Search results for: cryptography
101 Cryptosystems in Asymmetric Cryptography for Securing Data on Cloud at Various Critical Levels
Authors: Sartaj Singh, Amar Singh, Ashok Sharma, Sandeep Kaur
Abstract:With upcoming threats in a digital world, we need to work continuously in the area of security in all aspects, from hardware to software as well as data modelling. The rise in social media activities and hunger for data by various entities leads to cybercrime and more attack on the privacy and security of persons. Cryptography has always been employed to avoid access to important data by using many processes. Symmetric key and asymmetric key cryptography have been used for keeping data secrets at rest as well in transmission mode. Various cryptosystems have evolved from time to time to make the data more secure. In this research article, we are studying various cryptosystems in asymmetric cryptography and their application with usefulness, and much emphasis is given to Elliptic curve cryptography involving algebraic mathematics.
Keywords: cryptography, symmetric key cryptography, asymmetric key cryptographyProcedia PDF Downloads 33
100 Cryptography and Cryptosystem a Panacea to Security Risk in Wireless Networking
Authors: Modesta E. Ezema, Chikwendu V. Alabekee, Victoria N. Ishiwu, Ifeyinwa NwosuArize, Chinedu I. Nwoye
Abstract:The advent of wireless networking in computing technology cannot be overemphasized, it opened up easy accessibility to information resources, networking made easier and brought internet accessibility to our doorsteps, but despite all these, some mishap came in with it that is causing mayhem in today ‘s overall information security. The cyber criminals will always compromise the integrity of a message that is not encrypted or that is encrypted with a weak algorithm.In other to correct the mayhem, this study focuses on cryptosystem and cryptography. This ensures end to end crypt messaging. The study of various cryptographic algorithms, as well as the techniques and applications of the cryptography for efficiency, were all considered in the work., present and future applications of cryptography were dealt with as well as Quantum Cryptography was exposed as the current and the future area in the development of cryptography. An empirical study was conducted to collect data from network users.
Keywords: algorithm, cryptography, cryptosystem, networkProcedia PDF Downloads 263
99 Digital Watermarking Based on Visual Cryptography and Histogram
Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh
Abstract:Nowadays, robust and secure watermarking algorithm and its optimization have been need of the hour. A watermarking algorithm is presented to achieve the copy right protection of the owner based on visual cryptography, histogram shape property and entropy. In this, both host image and watermark are preprocessed. Host image is preprocessed by using Butterworth filter, and watermark is with visual cryptography. Applying visual cryptography on water mark generates two shares. One share is used for embedding the watermark, and the other one is used for solving any dispute with the aid of trusted authority. Usage of histogram shape makes the process more robust against geometric and signal processing attacks. The combination of visual cryptography, Butterworth filter, histogram, and entropy can make the algorithm more robust, imperceptible, and copy right protection of the owner.
Keywords: digital watermarking, visual cryptography, histogram, butter worth filterProcedia PDF Downloads 289
98 Cryptography Based Authentication Methods
Authors: Mohammad A. Alia, Abdelfatah Aref Tamimi, Omaima N. A. Al-Allaf
Abstract:This paper reviews a comparison study on the most common used authentication methods. Some of these methods are actually based on cryptography. In this study, we show the main cryptographic services. Also, this study presents a specific discussion about authentication service, since the authentication service is classified into several categorizes according to their methods. However, this study gives more about the real life example for each of the authentication methods. It talks about the simplest authentication methods as well about the available biometric authentication methods such as voice, iris, fingerprint, and face authentication.
Keywords: information security, cryptography, system access control, authentication, network securityProcedia PDF Downloads 396
97 Secure E-Pay System Using Steganography and Visual Cryptography
Authors: K. Suganya Devi, P. Srinivasan, M. P. Vaishnave, G. Arutperumjothi
Abstract:Today’s internet world is highly prone to various online attacks, of which the most harmful attack is phishing. The attackers host the fake websites which are very similar and look alike. We propose an image based authentication using steganography and visual cryptography to prevent phishing. This paper presents a secure steganographic technique for true color (RGB) images and uses Discrete Cosine Transform to compress the images. The proposed method hides the secret data inside the cover image. The use of visual cryptography is to preserve the privacy of an image by decomposing the original image into two shares. Original image can be identified only when both qualified shares are simultaneously available. Individual share does not reveal the identity of the original image. Thus, the existence of the secret message is hard to be detected by the RS steganalysis.
