Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: modulations

22 Performance Analysis of VoIP Coders for Different Modulations Under Pervasive Environment

Authors: Jasbinder Singh, Harjit Pal Singh, S. A. Khan


The work, in this paper, presents the comparison of encoded speech signals by different VoIP narrow-band and wide-band codecs for different modulation schemes. The simulation results indicate that codec has an impact on the speech quality and also effected by modulation schemes.

Keywords: VoIP, coders, modulations, BER, MOS

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21 Modulation of the Europay, MasterCard, and VisaCard Authentications by Using Avispa Tool

Authors: Ossama Al-Maliki


The Europay, MasterCard, and Visa (EMV) is the transaction protocol for most of the world and especially in Europe and the UK. EMV protocol consists of three main stages which are: card authentication, cardholder verification methods, and transaction authorization. This paper details in full the EMV card authentications. We have used AVISPA and SPAN tools to do our modulization for the EMV card authentications. The code for each type of the card authentication was written by using CAS+ language. The results showed that our modulations were successfully addressed all the steps of the EMV card authentications and the entire process of the EMV card authentication are secured. Also, our modulations were successfully addressed all the main goals behind the EMV card authentications according to the EMV specifications.

Keywords: EMV, card authentication, contactless card, SDA, DDA, CDA AVISPA

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20 Frequency Modulation in Vibro-Acoustic Modulation Method

Authors: D. Liu, D. M. Donskoy


The vibroacoustic modulation method is based on the modulation effect of high-frequency ultrasonic wave (carrier) by low-frequency vibration in the presence of various defects, primarily contact-type such as cracks, delamination, etc. The presence and severity of the defect are measured by the ratio of the spectral sidebands and the carrier in the spectrum of the modulated signal. This approach, however, does not differentiate between amplitude and frequency modulations, AM and FM, respectfully. It was experimentally shown that both modulations could be present in the spectrum, yet each modulation may be associated with different physical mechanisms. AM mechanisms are quite well understood and widely covered in the literature. This paper is a first attempt to explain the generation mechanisms of FM and its correlation with the flaw properties. Here we proposed two possible mechanisms leading to FM modulation based on nonlinear local defect resonance and dynamic acousto-elastic models.

Keywords: non-destructive testing, nonlinear acoustics, structural health monitoring, acousto-elasticity, local defect resonance

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19 Minimization of Switching Losses in Cascaded Multilevel Inverters Using Efficient Sequential Switching Hybrid-Modulation Techniques

Authors: P. Satish Kumar, K. Ramakrishna, Ch. Lokeshwar Reddy, G. Sridhar


This paper presents two different sequential switching hybrid-modulation strategies and implemented for cascaded multilevel inverters. Hybrid modulation strategies represent the combinations of Fundamental-Frequency Pulse Width Modulation (FFPWM) and Multilevel Sinusoidal-Modulation (MSPWM) strategies, and are designed for performance of the well-known Alternative Phase Opposition Disposition (APOD), Phase Shifted Carrier (PSC). The main characteristics of these modulations are the reduction of switching losses with good harmonic performance, balanced power loss dissipation among the devices with in a cell, and among the series-connected cells. The feasibility of these modulations is verified through spectral analysis, power loss analysis and simulation.

Keywords: cascaded multilevel inverters, hybrid modulation, power loss analysis, pulse width modulation

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18 Biosignal Measurement System Based on Ultra-Wide Band Human Body Communication

Authors: Jonghoon Kim, Gilwon Yoon


A wrist-band type biosignal measurement system and its data transfer through human body communication (HBC) were investigated. An HBC method based on pulses of ultra-wide band instead of using frequency or amplitude modulations was studied and implemented since the system became very compact and it was more suited for personal or mobile health monitoring. Our system measured photo-plethysmogram (PPG) and measured PPG signals were transmitted through a finger to a monitoring PC system. The device was compact and low-power consuming. HBC communication has very strong security measures since it does not use wireless network. Furthermore, biosignal monitoring system becomes handy because it does not need to have wire connections.

Keywords: biosignal, human body communication, mobile health, PPG, ultrawide band

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17 Molecular Communication Noise Effect Analysis of Diffusion-Based Channel for Considering Minimum-Shift Keying and Molecular Shift Keying Modulations

Authors: A. Azari, S. S. K. Seyyedi


One of the unaddressed and open challenges in the nano-networking is the characteristics of noise. The previous analysis, however, has concentrated on end-to-end communication model with no separate modelings for propagation channel and noise. By considering a separate signal propagation and noise model, the design and implementation of an optimum receiver will be much easier. In this paper, we justify consideration of a separate additive Gaussian noise model of a nano-communication system based on the molecular communication channel for which are applicable for MSK and MOSK modulation schemes. The presented noise analysis is based on the Brownian motion process, and advection molecular statistics, where the received random signal has a probability density function whose mean is equal to the mean number of the received molecules. Finally, the justification of received signal magnitude being uncorrelated with additive non-stationary white noise is provided.

