruited was 30, but 6 patients left the study and the study was concluded on 24 patients. The data were collected in a pre-designed questionnaire and analysis were expressed in percentages along with using mean value for continuous variables. In 70 % of cases, artificial rupture of the membrane was possible and the mean time from insertion of the osmotic dilator to the delivery interval was 30 hours. The study concluded that an osmotic dilator could be a suitable alternative for hormone-based induction of labour.
Keywords: dilator, induction, labour, osmoticProcedia PDF Downloads 70
19 A Polynomial Time Clustering Algorithm for Solving the Assignment Problem in the Vehicle Routing Problem
Authors: Lydia Wahid, Mona F. Ahmed, Nevin Darwish
Abstract:The vehicle routing problem (VRP) consists of a group of customers that needs to be served. Each customer has a certain demand of goods. A central depot having a fleet of vehicles is responsible for supplying the customers with their demands. The problem is composed of two subproblems: The first subproblem is an assignment problem where the number of vehicles that will be used as well as the customers assigned to each vehicle are determined. The second subproblem is the routing problem in which for each vehicle having a number of customers assigned to it, the order of visits of the customers is determined. Optimal number of vehicles, as well as optimal total distance, should be achieved. In this paper, an approach for solving the first subproblem (the assignment problem) is presented. In the approach, a clustering algorithm is proposed for finding the optimal number of vehicles by grouping the customers into clusters where each cluster is visited by one vehicle. Finding the optimal number of clusters is NP-hard. This work presents a polynomial time clustering algorithm for finding the optimal number of clusters and solving the assignment problem.
Keywords: vehicle routing problems, clustering algorithms, Clarke and Wright Saving Method, agglomerative hierarchical clusteringProcedia PDF Downloads 287
18 Climate Change and Food Security: Effects of Ozone on Crops in North-West Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Nauman Ahmad, Patrick Büker, Sofia Khalid, Leon Van Den Berg, Hamid Ullah Shah, Abdul Wahid, Lisa Emberson, Sally A. Power, Mike Ashmore
Abstract:Although ozone is well-documented to affect crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects around cities in more remote areas of South Asia. We surveyed crops around the city of Peshawar, Pakistan for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found in the field on potato, onion and cotton when the mean monthly ozone concentration reached 35-55ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60ppb and above significantly reduce the growth of Pakistani varieties of both spinach (Beta vulgaris) and onion. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations in Peshawar are comparable to those through many parts of northern south Asia, where ozone may therefore be a significant threat to sensitive vegetable crops in peri-urban regions.
Keywords: ozone, air pollution, vegetable crops, peshawar, south asiaProcedia PDF Downloads 641
17 An Image Stitching Approach for Scoliosis Analysis
Authors: Siti Salbiah Samsudin, Hamzah Arof, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab, Mohd Yamani Idna Idris
Abstract:Standard X-ray spine images produced by conventional screen-film technique have a limited field of view. This limitation may obstruct a complete inspection of the spine unless images of different parts of the spine are placed next to each other contiguously to form a complete structure. Another solution to producing a whole spine image is by assembling the digitized x-ray images of its parts automatically using image stitching. This paper presents a new Medical Image Stitching (MIS) method that utilizes Minimum Average Correlation Energy (MACE) filters to identify and merge pairs of x-ray medical images. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated in two sets of experiments involving two databases which contain a total of 40 pairs of overlapping and non-overlapping spine images. The experimental results are compared to those produced by the Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC) and Phase Only Correlation (POC) methods for comparison. It is found that the proposed method outperforms those of the NCC and POC methods in identifying both the overlapping and non-overlapping medical images. The efficacy of the proposed method is further vindicated by its average execution time which is about two to five times shorter than those of the POC and NCC methods.