Keywords: image security, random LSB, steganography, visual cryptographyProcedia PDF Downloads 271
96 Digital Watermarking Using Fractional Transform and (k,n) Halftone Visual Cryptography (HVC)
Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh Malik
Abstract:Development in the usage of internet for different purposes in recent times creates great threat for the copy right protection of the digital images. Digital watermarking is the best way to rescue from the said problem. This paper presents detailed review of the different watermarking techniques, latest trends in the field and categorized like spatial and transform domain, blind and non-blind methods, visible and non visible techniques etc. It also discusses the different optimization techniques used in the field of watermarking in order to improve the robustness and imperceptibility of the method. Different measures are discussed to evaluate the performance of the watermarking algorithm. At the end, this paper proposes a watermarking algorithm using (k.n) shares of halftone visual cryptography (HVC) instead of (2, 2) share cryptography. (k,n) shares visual cryptography improves the security of the watermark. As halftone is a method of reprographic, it helps in improving the visual quality of watermark image. The proposed method uses fractional transformation to improve the robustness of the copyright protection of the method.
Keywords: digital watermarking, fractional transform, halftone, visual cryptographyProcedia PDF Downloads 284
95 Secure Optical Communication System Using Quantum Cryptography
Authors: Ehab AbdulRazzaq Hussein
Abstract:Quantum cryptography (QC) is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions. In contrast to classical cryptographic schemes, the security of QC schemes is guaranteed by the fundamental laws of nature. Their security stems from the impossibility to distinguish non-orthogonal quantum states with certainty. A potential eavesdropper introduces errors in the transmissions, which can later be discovered by the legitimate participants of the communication. In this paper, the modeling approach is proposed for QC protocol BB84 using polarization coding. The single-photon system is assumed to be used in the designed models. Thus, Eve cannot use beam-splitting strategy to eavesdrop on the quantum channel transmission. The only eavesdropping strategy possible to Eve is the intercept/resend strategy. After quantum transmission of the QC protocol, the quantum bit error rate (QBER) is estimated and compared with a threshold value. If it is above this value the procedure must be stopped and performed later again.
Keywords: security, key distribution, cryptography, quantum protocols, Quantum Cryptography (QC), Quantum Key Distribution (QKD).Procedia PDF Downloads 337
94 Improved of Elliptic Curves Cryptography over a Ring
Authors: Abdelhakim Chillali, Abdelhamid Tadmori, Muhammed Ziane
Abstract:In this article we will study the elliptic curve defined over the ring An and we define the mathematical operations of ECC, which provides a high security and advantage for wireless applications compared to other asymmetric key cryptosystem.
Keywords: elliptic curves, finite ring, cryptography, studyProcedia PDF Downloads 303
93 Tamper Resistance Evaluation Tests with Noise Resources
Authors: Masaya Yoshikawa, Toshiya Asai, Ryoma Matsuhisa, Yusuke Nozaki, Kensaku Asahi
Abstract:Recently, side-channel attacks, which estimate secret keys using side-channel information such as power consumption and compromising emanations of cryptography circuits embedded in hardware, have become a serious problem. In particular, electromagnetic analysis attacks against cryptographic circuits between information processing and electromagnetic fields, which are related to secret keys in cryptography circuits, are the most threatening side-channel attacks. Therefore, it is important to evaluate tamper resistance against electromagnetic analysis attacks for cryptography circuits. The present study performs basic examination of the tamper resistance of cryptography circuits using electromagnetic analysis attacks with noise resources.