Keywords: molecular, noise, diffusion, channel

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16 Application of Strong Optical Feedback to Enhance the Modulation Bandwidth of Semiconductor Lasers to the Millimeter-Wave Band

Authors: Moustafa Ahmed, Ahmed Bakry, Fumio Koyama


We report on the use of strong external optical feedback to enhance the modulation response of semiconductor lasers over a frequency passband around modulation frequencies higher than 60 GHz. We show that this modulation enhancement is a type of photon-photon resonance (PPR) of oscillating modes in the external cavity formed between the laser and the external reflector. The study is based on a time-delay rate equation model that takes into account both the strong feedback and multiple reflections in the external cavity. We examine the harmonic and intermodulation distortions associated with single and two-tone modulations in the mm-wave band of the resonant modulation. We show that compared with solitary lasers modulated around the carrier-photon resonance frequency, the present mm-wave modulated signal has lower distortions.

Keywords: semiconductor laser, optical feedback, modulation, harmonic distortion

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15 Comparison of the Logistic and the Gompertz Growth Functions Considering a Periodic Perturbation in the Model Parameters

Authors: Avan Al-Saffar, Eun-Jin Kim


Both the logistic growth model and the gompertz growth model are used to describe growth processes. Both models driven by perturbations in different cases are investigated using information theory as a useful measure of sustainability and the variability. Specifically, we study the effect of different oscillatory modulations in the system's parameters on the evolution of the system and Probability Density Function (PDF). We show the maintenance of the initial conditions for a long time. We offer Fisher information analysis in positive and/or negative feedback and explain its implications for the sustainability of population dynamics. We also display a finite amplitude solution due to the purely fluctuating growth rate whereas the periodic fluctuations in negative feedback can lead to break down the system's self-regulation with an exponentially growing solution. In the cases tested, the gompertz and logistic systems show similar behaviour in terms of information and sustainability although they develop differently in time.

Keywords: dynamical systems, fisher information, probability density function (pdf), sustainability

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14 Hybrid PWM Techniques for the Reduction of Switching Losses and Voltage Harmonics in Cascaded Multilevel Inverters

Authors: Venkata Reddy Kota


These days, the industrial trend is moving away from heavy and bulky passive components to power converter systems that use more and more semiconductor elements. Also, it is difficult to connect the traditional converters to the high and medium voltage. For these reasons, a new family of multilevel inverters has appeared as a solution for working with higher voltage levels. Different modulation topologies like Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM), Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHE-PWM) are available for multilevel inverters. In this work, different hybrid modulation techniques which are combination of fundamental frequency modulation and multilevel sinusoidal-modulation are compared. The main characteristic of these modulations are reduction of switching losses with good harmonic performance and balanced power loss dissipation among the device. The proposed hybrid modulation schemes are developed and simulated in Matlab/Simulink for cascaded H-bridge inverter. The results validate the applicability of the proposed schemes for cascaded multilevel inverter.

Keywords: hybrid PWM techniques, cascaded multilevel inverters, switching loss minimization

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13 Interpreting Some Transformational Aspects of Pentatonicism in Post-tonal Chinese Music on Dual Interval Space

Authors: Man-Ching Yu


In Chinese music, pentatonic collection is central in constituting all the harmonic and melodic elements; most of the traditional Chinese musicians particularly emphasize the importance of the smoothness between pentatonic collections when one collection modulates to another collection, articulating the roles of the pentatonic common tones. On the contrary, in post-tonal Chinese music the central features of the pentatonic modulations tend to reflect a larger number of semitonal relationships with a lesser number of common tones. This paper offers an analytical account of the transformations between pentatonic collections that arise in post-tonal Chinese music by adopting the methodology of the Tonnetz, in particular, Dual Interval Space (DIS), to elaborate and reexamine pentatonicism by focusing on the transformations between pentatonic elements, especially semitonal motion and common tones. In the essay, various pentatonic passages will be analyzed by means of DIS for highlighting the transformation of the collections. It will be shown that the pentatonic collections that are in semitonal, third, and augmented fourth relationships exhibit the maximum number of semitonal shifts.