Keywords: image stitching, MACE filter, panorama image, scoliosisProcedia PDF Downloads 362
16 Natural Interaction Game-Based Learning of Elasticity with Kinect
Authors: Maryam Savari, Mohamad Nizam Ayub, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab
Abstract:Game-based Learning (GBL) is an alternative that provides learners with an opportunity to experience a volatile environment in a safe and secure place. A volatile environment requires a different technique to facilitate learning and prevent injury and other hazards. Subjects involving elasticity are always considered hazardous and can cause injuries,for instance a bouncing ball. Elasticity is a topic that necessitates hands-on practicality for learners to experience the effects of elastic objects. In this paper the scope is to investigate the natural interaction between learners and elastic objects in a safe environment using GBL. During interaction, the potentials of natural contact in the process of learning were explored and gestures exhibited during the learning process were identified. GBL was developed using Kinect technology to teach elasticity to primary school children aged 7 to 12. The system detects body gestures and defines the meanings of motions exhibited during the learning process. The qualitative approach was deployed to constantly monitor the interaction between the student and the system. Based on the results, it was found that Natural Interaction GBL (Ni-GBL) is engaging for students to learn, making their learning experience more active and joyful.
Keywords: elasticity, Game-Based Learning (GBL), kinect technology, natural interactionProcedia PDF Downloads 407
15 Optimal Tuning of Linear Quadratic Regulator Controller Using a Particle Swarm Optimization for Two-Rotor Aerodynamical System
Authors: Ayad Al-Mahturi, Herman Wahid
Abstract:This paper presents an optimal state feedback controller based on Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) for a two-rotor aero-dynamical system (TRAS). TRAS is a highly nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with two degrees of freedom and cross coupling. There are two parameters that define the behavior of LQR controller: state weighting matrix and control weighting matrix. The two parameters influence the performance of LQR. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed to optimally tune weighting matrices of LQR. The major concern of using LQR controller is to stabilize the TRAS by making the beam move quickly and accurately for tracking a trajectory or to reach a desired altitude. The simulation results were carried out in MATLAB/Simulink. The system is decoupled into two single-input single-output (SISO) systems. Comparing the performance of the optimized proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controller provided by INTECO, results depict that LQR controller gives a better performance in terms of both transient and steady state responses when PSO is performed.
Keywords: LQR controller, optimal control, particle swarm optimization (PSO), two rotor aero-dynamical system (TRAS)Procedia PDF Downloads 262
14 In vitro Assessment of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) Seedlings Growth and Proline Production under Salt Stress
Authors: Amir Wahid, Fazal Hadi, Amin Ullah Jan
Abstract:Tomato and Cauliflower seedlings were grown in-vitro under salt concentrations (0, 2, 4, 8, and 10 dSm-1) with objectives to investigate; (1) The effect of salinity on seedling growth and free proline production, (2) the correlation between seedling growth and proline contents, (3) comparative salt tolerance of both species. Different concentrations of salt showed considerable effect on percent (%) germination of seeds, length and biomass of shoot and root and also showed effect on percent water content of both plants seedlings. Germination rate in cauliflower was two times higher than tomato even at highest salt concentration (10 dSm-1). Seedling growth of both species was less effected at low salt concentrations (2 and 4 dSm-1) but at high concentrations (6 and 8 dSm-1) the seedling growth of both species was significantly decreased. Particularly the tomato root was highly significantly reduced. The proline level linearly increased in both species with increasing salt concentrations up-to 4 dSm-1 and then declined. The cauliflower showed higher free proline level than tomato under all salt treatments. Overall, the cauliflower seedlings showed better growth response along with higher proline contents on comparison with tomato seedlings.
Keywords: NaCl (Sodium Chloride), EC (Electrical Conductivity), MS (Murashig and Skoog), ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), LSD (Least Significant Differences)Procedia PDF Downloads 489
13 Intervention of Self-Limiting L1 Inner Speech during L2 Presentations: A Study of Bangla-English Bilinguals
Authors: Abdul Wahid
Abstract:Inner speech, also known as verbal thinking, self-talk or private speech, is characterized by the subjective language experience in the absence of overt or audible speech. It is a psychological form of verbal activity which is being rehearsed without the articulation of any sound wave. In Psychology, self-limiting speech means the type of speech which contains information that inhibits the development of the self. People, in most cases, experience inner speech in their first language. It is very frequent in Bangladesh where the Bangla (L1) speaking students lose track of speech during their presentations in English (L2). This paper investigates into the long pauses (more than 0.4 seconds long) in English (L2) presentations by Bangla speaking students (18-21 year old) and finds the intervention of Bangla (L1) inner speech as one of its causes. The overt speeches of the presenters are placed on Audacity Audio Editing software where the length of pauses are measured in milliseconds. Varieties of inner speech questionnaire (VISQ) have been conducted randomly amongst the participants out of whom 20 were selected who have similar phenomenology of inner speech. They have been interviewed to describe the type and content of the voices that went on in their head during the long pauses. The qualitative interview data are then codified and converted into quantitative data. It was observed that in more than 80% cases students experience self-limiting inner speech/self-talk during their unwanted pauses in L2 presentations.