Keywords: tamper resistance, cryptographic circuit, hardware security evaluation, noise resourcesProcedia PDF Downloads 384
92 Implementation of Elliptic Curve Cryptography Encryption Engine on a FPGA
Authors: Mohamad Khairi Ishak
Abstract:Conventional public key crypto systems such as RSA (Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman), DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm), and Elgamal are no longer efficient to be implemented in the small, memory constrained devices. Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), which allows smaller key length as compared to conventional public key crypto systems, has thus become a very attractive choice for many applications. This paper describes implementation of an elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) encryption engine on a FPGA. The system has been implemented in 2 different key sizes, which are 131 bits and 163 bits. Area and timing analysis are provided for both key sizes for comparison. The crypto system, which has been implemented on Altera’s EPF10K200SBC600-1, has a hardware size of 5945/9984 and 6913/9984 of logic cells for 131 bits implementation and 163 bits implementation respectively. The crypto system operates up to 43 MHz, and performs point multiplication operation in 11.3 ms for 131 bits implementation and 14.9 ms for 163 bits implementation. In terms of speed, our crypto system is about 8 times faster than the software implementation of the same system.
Keywords: elliptic curve cryptography, FPGA, key sizes, memoryProcedia PDF Downloads 234
91 Pythagorean-Platonic Lattice Method for Finding all Co-Prime Right Angle Triangles
Authors: Anthony Overmars, Sitalakshmi Venkatraman
Abstract:This paper presents a method for determining all of the co-prime right angle triangles in the Euclidean field by looking at the intersection of the Pythagorean and Platonic right angle triangles and the corresponding lattice that this produces. The co-prime properties of each lattice point representing a unique right angle triangle are then considered. This paper proposes a conjunction between these two ancient disparaging theorists. This work has wide applications in information security where cryptography involves improved ways of finding tuples of prime numbers for secure communication systems. In particular, this paper has direct impact in enhancing the encryption and decryption algorithms in cryptography.
Keywords: Pythagorean triples, platonic triples, right angle triangles, co-prime numbers, cryptographyProcedia PDF Downloads 141
90 A Lightweight Authentication and Key Exchange Protocol Design for Smart Homes
Authors: Zhifu Li, Lei Li, Wanting Zhou, Yuanhang He
Abstract:This paper proposed a lightweight certificateless authentication and key exchange protocol (Light-CL-PKC) based on elliptic curve cryptography and Chinese Remainder Theorem for smart home scenario. Light-CL-PKC can efficiently reduce the computational cost of both sides of authentication by forgoing time-consuming bilinear pair operations and making full use of point-addition and point-multiplication operations on elliptic curves. The authentication and key exchange processes in this system are also completed in a single round of communication between the two parties. The analysis result demonstrates that it can significantly minimize the communication overheads more than 32.14% compared with the referenced protocols, while the runtime for both authentication and key exchange has also been significantly reduced.
Keywords: authentication, key exchange, certificateless public key cryptography, elliptic curve cryptographyProcedia PDF Downloads 16
89 Analysis of Network Performance Using Aspect of Quantum Cryptography
Authors: Nisarg A. Patel, Hiren B. Patel
Abstract:Quantum cryptography is described as a point-to-point secure key generation technology that has emerged in recent times in providing absolute security. Researchers have started studying new innovative approaches to exploit the security of Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) for a large-scale communication system. A number of approaches and models for utilization of QKD for secure communication have been developed. The uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics created a new paradigm for QKD. One of the approaches for use of QKD involved network fashioned security. The main goal was point-to-point Quantum network that exploited QKD technology for end-to-end network security via high speed QKD. Other approaches and models equipped with QKD in network fashion are introduced in the literature as. A different approach that this paper deals with is using QKD in existing protocols, which are widely used on the Internet to enhance security with main objective of unconditional security. Our work is towards the analysis of the QKD in Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET).