Keywords: tonnetz, pentatonicism, post-tonal Chinese music, dual interval space, transformation

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12 Field Theories in Chiral Liquid Crystals: A Theory for Helicoids and Skyrmions

Authors: G. De Matteis, L. Martina, V. Turco


The work is focused on determining and comparing special nonlinear static configurations in cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs), confined between two parallel plates and in the presence of an external static electric/magnetic field. The solutions are stabilised by topological and non-topological conservation laws since they are described in terms of integrable or partially integrable nonlinear boundary value problems. In cholesteric liquid crystals which are subject to geometric frustration; anchoring conditions at boundaries, i.e., homeotropic conditions, are incompatible with the cholesteric twist. This aspect turns out to be essential in the admissible classes of solutions, allowing also for disclination type singularities. Within the framework of Frank-Oseen theory, we study the static configurations for CLCs. First, we find numerical solutions for isolated axisymmetric states in confined CLCs with weak homeotropic anchoring at the boundaries. These solutions describe 3-dimensional modulations, namely spherulites or cholesteric bubbles, actually observed in these systems, of standard baby skyrmions. Relations with well-known nonlinear integrable systems are found and are used to explore the asymptotic behavior of the solutions. Then we turn our attention to extended periodic static configurations called Helicoids or cholesteric fingers, described by an elliptic sine-Gordon model with appropriate boundary conditions, showing how their period and energies are determined by both the thickness of the cell and the intensity of the external electric/magnetic field. We explicitly show that helicoids with π or 2π of rotations of the molecular director are different in many aspects and are not simply algebraically related. The behaviour of the solutions, their energy and the properties of the associated disclinations are discussed in detail, both analytically and numerically.

Keywords: cholesteric liquid crystals, geometric frustration, helicoids, skyrmions

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11 Immunolabeling of TGF-β during Muscle Regeneration

Authors: K. Nikovics, D. Riccobono, M. Oger, H. Morin, L. Barbier, T. Poyot, X. Holy, A. Bendahmane, M. Drouet, A. L. Favier


Muscle regeneration after injury (as irradiation) is of great importance. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms are still unclear. Cytokines are believed to play fundamental role in the different stages of muscle regeneration. They are secreted by many cell populations, but the predominant producers are macrophages and helper T cells. On the other hand, it has been shown that adipose tissue derived stromal/stem cell (ASC) injection could improve muscle regeneration. Stem cells probably induce the coordinated modulations of gene expression in different macrophage cells. Therefore, we investigated the patterns and timing of changes in gene expression of different cytokines occurring upon stem cells loading. Muscle regeneration was studied in an irradiated muscle of minipig animal model in presence or absence of ASC treatment (irradiated and treated with ASCs, IRR+ASC; irradiated not-treated with ASCs, IRR; and non-irradiated no-IRR). We characterized macrophage populations by immunolabeling in the different conditions. In our study, we found mostly M2 and a few M1 macrophages in the IRR+ASC samples. However, only few M2b macrophages were noticed in the IRR muscles. In addition, we found intensive fibrosis in the IRR samples. With in situ hybridization and immunolabeling, we analyzed the cytokine expression of the different macrophages and we showed that M2d macrophage are the most abundant in the IRR+ASC samples. By in situ hybridization, strong expression of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) was observed in the IRR+ASC but very week in the IRR samples. But when we analyzed TGF-β level with immunolabeling the expression was very different: many M2 macrophages showed week expression in IRR+ASC and few cells expressing stronger level in IRR muscles. Therefore, we investigated the MMP expressions in the different muscles. Our data showed that the M2 macrophages of the IRR+ASC muscle expressed MMP2 proteins. Our working hypothesis is that MMP2 expression of the M2 macrophages can decrease fibrosis in the IRR+ASC muscle by capturing TGF-β.

Keywords: adipose tissue derived stromal/stem cell, cytokine, macrophage, muscle regeneration

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10 ESDN Expression in the Tumor Microenvironment Coordinates Melanoma Progression

Authors: Roberto Coppo, Francesca Orso, Daniela Dettori, Elena Quaglino, Lei Nie, Mehran M. Sadeghi, Daniela Taverna


Malignant melanoma is currently the fifth most common cancer in the white population and it is fatal in its metastatic stage. Several research studies in recent years have provided evidence that cancer initiation and progression are driven by genetic alterations of the tumor and paracrine interactions between tumor and microenvironment. Scattered data show that the Endothelial and Smooth muscle cell-Derived Neuropilin-like molecule (ESDN) controls cell proliferation and movement of stroma and tumor cells. To investigate the role of ESDN in the tumor microenvironment during melanoma progression, murine melanoma cells (B16 or B16-F10) were injected in ESDN knockout mice in order to evaluate how the absence of ESDN in stromal cells could influence melanoma progression. While no effect was found on primary tumor growth, increased cell extravasation and lung metastasis formation was observed in ESDN knockout mice compared to wild type controls. In order to understand how cancer cells cross the endothelial barrier during metastatic dissemination in an ESDN-null microenvironment, structure, and permeability of lung blood vessels were analyzed. Interestingly, ESDN knockout mice showed structurally altered and more permeable vessels compared to wild type animals. Since cell surface molecules mediate the process of tumor cell extravasation, the expression of a panel of extravasation-related ligands and receptors was analyzed. Importantly, modulations of N-cadherin, E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VAP-1 were observed in ESDN knockout endothelial cells, suggesting the presence of a favorable tumor microenvironment which facilitates melanoma cell extravasation and metastasis formation in the absence of ESDN. Furthermore, a potential contribution of immune cells in tumor dissemination was investigated. An increased recruitment of macrophages in the lungs of ESDN knockout mice carrying subcutaneous B16-F10 tumors was found. In conclusion, our data suggest a functional role of ESDN in the tumor microenvironment during melanoma progression and the identification of the mechanisms that regulate tumor cell extravasation could lead to the development of new therapies to reduce metastasis formation.