Keywords: Bangla-English Bilinguals, inner speech, L1 intervention in bilingualism, motor schema, pauses, phonological loop, phonological store, working memoryProcedia PDF Downloads 82
12 A Quantum Leap: Developing Quantum Semi-Structured Complex Numbers to Solve the “Division by Zero” Problem
Authors: Peter Jean-Paul, Shanaz Wahid
Abstract:The problem of division by zero can be stated as: “what is the value of 0 x 1/0?” This expression has been considered undefined by mathematicians because it can have two equally valid solutions either 0 or 1. Recently semi-structured complex number set was invented to solve “division by zero”. However, whilst the number set had some merits it was considered to have a poor theoretical foundation and did not provide a quality solution to “division by zero”. Moreover, the set lacked consistency in simple algebraic calculations producing contradictory results when dividing by zero. To overcome these issues this research starts by treating the expression " 0 x 1/0" as a quantum mechanical system that produces two tangled results 0 and 1. Dirac Notation (a tool from quantum mechanics) was then used to redefine the unstructured unit p in semi-structured complex numbers so that p represents the superposition of two results (0 and 1) and collapses into a single value when used in algebraic expressions. In the process, this paper describes a new number set called Quantum Semi-structured Complex Numbers that provides a valid solution to the problem of “division by zero”. This research shows that this new set (1) forms a “Field”, (2) can produce consistent results when solving division by zero problems, (3) can be used to accurately describe systems whose mathematical descriptions involve division by zero. This research served to provide a firm foundation for Quantum Semi-structured Complex Numbers and support their practical use.
Keywords: division by zero, semi-structured complex numbers, quantum mechanics, Hilbert space, Euclidean spaceProcedia PDF Downloads 93
11 Application of Forward Contract and Crop Insurance as Risk Management Tools of Agriculture: A Case Study in Bangladesh
Authors: M. Bokhtiar Hasan, M. Delowar Hossain, Abu N. M. Wahid
Abstract:The principal aim of the study is to find out a way to effectively manage the agricultural risks like price volatility, weather risks, and fund shortage. To hedge price volatility, farmers sometimes make contracts with agro-traders but fail to protect themselves effectively due to not having legal framework for such contracts. The study extensively reviews existing literature and find evidence that the majority studies either deal with price volatility or weather risks. If we could address these risks through a single model, it would be more useful to both the farmers and traders. Intrinsically, the authors endeavor in this regard, and the key contribution of this study basically lies in it. Initially, we conduct a small survey aspiring to identify the shortcomings of existing contracts. Later, we propose a model encompassing forward and insurance contracts together where forward contract will be used to hedge price volatility and insurance contract will be used to protect weather risks. Contribution/Originality: The study adds to the existing literature through proposing an integrated model comprising of forward contract and crop insurance which will support both farmers and traders to cope with the agricultural risks like price volatility, weather hazards, and fund shortage. JEL Classifications: O13, Q13
Keywords: agriculture, forward contract, insurance contract, risk management, modelProcedia PDF Downloads 89
10 Extrapulmonary Gastrointestinal Small Cell Carcinoma: A Single Institute Experience of 14 Patients from a Low Middle Income Country
Authors: Awais Naeem, Osama Shakeel, Faizan Ullah, Abdul Wahid Anwer
Abstract:Introduction: To study the clinic-pathological factors, diagnostic factors and survival of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma. Methodology: From 1995 to 2017 all patients with a diagnosis of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma were included in the study. Demographic variables and clinic-pathological factors were collected. Management of disease was recorded. Short and long term oncological outcomes were recorded. All data was entered and analyzed in SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 14 patients were included in the study. Median age was 53.42 +/- 16.1 years. There were 5 male and 9 female patients. Most common presentation was dysphagia in 16 patient among esophageal small cell carcinoma and while other patient had pain in abdomen. Mean duration of symptoms was 4.23+/-2.91 months .Most common site is esophagus (n=6) followed by gall bladder(n=3). Almost all of the patients received chemo-radiotherapy. Majority of the patient presented with extensive disease. Five patients (35.7%) died during the follow up period, two (14.3%) were alive and rest of the patients were lost to follow up. Mean follow up period was 22.92 months and median follow up was 15 months. Conclusion: Extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma is rare and needs to be managed aggressively. All patients should be treated with both systemic and local therapies.