Keywords: cryptography, networking, quantum, encryption and decryptionProcedia PDF Downloads 98
88 Secure Authentication Scheme Based on Numerical Series Cryptography for Internet of Things
Authors: Maha Aladdin, Khaled Nagaty, Abeer Hamdy
Abstract:The rapid advancement cellular networks and wireless networks have laid a solid basis for the Internet of Things. IoT has evolved into a unique standard that allows diverse physical devices to collaborate with one another. A service provider gives a variety of services that may be accessed via smart apps anywhere, at any time, and from any location over the Internet. Because of the public environment of mobile communication and the Internet, these services are highly vulnerable to a several malicious attacks, such as unauthorized disclosure by hostile attackers. As a result, the best option for overcoming these vulnerabilities is a strong authentication method. In this paper, a lightweight authentication scheme that is based on numerical series cryptography is proposed for the IoT environments. It allows mutual authentication between IoT devices Parametric study and formal proofs are utilized to illustrate that the pro-posed approach is resistant to a variety of security threats.
Keywords: internet of things, authentication, cryptography, security protocolProcedia PDF Downloads 45
87 Arithmetic Operations Based on Double Base Number Systems
Authors: K. Sanjayani, C. Saraswathy, S. Sreenivasan, S. Sudhahar, D. Suganya, K. S. Neelukumari, N. Vijayarangan
Abstract:Double Base Number System (DBNS) is an imminent system of representing a number using two bases namely 2 and 3, which has its application in Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) and Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA).The previous binary method representation included only base 2. DBNS uses an approximation algorithm namely, Greedy Algorithm. By using this algorithm, the number of digits required to represent a larger number is less when compared to the standard binary method that uses base 2 algorithms. Hence, the computational speed is increased and time being reduced. The standard binary method uses binary digits 0 and 1 to represent a number whereas the DBNS method uses binary digit 1 alone to represent any number (canonical form). The greedy algorithm uses two ways to represent the number, one is by using only the positive summands and the other is by using both positive and negative summands. In this paper, arithmetic operations are used for elliptic curve cryptography. Elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem is the foundation for most of the day to day elliptic curve cryptography. This appears to be a momentous hard slog compared to digital logarithm problem. In elliptic curve digital signature algorithm, the key generation requires 160 bit of data by usage of standard binary representation. Whereas, the number of bits required generating the key can be reduced with the help of double base number representation. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to generate key during encryption and extraction of key in decryption.
Keywords: cryptography, double base number system, elliptic curve cryptography, elliptic curve digital signature algorithmProcedia PDF Downloads 332
86 Identity-Based Encryption: A Comparison of Leading Classical and Post-Quantum Implementations in an Enterprise Setting
Authors: Emily Stamm, Neil Smyth, Elizabeth O'Sullivan
Abstract:In Identity-Based Encryption (IBE), an identity, such as a username, email address, or domain name, acts as the public key. IBE consolidates the PKI by eliminating the repetitive process of requesting public keys for each message encryption. Two of the most popular schemes are Sakai-Kasahara (SAKKE), which is based on elliptic curve pairings, and the Ducas, Lyubashevsky, and Prest lattice scheme (DLP- Lattice), which is based on quantum-secure lattice cryptography. In or- der to embed the schemes in a standard enterprise setting, both schemes are implemented as shared system libraries and integrated into a REST service that functions at the enterprise level. The performance of both schemes as libraries and services is compared, and the practicalities of implementation and application are discussed. Our performance results indicate that although SAKKE has the smaller key and ciphertext sizes, DLP-Lattice is significantly faster overall and we recommend it for most enterprise use cases.
Keywords: identity-based encryption, post-quantum cryptography, lattice-based cryptography, IBEProcedia PDF Downloads 41
85 Chaos Cryptography in Cloud Architectures with Lower Latency
Authors: Mohammad A. Alia
Abstract:With the rapid evolution of the internet applications, cloud computing becomes one of today’s hottest research areas due to its ability to reduce costs associated with computing. Cloud is, therefore, increasing flexibility and scalability for computing services in the internet. Cloud computing is Internet based computing due to shared resources and information which are dynamically delivered to consumers. As cloud computing share resources via the open network, hence cloud outsourcing is vulnerable to attack. Therefore, this paper will explore data security of cloud computing by implementing chaotic cryptography. The proposal scenario develops a problem transformation technique that enables customers to secretly transform their information. This work proposes the chaotic cryptographic algorithms have been applied to enhance the security of the cloud computing accessibility. However, the proposed scenario is secure, easy and straightforward process. The chaotic encryption and digital signature systems ensure the security of the proposed scenario. Though, the choice of the key size becomes crucial to prevent a brute force attack.