Keywords: melanoma, tumor microenvironment, extravasation, cell surface molecules

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9 Polyphenol-Rich Aronia Melanocarpa Juice Consumption and Line-1 Dna Methylation in a Cohort at Cardiovascular Risk

Authors: Ljiljana Stojković, Manja Zec, Maja Zivkovic, Maja Bundalo, Marija Glibetić, Dragan Alavantić, Aleksandra Stankovic


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with alterations in DNA methylation, the latter modulated by dietary polyphenols. The present pilot study (part of the original clinical study registered as NCT02800967 at aimed to investigate the impact of 4-week daily consumption of polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa juice on Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 (LINE-1) methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes, in subjects (n=34, age of 41.1±6.6 years) at moderate CVD risk, including an increased body mass index, central obesity, high normal blood pressure and/or dyslipidemia. The goal was also to examine whether factors known to affect DNA methylation, such as folate intake levels, MTHFR C677T gene variant, as well as the anthropometric and metabolic parameters, modulated the LINE-1 methylation levels upon consumption of polyphenol-rich Aronia juice. The experimental analysis of LINE-1 methylation was done by the MethyLight method. MTHFR C677T genotypes were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Folate intake was assessed by processing the data from the food frequency questionnaire and repeated 24-hour dietary recalls. Serum lipid profile was determined by using Roche Diagnostics kits. The statistical analyses were performed using the Statistica software package. In women, after vs. before the treatment period, a significant decrease in LINE-1 methylation levels was observed (97.54±1.50% vs. 98.39±0.86%, respectively; P=0.01). The change (after vs. before treatment) in LINE-1 methylation correlated directly with MTHFR 677T allele presence, average daily folate intake and the change in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while inversely with the change in serum triacylglycerols (R=0.72, R2=0.52, adjusted R2=0.36, P=0.03). The current results imply potential cardioprotective effects of habitual polyphenol-rich Aronia juice consumption achieved through the modifications of DNA methylation pattern in subjects at CVD risk, which should be further confirmed. Hence, the precision nutrition-driven modulations of DNA methylation may become targets for new approaches in the prevention and treatment of CVD.

Keywords: Aronia melanocarpa, cardiovascular risk, LINE-1, methylation, peripheral blood leukocytes, polyphenol

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8 Construction of Graph Signal Modulations via Graph Fourier Transform and Its Applications

Authors: Xianwei Zheng, Yuan Yan Tang


Classical window Fourier transform has been widely used in signal processing, image processing, machine learning and pattern recognition. The related Gabor transform is powerful enough to capture the texture information of any given dataset. Recently, in the emerging field of graph signal processing, researchers devoting themselves to develop a graph signal processing theory to handle the so-called graph signals. Among the new developing theory, windowed graph Fourier transform has been constructed to establish a time-frequency analysis framework of graph signals. The windowed graph Fourier transform is defined by using the translation and modulation operators of graph signals, following the similar calculations in classical windowed Fourier transform. Specifically, the translation and modulation operators of graph signals are defined by using the Laplacian eigenvectors as follows. For a given graph signal, its translation is defined by a similar manner as its definition in classical signal processing. Specifically, the translation operator can be defined by using the Fourier atoms; the graph signal translation is defined similarly by using the Laplacian eigenvectors. The modulation of the graph can also be established by using the Laplacian eigenvectors. The windowed graph Fourier transform based on these two operators has been applied to obtain time-frequency representations of graph signals. Fundamentally, the modulation operator is defined similarly to the classical modulation by multiplying a graph signal with the entries in each Fourier atom. However, a single Laplacian eigenvector entry cannot play a similar role as the Fourier atom. This definition ignored the relationship between the translation and modulation operators. In this paper, a new definition of the modulation operator is proposed and thus another time-frequency framework for graph signal is constructed. Specifically, the relationship between the translation and modulation operations can be established by the Fourier transform. Specifically, for any signal, the Fourier transform of its translation is the modulation of its Fourier transform. Thus, the modulation of any signal can be defined as the inverse Fourier transform of the translation of its Fourier transform. Therefore, similarly, the graph modulation of any graph signal can be defined as the inverse graph Fourier transform of the translation of its graph Fourier. The novel definition of the graph modulation operator established a relationship of the translation and modulation operations. The new modulation operation and the original translation operation are applied to construct a new framework of graph signal time-frequency analysis. Furthermore, a windowed graph Fourier frame theory is developed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for constructing windowed graph Fourier frames, tight frames and dual frames are presented in this paper. The novel graph signal time-frequency analysis framework is applied to signals defined on well-known graphs, e.g. Minnesota road graph and random graphs. Experimental results show that the novel framework captures new features of graph signals.