Keywords: small cell carcinoma of esophagus, extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma of gall bladder, small cell carcinoma of rectum, small cell carcinoma of stomachProcedia PDF Downloads 94
9 Sustainable Reconstruction: Towards Guidelines of Post-Disaster Vulnerability Reduction for Permanent Informal Housing in Malaysia Due to Flooding
Authors: Ruhizal Roosli, Julaihi Wahid, Abu Hassan Abu Bakar, Faizal Baharum
Abstract:This paper reports on the progress of a study on the reconstruction project after the ‘Yellow Flood’ disaster in Kelantan, Malaysia. Malaysia still does not have guidelines to build housing after a disaster especially in disaster-prone areas. At the international level, many guidelines have been prepared that is found suitable for post-disaster housing. Which guidelines can be adapted that best describes the situation in Malaysia? It was reported that the houses should be built on stilts, which can withstand certain level of impact during flooding. Unfortunately, until today no specific guideline was available to assist homeowners to rebuild their homes after disaster. In addition, there is also no clear operational procedure to monitor the progress of this construction work. This research is an effort to promoting resilient housing; safety and security; and secure tenure in a prone area. At the end of this study, key lessons will be emerged from the review process and data analysis. These inputs will then have influenced to the content that will be developed and presented as guidelines. An overall objective is to support humanitarian responses to disaster and conflicts for resilience house construction to flood prone area. Interviews with the field based staff were from recent post-disaster housing workforce (disaster management mechanism in Malaysia especially in Kelantan). The respondents were selected based on their experiences in disaster response particularly related to housing provision. These key lessons are perhaps the best practical (operational and technical) guidelines comparing to other International cases to be adapted to the national situations.
Keywords: disaster, guideline, housing, Malaysia, reconstructionProcedia PDF Downloads 403
8 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - Clinical Profile of Women Attending NPFDB Subfertility Clinic
Authors: Komathy Thiagarajan, Mohd. Azizuddin Mohd. Yussof, Hasnoorina Husin, Noor Azreena Abd Aziz, Faezah Shekh Abdullah, Abdul Wahaf Abdul Wahid
Abstract:Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) presents with a plethora of clinical features owing to the multifaceted underlying pathophysiology. This study was conducted to determine the clinical features unique to the sub fertile women attending the Sub fertility Clinic of the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) so that a more holistic approach can be adopted to further enhance the pregnancy outcome in those women. This was a case-control study conducted over a span of three years (from January 2014 until December 2016), whereby women who fulfilled the Rotterdam Criteria 2004 were classified as PCOS (n=79) and women who did not fulfill the Rotterdam Criteria were classified as controls (n=88). The mean age of the women was 30.1 years and the mean duration of marriage was 3.93 years. The majority of women suffered from primary sub fertility (82.6%). The median age was lower among PCOS women (29.0 years) compared to the controls (30.0 years), p<0.05. The majority of PCOS women (43.0%) were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) compared to only 19.3% who were obese in the control group, p<0.05. Hypertension was present in 59.5% of PCOS women and only in 36.4% of the control group, p<0.05. There were significantly more women who presented with hirsutism in PCOS group (27.8%) as compared to the control group (5.7%), p<0.05. The findings of this study elucidate that the clinical features of significance among sub fertile women suffering from PCOS, if detected early, are amenable to lifestyle modifications and timely interventions can potentially improve the fertility outcomes in this group of women.
Keywords: clinical features, fertility, lifestyle modification, PCOSProcedia PDF Downloads 81