Keywords: chaos, cloud computing, security, cryptographyProcedia PDF Downloads 267
84 Fingerprint Image Encryption Using a 2D Chaotic Map and Elliptic Curve Cryptography
Authors: D. M. S. Bandara, Yunqi Lei, Ye Luo
Abstract:Fingerprints are suitable as long-term markers of human identity since they provide detailed and unique individual features which are difficult to alter and durable over life time. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to encrypt and decrypt fingerprint images by using a specially designed Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) procedure based on block ciphers. In addition, to increase the confusing effect of fingerprint encryption, we also utilize a chaotic-behaved method called Arnold Cat Map (ACM) for a 2D scrambling of pixel locations in our method. Experimental results are carried out with various types of efficiency and security analyses. As a result, we demonstrate that the proposed fingerprint encryption/decryption algorithm is advantageous in several different aspects including efficiency, security and flexibility. In particular, using this algorithm, we achieve a margin of about 0.1% in the test of Number of Pixel Changing Rate (NPCR) values comparing to the-state-of-the-art performances.
Keywords: arnold cat map, biometric encryption, block cipher, elliptic curve cryptography, fingerprint encryption, Koblitz’s encodingProcedia PDF Downloads 139
83 Optimized and Secured Digital Watermarking Using Fuzzy Entropy, Bezier Curve and Visual Cryptography
Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh
Abstract:Recent development in the usage of internet for different purposes creates a great threat for the copyright protection of the digital images. Digital watermarking can be used to address the problem. This paper presents detailed review of the different watermarking techniques, latest trends in the field of secured, robust and imperceptible watermarking. It also discusses the different optimization techniques used in the field of watermarking in order to improve the robustness and imperceptibility of the method. Different measures are discussed to evaluate the performance of the watermarking algorithm. At the end, this paper proposes a watermarking algorithm using (2, 2) share visual cryptography and Bezier curve based algorithm to improve the security of the watermark. The proposed method uses fractional transformation to improve the robustness of the copyright protection of the method. The algorithm is optimized using fuzzy entropy for better results.
Keywords: digital watermarking, fractional transform, visual cryptography, Bezier curve, fuzzy entropyProcedia PDF Downloads 120
82 Key Transfer Protocol Based on Non-invertible Numbers
Authors: Luis A. Lizama-Perez, Manuel J. Linares, Mauricio Lopez
Abstract:We introduce a method to perform remote user authentication on what we call non-invertible cryptography. It exploits the fact that the multiplication of an invertible integer and a non-invertible integer in a ring Zn produces a non-invertible integer making infeasible to compute factorization. The protocol requires the smallest key size when is compared with the main public key algorithms as Diffie-Hellman, Rivest-Shamir-Adleman or Elliptic Curve Cryptography. Since we found that the unique opportunity for the eavesdropper is to mount an exhaustive search on the keys, the protocol seems to be post-quantum.