Keywords: graph signals, windowed graph Fourier transform, windowed graph Fourier frames, vertex frequency analysis

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7 Neuro-Epigenetic Changes on Diabetes Induced-Synaptic Fidelity in Brain

Authors: Valencia Fernandes, Dharmendra Kumar Khatri, Shashi Bala Singh


Background and Aim: Epigenetics are the inaudible signatures of several pathological processes in the brain. This study understands the influence of DNA methylation, a major epigenetic modification, in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of the diabetic brain and its notable effect on the cellular chaperones and synaptic proteins. Method: Chronic high fat diet and STZ-induced diabetic mice were studied for cognitive dysfunction, and global DNA methylation, as well as DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity, were assessed. Further, the cellular chaperones and synaptic proteins were examined using DNMT inhibitor, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC)-via intracerebroventricular injection. Moreover, % methylation of these synaptic proteins were also studied so as to correlate its epigenetic involvement. Computationally, its interaction with the DNMT enzyme were also studied using bioinformatic tools. Histological studies for morphological alterations and neuronal degeneration were also studied. Neurogenesis, a characteristic marker for new learning and memory formation, was also assessed via the BrdU staining. Finally, the most important behavioral studies, including the Morris water maze, Y maze, passive avoidance, and Novel object recognition test, were performed to study its cognitive functions. Results: Altered global DNA methylation and increased levels of DNMTs within the nucleus were confirmed in the cortex and hippocampus of the diseased mice, suggesting hypermethylation at a genetic level. Treatment with AzadC, a global DNA demethylating agent, ameliorated the protein and gene expression of the cellular chaperones and synaptic fidelity. Furthermore, the methylation analysis profile showed hypermethylation of the hsf1 protein, a master regulator for chaperones and thus, confirmed the epigenetic involvement in the diseased brain. Morphological improvements and decreased neurodegeneration, along with enhanced neurogenesis in the treatment group, suggest that epigenetic modulations do participate in learning and memory. This is supported by the improved behavioral test battery seen in the treatment group. Conclusion: DNA methylation could possibly accord in dysregulating the memory-associated proteins at chronic stages in type 2 diabetes. This could suggest a substantial contribution to the underlying pathophysiology of several metabolic syndromes like insulin resistance, obesity and also participate in transitioning this damage centrally, such as cognitive dysfunction.

Keywords: epigenetics, cognition, chaperones, DNA methylation

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6 Auditory Perception of Frequency-Modulated Sweeps and Reading Difficulties in Chinese

Authors: Hsiao-Lan Wang, Chun-Han Chiang, I-Chen Chen


In Chinese Mandarin, lexical tones play an important role to provide contrasts in word meaning. They are pitch patterns and can be quantified as the fundamental frequency (F0), expressed in Hertz (Hz). In this study, we aim to investigate the influence of frequency discrimination on Chinese children’s performance of reading abilities. Fifty participants from 3rd to 4th grades, including 24 children with reading difficulties and 26 age-matched children, were examined. A serial of cognitive, language, reading and psychoacoustic tests were administrated. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was also employed to study children’s auditory sensitivity. In the present study, auditory frequency was measured through slide-up pitch, slide-down pitch and frequency-modulated tone. The results showed that children with Chinese reading difficulties were significantly poor at phonological awareness and auditory discrimination for the identification of frequency-modulated tone. Chinese children’s character reading performance was significantly related to lexical tone awareness and auditory perception of frequency-modulated tone. In our MEG measure, we compared the mismatch negativity (MMNm), from 100 to 200 ms, in two groups. There were no significant differences between groups during the perceptual discrimination of standard sounds, fast-up and fast-down frequencies. However, the data revealed significant cluster differences between groups in the slow-up and slow-down frequencies discrimination. In the slow-up stimulus, the cluster demonstrated an upward field map at 106-151 ms (p < .001) with a strong peak time at 127ms. The source analyses of two dipole model and localization resolution model (CLARA) from 100 to 200 ms both indicated a strong source from the left temporal area with 45.845% residual variance. Similar results were found in the slow-down stimulus with a larger upward current at 110-142 ms (p < 0.05) and a peak time at 117 ms in the left temporal area (47.857% residual variance). In short, we found a significant group difference in the MMNm while children processed frequency-modulated tones with slow temporal changes. The findings may imply that perception of sound frequency signals with slower temporal modulations was related to reading and language development in Chinese. Our study may also support the recent hypothesis of underlying non-verbal auditory temporal deficits accounting for the difficulties in literacy development seen developmental dyslexia.

Keywords: Chinese Mandarin, frequency modulation sweeps, magnetoencephalography, mismatch negativity, reading difficulties

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5 Signal Transduction in a Myenteric Ganglion

Authors: I. M. Salama, R. N. Miftahof


A functional element of the myenteric nervous plexus is a morphologically distinct ganglion. Composed of sensory, inter- and motor neurons and arranged via synapses in neuronal circuits, their task is to decipher and integrate spike coded information within the plexus into regulatory output signals. The stability of signal processing in response to a wide range of internal/external perturbations depends on the plasticity of individual neurons. Any aberrations in this inherent property may lead to instability with the development of a dynamics chaos and can be manifested as pathological conditions, such as intestinal dysrhythmia, irritable bowel syndrome. The aim of this study is to investigate patterns of signal transduction within a two-neuronal chain - a ganglion - under normal physiological and structurally altered states. The ganglion contains the primary sensory (AH-type) and motor (S-type) neurons linked through a cholinergic dendro somatic synapse. The neurons have distinguished electrophysiological characteristics including levels of the resting and threshold membrane potentials and spiking activity. These are results of ionic channel dynamics namely: Na+, K+, Ca++- activated K+, Ca++ and Cl-. Mechanical stretches of various intensities and frequencies are applied at the receptive field of the AH-neuron generate a cascade of electrochemical events along the chain. At low frequencies, ν < 0.3 Hz, neurons demonstrate strong connectivity and coherent firing. The AH-neuron shows phasic bursting with spike frequency adaptation while the S-neuron responds with tonic bursts. At high frequency, ν > 0.5 Hz, the pattern of electrical activity changes to rebound and mixed mode bursting, respectively, indicating ganglionic loss of plasticity and adaptability. A simultaneous increase in neuronal conductivity for Na+, K+ and Ca++ ions results in tonic mixed spiking of the sensory neuron and class 2 excitability of the motor neuron. Although the signal transduction along the chain remains stable the synchrony in firing pattern is not maintained and the number of discharges of the S-type neuron is significantly reduced. A concomitant increase in Ca++- activated K+ and a decrease in K+ in conductivities re-establishes weak connectivity between the two neurons and converts their firing pattern to a bistable mode. It is thus demonstrated that neuronal plasticity and adaptability have a stabilizing effect on the dynamics of signal processing in the ganglion. Functional modulations of neuronal ion channel permeability, achieved in vivo and in vitro pharmacologically, can improve connectivity between neurons. These findings are consistent with experimental electrophysiological recordings from myenteric ganglia in intestinal dysrhythmia and suggest possible pathophysiological mechanisms.

Keywords: neuronal chain, signal transduction, plasticity, stability

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4 Evolution of Microstructure through Phase Separation via Spinodal Decomposition in Spinel Ferrite Thin Films

Authors: Nipa Debnath, Harinarayan Das, Takahiko Kawaguchi, Naonori Sakamoto, Kazuo Shinozaki, Hisao Suzuki, Naoki Wakiya


Nowadays spinel ferrite magnetic thin films have drawn considerable attention due to their interesting magnetic and electrical properties with enhanced chemical and thermal stability. Spinel ferrite magnetic films can be implemented in magnetic data storage, sensors, and spin filters or microwave devices. It is well established that the structural, magnetic and transport properties of the magnetic thin films are dependent on microstructure. Spinodal decomposition (SD) is a phase separation process, whereby a material system is spontaneously separated into two phases with distinct compositions. The periodic microstructure is the characteristic feature of SD. Thus, SD can be exploited to control the microstructure at the nanoscale level. In bulk spinel ferrites having general formula, MₓFe₃₋ₓ O₄ (M= Co, Mn, Ni, Zn), phase separation via SD has been reported only for cobalt ferrite (CFO); however, long time post-annealing is required to occur the spinodal decomposition. We have found that SD occurs in CoF thin film without using any post-deposition annealing process if we apply magnetic field during thin film growth. Dynamic Aurora pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a specially designed PLD system through which in-situ magnetic field (up to 2000 G) can be applied during thin film growth. The in-situ magnetic field suppresses the recombination of ions in the plume. In addition, the peak’s intensity of the ions in the spectra of the plume also increases when magnetic field is applied to the plume. As a result, ions with high kinetic energy strike into the substrate. Thus, ion-impingement occurred under magnetic field during thin film growth. The driving force of SD is the ion-impingement towards the substrates that is induced by in-situ magnetic field. In this study, we report about the occurrence of phase separation through SD and evolution of microstructure after phase separation in spinel ferrite thin films. The surface morphology of the phase separated films show checkerboard like domain structure. The cross-sectional microstructure of the phase separated films reveal columnar type phase separation. Herein, the decomposition wave propagates in lateral direction which has been confirmed from the lateral composition modulations in spinodally decomposed films. Large magnetic anisotropy has been found in spinodally decomposed nickel ferrite (NFO) thin films. This approach approves that magnetic field is also an important thermodynamic parameter to induce phase separation by the enhancement of up-hill diffusion in thin films. This thin film deposition technique could be a more efficient alternative for the fabrication of self-organized phase separated thin films and employed in controlling of the microstructure at nanoscale level.