Keywords: invertible, non-invertible, ring, key transferProcedia PDF Downloads 100
81 SA-SPKC: Secure and Efficient Aggregation Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Stateful Public Key Cryptography
Authors: Merad Boudia Omar Rafik, Feham Mohammed
Abstract:Data aggregation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provides a great reduction of energy consumption. The limited resources of sensor nodes make the choice of an encryption algorithm very important for providing security for data aggregation. Asymmetric cryptography involves large ciphertexts and heavy computations but solves, on the other hand, the problem of key distribution of symmetric one. The latter provides smaller ciphertexts and speed computations. Also, the recent researches have shown that achieving the end-to-end confidentiality and the end-to-end integrity at the same is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose (SA-SPKC), a novel security protocol which addresses both security services for WSNs, and where only the base station can verify the individual data and identify the malicious node. Our scheme is based on stateful public key encryption (StPKE). The latter combines the best features of both kinds of encryption along with state in order to reduce the computation overhead. Our analysis
Keywords: secure data aggregation, wireless sensor networks, elliptic curve cryptography, homomorphic encryptionProcedia PDF Downloads 223
80 Providing Reliability, Availability and Scalability Support for Quick Assist Technology Cryptography on the Cloud
Authors: Songwu Shen, Garrett Drysdale, Veerendranath Mannepalli, Qihua Dai, Yuan Wang, Yuli Chen, David Qian, Utkarsh Kakaiya
Abstract:Hardware accelerator has been a promising solution to reduce the cost of cloud data centers. This paper investigates the QoS enhancement of the acceleration of an important datacenter workload: the webserver (or proxy) that faces high computational consumption originated from secure sockets layer (SSL) or transport layer security (TLS) procession in the cloud environment. Our study reveals that for the accelerator maintenance cases—need to upgrade driver/firmware or hardware reset due to hardware hang; we still can provide cryptography services by switching to software during maintenance phase and then switching back to accelerator after maintenance. The switching is seamless to server application such as Nginx that runs inside a VM on top of the server. To achieve this high availability goal, we propose a comprehensive fallback solution based on Intel® QuickAssist Technology (QAT). This approach introduces an architecture that involves the collaboration between physical function (PF) and virtual function (VF), and collaboration among VF, OpenSSL, and web application Nginx. The evaluation shows that our solution could provide high reliability, availability, and scalability (RAS) of hardware cryptography service in a 7x24x365 manner in the cloud environment.
Keywords: accelerator, cryptography service, RAS, secure sockets layer/transport layer security, SSL/TLS, virtualization fallback architectureProcedia PDF Downloads 79
79 Scalable Systolic Multiplier over Binary Extension Fields Based on Two-Level Karatsuba Decomposition
Authors: Chiou-Yng Lee, Wen-Yo Lee, Chieh-Tsai Wu, Cheng-Chen Yang
Abstract:Shifted polynomial basis (SPB) is a variation of polynomial basis representation. SPB has potential for efficient bit-level and digit-level implementations of multiplication over binary extension fields with subquadratic space complexity. For efficient implementation of pairing computation with large finite fields, this paper presents a new SPB multiplication algorithm based on Karatsuba schemes, and used that to derive a novel scalable multiplier architecture. Analytical results show that the proposed multiplier provides a trade-off between space and time complexities. Our proposed multiplier is modular, regular, and suitable for very-large-scale integration (VLSI) implementations. It involves less area complexity compared to the multipliers based on traditional decomposition methods. It is therefore, more suitable for efficient hardware implementation of pairing based cryptography and elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) in constraint driven applications.
Keywords: digit-serial systolic multiplier, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), Karatsuba algorithm (KA), shifted polynomial basis (SPB), pairing computationProcedia PDF Downloads 294
78 A Scheme Cooperating with Cryptography to Enhance Security in Satellite Communications
Authors: Chieh-Fu Chang, Wan-Hsin Hsieh
Abstract:We have proposed a novel scheme— iterative word-extension (IWE) to enhance the cliff effect of Reed-Solomon codes regarding the error performance at a specific Eb/N0. The scheme can be readily extended to block codes and the important properties of IWE are further investigated here. In order to select proper block codes specifying the desired cliff Eb/N0, the associated features of IWE are explored. These properties and features grant IWE ability to enhance security regarding the received Eb/N0 in physical layer so that IWE scheme can cooperate with the traditional presentation layer approach — cryptography, to meet the secure requirements in diverse applications. The features and feasibility of IWE scheme in satellite communication are finally discussed.