Keywords: Dynamic Aurora PLD, magnetic anisotropy, spinodal decomposition, spinel ferrite thin film

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3 Unfolding Architectural Assemblages: Mapping Contemporary Spatial Objects' Affective Capacity

Authors: Panagiotis Roupas, Yota Passia


This paper aims at establishing an index of design mechanisms - immanent in spatial objects - based on the affective capacity of their material formations. While spatial objects (design objects, buildings, urban configurations, etc.) are regarded as systems composed of interacting parts, within the premises of assemblage theory, their ability to affect and to be affected has not yet been mapped or sufficiently explored. This ability lies in excess, a latent potentiality they contain, not transcendental but immanent in their pre-subjective aesthetic power. As spatial structures are theorized as assemblages - composed of heterogeneous elements that enter into relations with one another - and since all assemblages are parts of larger assemblages, their components' ability to engage is contingent. We thus seek to unfold the mechanisms inherent in spatial objects that allow to the constituent parts of design assemblages to perpetually enter into new assemblages. To map architectural assemblage's affective ability, spatial objects are analyzed in two axes. The first axis focuses on the relations that the assemblage's material and expressive components develop in order to enter the assemblages. Material components refer to those material elements that an assemblage requires in order to exist, while expressive components includes non-linguistic (sense impressions) as well as linguistic (beliefs). The second axis records the processes known as a-signifying signs or a-signs, which are the triggering mechanisms able to territorialize or deterritorialize, stabilize or destabilize the assemblage and thus allow it to assemble anew. As a-signs cannot be isolated from matter, we point to their resulting effects, which without entering the linguistic level they are expressed in terms of intensity fields: modulations, movements, speeds, rhythms, spasms, etc. They belong to a molecular level where they operate in the pre-subjective world of perceptions, effects, drives, and emotions. A-signs have been introduced as intensities that transform the object beyond meaning, beyond fixed or known cognitive procedures. To that end, from an archive of more than 100 spatial objects by contemporary architects and designers, we have created an effective mechanisms index is created, where each a-sign is now connected with the list of effects it triggers and which thoroughly defines it. And vice versa, the same effect can be triggered by different a-signs, allowing the design object to lie in a perpetual state of becoming. To define spatial objects, A-signs are categorized in terms of their aesthetic power to affect and to be affected on the basis of the general categories of form, structure and surface. Thus, different part's degree of contingency are evaluated and measured and finally, we introduce as material information that is immanent in the spatial object while at the same time they confer no meaning; they only convey some information without semantic content. Through this index, we are able to analyze and direct the final form of the spatial object while at the same time establishing the mechanism to measure its continuous transformation.

Keywords: affective mechanisms index, architectural assemblages, a-signifying signs, cartography, virtual

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2 Intriguing Modulations in the Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer Process of Chrysazine Governed by Host-Guest Interactions with Macrocyclic Molecules

Authors: Poojan Gharat, Haridas Pal, Sharmistha Dutta Choudhury


Tuning photophysical properties of guest dyes through host-guest interactions involving macrocyclic hosts are the attractive research areas since past few decades, as these changes can directly be implemented in chemical sensing, molecular recognition, fluorescence imaging and dye laser applications. Excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) is an intramolecular prototautomerization process display by some specific dyes. The process is quite amenable to tunability by the presence of different macrocyclic hosts. The present study explores the interesting effect of p-sulfonatocalix[n]arene (SCXn) and cyclodextrin (CD) hosts on the excited-state prototautomeric equilibrium of Chrysazine (CZ), a model antitumour drug. CZ exists exclusively in its normal form (N) in the ground state. However, in the excited state, the excited N* form undergoes ESIPT along with its pre-existing intramolecular hydrogen bonds, giving the excited state prototautomer (T*). Accordingly, CZ shows a single absorption band due to N form, but two emission bands due to N* and T* forms. Facile prototautomerization of CZ is considerably inhibited when the dye gets bound to SCXn hosts. However, in spite of lower binding affinity, the inhibition is more profound with SCX6 host as compared to SCX4 host. For CD-CZ system, while prototautomerization process is hindered by the presence of β-CD, it remains unaffected in the presence of γCD. Reduction in the prototautomerization process of CZ by SCXn and βCD hosts is unusual, because T* form is less dipolar in nature than the N*, hence binding of CZ within relatively hydrophobic hosts cavities should have enhanced the prototautomerization process. At the same time, considering the similar chemical nature of two CD hosts, their effect on prototautomerization process of CZ would have also been similar. The atypical effects on the prototautomerization process of CZ by the studied hosts are suggested to arise due to the partial inclusion or external binding of CZ with the hosts. As a result, there is a strong possibility of intermolecular H-bonding interaction between CZ dye and the functional groups present at the portals of SCXn and βCD hosts. Formation of these intermolecular H-bonds effectively causes the pre-existing intramolecular H-bonding network within CZ molecule to become weak, and this consequently reduces the prototautomerization process for the dye. Our results suggest that rather than the binding affinity between the dye and host, it is the orientation of CZ in the case of SCXn-CZ complexes and the binding stoichiometry in the case of CD-CZ complexes that play the predominant role in influencing the prototautomeric equilibrium of the dye CZ. In the case of SCXn-CZ complexes, the results obtained through experimental findings are well supported by quantum chemical calculations. Similarly for CD-CZ systems, binding stoichiometries obtained through geometry optimization studies on the complexes between CZ and CD hosts correlate nicely with the experimental results. Formation of βCD-CZ complexes with 1:1 stoichiometry while formation of γCD-CZ complexes with 1:1, 1:2 and 2:2 stoichiometries are revealed from geometry optimization studies and these results are in good accordance with the observed effects by the βCD and γCD hosts on the ESIPT process of CZ dye.

Keywords: intermolecular proton transfer, macrocyclic hosts, quantum chemical studies, photophysical studies

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1 Emotional State and Cognitive Workload during a Flight Simulation: Heart Rate Study

Authors: Damien Mouratille, Antonio R. Hidalgo-Muñoz, Nadine Matton, Yves Rouillard, Mickael Causse, Radouane El Yagoubi


Background: The monitoring of the physiological activity related to mental workload (MW) on pilots will be useful to improve aviation safety by anticipating human performance degradation. The electrocardiogram (ECG) can reveal MW fluctuations due to either cognitive workload or/and emotional state since this measure exhibits autonomic nervous system modulations. Arguably, heart rate (HR) is one of its most intuitive and reliable parameters. It would be particularly interesting to analyze the interaction between cognitive requirements and emotion in ecologic sets such as a flight simulator. This study aims to explore by means of HR the relation between cognitive demands and emotional activation. Presumably, the effects of cognition and emotion overloads are not necessarily cumulative. Methodology: Eight healthy volunteers in possession of the Private Pilot License were recruited (male; 20.8±3.2 years). ECG signal was recorded along the whole experiment by placing two electrodes on the clavicle and left pectoral of the participants. The HR was computed within 4 minutes segments. NASA-TLX and Big Five inventories were used to assess subjective workload and to consider the influence of individual personality differences. The experiment consisted in completing two dual-tasks of approximately 30 minutes of duration into a flight simulator AL50. Each dual-task required the simultaneous accomplishment of both a pre-established flight plan and an additional task based on target stimulus discrimination inserted between Air Traffic Control instructions. This secondary task allowed us to vary the cognitive workload from low (LC) to high (HC) levels, by combining auditory and visual numerical stimuli to respond to meeting specific criteria. Regarding emotional condition, the two dual-tasks were designed to assure analogous difficulty in terms of solicited cognitive demands. The former was realized by the pilot alone, i.e. Low Arousal (LA) condition. In contrast, the latter generates a high arousal (HA), since the pilot was supervised by two evaluators, filmed and involved into a mock competition with the rest of the participants. Results: Performance for the secondary task showed significant faster reaction times (RT) for HA compared to LA condition (p=.003). Moreover, faster RT was found for LC compared to HC (p < .001) condition. No interaction was found. Concerning HR measure, despite the lack of main effects an interaction between emotion and cognition is evidenced (p=.028). Post hoc analysis showed smaller HR for HA compared to LA condition only for LC (p=.049). Conclusion. The control of an aircraft is a very complex task including strong cognitive demands and depends on the emotional state of pilots. According to the behavioral data, the experimental set has permitted to generate satisfactorily different emotional and cognitive levels. As suggested by the interaction found in HR measure, these two factors do not seem to have a cumulative impact on the sympathetic nervous system. Apparently, low cognitive workload makes pilots more sensitive to emotional variations. These results hint the independency between data processing and emotional regulation. Further physiological data are necessary to confirm and disentangle this relation. This procedure may be useful for monitoring objectively pilot’s mental workload.

Keywords: cognitive demands, emotion, flight simulator, heart rate, mental workload

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