Keywords: security, IWE, cliff effect, space communicationsProcedia PDF Downloads 358
77 Secure Message Transmission Using Meaningful Shares
Authors: Ajish Sreedharan
Abstract:Visual cryptography encodes a secret image into shares of random binary patterns. If the shares are exerted onto transparencies, the secret image can be visually decoded by superimposing a qualified subset of transparencies, but no secret information can be obtained from the superposition of a forbidden subset. The binary patterns of the shares, however, have no visual meaning and hinder the objectives of visual cryptography. In the Secret Message Transmission through Meaningful Shares a secret message to be transmitted is converted to grey scale image. Then (2,2) visual cryptographic shares are generated from this converted gray scale image. The shares are encrypted using A Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Wavelet Transform. Two separate color images which are of the same size of the shares, taken as cover image of the respective shares to hide the shares into them. The encrypted shares which are covered by meaningful images so that a potential eavesdropper wont know there is a message to be read. The meaningful shares are transmitted through two different transmission medium. During decoding shares are fetched from received meaningful images and decrypted using A Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Wavelet Transform. The shares are combined to regenerate the grey scale image from where the secret message is obtained.
Keywords: visual cryptography, wavelet transform, meaningful shares, grey scale imageProcedia PDF Downloads 382
76 Enhanced Visual Sharing Method for Medical Image Security
Authors: Kalaivani Pachiappan, Sabari Annaji, Nithya Jayakumar
Abstract:In recent years, Information security has emerged as foremost challenges in many fields. Especially in medical information systems security is a major issue, in handling reports such as patients’ diagnosis and medical images. These sensitive data require confidentiality for transmission purposes. Image sharing is a secure and fault-tolerant method for protecting digital images, which can use the cryptography techniques to reduce the information loss. In this paper, visual sharing method is proposed which embeds the patient’s details into a medical image. Then the medical image can be divided into numerous shared images and protected by various users. The original patient details and medical image can be retrieved by gathering the shared images.
Keywords: information security, medical images, cryptography, visual sharingProcedia PDF Downloads 343
75 Software Quality Assurance in Network Security using Cryptographic Techniques
Authors: Sidra Shabbir, Ayesha Manzoor, Mehreen Sirshar
Abstract:The use of the network communication has imposed serious threats to the security of assets over the network. Network security is getting more prone to active and passive attacks which may result in serious consequences to data integrity, confidentiality and availability. Various cryptographic techniques have been proposed in the past few years to combat with the concerned problem by ensuring quality but in order to have a fully secured network; a framework of new cryptosystem was needed. This paper discusses certain cryptographic techniques which have shown far better improvement in the network security with enhanced quality assurance. The scope of this research paper is to cover the security pitfalls in the current systems and their possible solutions based on the new cryptosystems. The development of new cryptosystem framework has paved a new way to the widespread network communications with enhanced quality in network security.
Keywords: cryptography, network security, encryption, decryption, integrity, confidentiality, security algorithms, elliptic curve cryptographyProcedia PDF Downloads 451
74 Integrating the Modbus SCADA Communication Protocol with Elliptic Curve Cryptography
Authors: Despoina Chochtoula, Aristidis Ilias, Yannis Stamatiou
Abstract:Modbus is a protocol that enables the communication among devices which are connected to the same network. This protocol is, often, deployed in connecting sensor and monitoring units to central supervisory servers in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, or SCADA, systems. These systems monitor critical infrastructures, such as factories, power generation stations, nuclear power reactors etc. in order to detect malfunctions and ignite alerts and corrective actions. However, due to their criticality, SCADA systems are vulnerable to attacks that range from simple eavesdropping on operation parameters, exchanged messages, and valuable infrastructure information to malicious modification of vital infrastructure data towards infliction of damage. Thus, the SCADA research community has been active over strengthening SCADA systems with suitable data protection mechanisms based, to a large extend, on cryptographic methods for data encryption, device authentication, and message integrity protection. However, due to the limited computation power of many SCADA sensor and embedded devices, the usual public key cryptographic methods are not appropriate due to their high computational requirements. As an alternative, Elliptic Curve Cryptography has been proposed, which requires smaller key sizes and, thus, less demanding cryptographic operations. Until now, however, no such implementation has been proposed in the SCADA literature, to the best of our knowledge. In order to fill this gap, our methodology was focused on integrating Modbus, a frequently used SCADA communication protocol, with Elliptic Curve based cryptography and develop a server/client application to demonstrate the proof of concept. For the implementation we deployed two C language libraries, which were suitably modify in order to be successfully integrated: libmodbus (https://github.com/stephane/libmodbus) and ecc-lib https://www.ceid.upatras.gr/webpages/faculty/zaro/software/ecc-lib/). The first library provides a C implementation of the Modbus/TCP protocol while the second one offers the functionality to develop cryptographic protocols based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography. These two libraries were combined, after suitable modifications and enhancements, in order to give a modified version of the Modbus/TCP protocol focusing on the security of the data exchanged among the devices and the supervisory servers. The mechanisms we implemented include key generation, key exchange/sharing, message authentication, data integrity check, and encryption/decryption of data. The key generation and key exchange protocols were implemented with the use of Elliptic Curve Cryptography primitives. The keys established by each device are saved in their local memory and are retained during the whole communication session and are used in encrypting and decrypting exchanged messages as well as certifying entities and the integrity of the messages. Finally, the modified library was compiled for the Android environment in order to run the server application as an Android app. The client program runs on a regular computer. The communication between these two entities is an example of the successful establishment of an Elliptic Curve Cryptography based, secure Modbus wireless communication session between a portable device acting as a supervisor station and a monitoring computer. Our first performance measurements are, also, very promising and demonstrate the feasibility of embedding Elliptic Curve Cryptography into SCADA systems, filling in a gap in the relevant scientific literature.
Keywords: elliptic curve cryptography, ICT security, modbus protocol, SCADA, TCP/IP protocolProcedia PDF Downloads 184
73 Facial Biometric Privacy Using Visual Cryptography: A Fundamental Approach to Enhance the Security of Facial Biometric Data
Authors: Devika Tanna
Abstract:'Biometrics' means 'life measurement' but the term is usually associated with the use of unique physiological characteristics to identify an individual. It is important to secure the privacy of digital face image that is stored in central database. To impart privacy to such biometric face images, first, the digital face image is split into two host face images such that, each of it gives no idea of existence of the original face image and, then each cover image is stored in two different databases geographically apart. When both the cover images are simultaneously available then only we can access that original image. This can be achieved by using the XM2VTS and IMM face database, an adaptive algorithm for spatial greyscale. The algorithm helps to select the appropriate host images which are most likely to be compatible with the secret image stored in the central database based on its geometry and appearance. The encryption is done using GEVCS which results in a reconstructed image identical to the original private image.
Keywords: adaptive algorithm, database, host images, privacy, visual cryptographyProcedia PDF Downloads 68
72 Generalized π-Armendariz Authentication Cryptosystem
Authors: Areej M. Abduldaim, Nadia M. G. Al-Saidi
Abstract:Algebra is one of the important fields of mathematics. It concerns with the study and manipulation of mathematical symbols. It also concerns with the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields. Due to the development of these abstractions, it is extended to consider other structures, such as vectors, matrices, and polynomials, which are non-numerical objects. Computer algebra is the implementation of algebraic methods as algorithms and computer programs. Recently, many algebraic cryptosystem protocols are based on non-commutative algebraic structures, such as authentication, key exchange, and encryption-decryption processes are adopted. Cryptography is the science that aimed at sending the information through public channels in such a way that only an authorized recipient can read it. Ring theory is the most attractive category of algebra in the area of cryptography. In this paper, we employ the algebraic structure called skew -Armendariz rings to design a neoteric algorithm for zero knowledge proof. The proposed protocol is established and illustrated through numerical example, and its soundness and completeness are proved.
Keywords: cryptosystem, identification, skew π-Armendariz rings, skew polynomial rings, zero knowledge protocolProcedia PDF Downloads 139