Search results for: C. Santhana Krishnan
33 Flexural Test of Diversing Foam Core Sandwich Composites
Authors: Santhana Krishnan R, Preetha C
Abstract:Sandwich construction with strong and stiffness facing and light weight cores is increasingly cores being used in structures where the predominant loads are flexural. The objective of this study is to improve the flexural performances of foam core sandwich composite via structural core modifications considering the ease of application. The performances of single core perforated and divided core perforated sandwich composites are compared with each other. The future demands of sandwich composites in recent years on aeronautics and marine industries are being increasing in their research needs and these materials has their superior properties for upgrading engineering products.
Keywords: sandwich composites, perforated cores, flexural test, single and divided core perforatedProcedia PDF Downloads 84
32 Production of Biodiesel Using Tannery Fleshing as a Feedstock via Solid-State Fermentation
Authors: C. Santhana Krishnan, A. M. Mimi Sakinah, Lakhveer Singh, Zularisam A. Wahid
Abstract:This study was initiated to evaluate and optimize the conversion of animal fat from tannery wastes into methyl ester. In the pre-treatment stage, animal fats feedstock was hydrolysed and esterified through solid state fermentation (SSF) using Microbacterium species immobilized onto sand silica matrix. After 72 hours of fermentation, predominant esters in the animal fats were found to be with 83.9% conversion rate. Later, esterified animal fats were transesterified at 3 hour reaction time with 1% NaOH (w/v %), 6% methanol to oil ratio (w/v %) to produce 89% conversion rate. C13 NMR revealed long carbon chain in fatty acid methyl esters at 22.2817-31.9727 ppm. Methyl esters of palmitic, stearic, oleic represented the major components in biodiesel.
Keywords: tannery wastes, fatty animal fleshing, trans-esterification, immobilization, solid state fermentationProcedia PDF Downloads 195
31 Mapping Method to Solve a Nonlinear Schrodinger Type Equation
Authors: Edamana Vasudevan Krishnan
Abstract:This paper studies solitons in optical materials with the help of Mapping Method. Two types of nonlinear media have been investigated, namely, the cubic nonlinearity and the quintic nonlinearity. The soliton solutions, shock wave solutions and singular solutions have been derives with certain constraint conditions.
Keywords: solitons, integrability, metamaterials, mapping methodProcedia PDF Downloads 419
30 Exact Solutions of K(N,N)-Type Equations Using Jacobi Elliptic Functions
Authors: Edamana Krishnan, Khalil Al-Ghafri
Abstract:In this paper, modified K(n,n) and K(n+1,n+1) equations have been solved using mapping methods which give a variety of solutions in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. The solutions when m approaches 0 and 1, with m as the modulus of the JEFs have also been deduced. The role of constraint conditions has been discussed.
Keywords: travelling wave solutions, solitary wave solutions, compactons, Jacobi elliptic functions, mapping methodsProcedia PDF Downloads 230
29 Fog Computing- Network Based Computing
Authors: Navaneeth Krishnan, Chandan N. Bhagwat, Aparajit P. Utpat
Abstract:Cloud Computing provides us a means to upload data and use applications over the internet. As the number of devices connecting to the cloud grows, there is undue pressure on the cloud infrastructure. Fog computing or Network Based Computing or Edge Computing allows to move a part of the processing in the cloud to the network devices present along the node to the cloud. Therefore the nodes connected to the cloud have a better response time. This paper proposes a method of moving the computation from the cloud to the network by introducing an android like appstore on the networking devices.
Keywords: cloud computing, fog computing, network devices, appstoreProcedia PDF Downloads 297
28 Exergy Model for a Solar Water Heater with Flat Plate Collector
Authors: P. Sathyakala, G. Sai Sundara Krishnan
Abstract:The objective of this paper is to derive an exergy model for a solar water heater with honey comb structure in order to identify the element which has larger irreversibility in the system. This will help us in finding the means to reduce the wasted work potential so that the overall efficiency of the system can be improved by finding the ways to reduce those wastages.
Keywords: exergy, energy balance, entropy balance, work potential, degradation, honey comb, flat plate collectorProcedia PDF Downloads 404
27 Mapping Methods to Solve a Modified Korteweg de Vries Type Equation
Authors: E. V. Krishnan
Abstract:In this paper, we employ mapping methods to construct exact travelling wave solutions for a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. We have derived periodic wave solutions in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions, kink solutions and singular wave solutions in terms of hyperbolic functions.
Keywords: travelling wave solutions, Jacobi elliptic functions, solitary wave solutions, Korteweg-de Vries equationProcedia PDF Downloads 265
26 Review of Suitable Advanced Oxidation Processes for Degradation of Organic Compounds in Produced Water during Enhanced Oil Recovery
Authors: Smita Krishnan, Krittika Chandran, Chandra Mohan Sinnathambi
Abstract:Produced water and its treatment and management are growing challenges in all producing regions. This water is generally considered as a nonrevenue product, but it can have significant value in enhanced oil recovery techniques if it meets the required quality standards. There is also an interest in the beneficial uses of produced water for agricultural and industrial applications. Advanced Oxidation Process is a chemical technology that has been growing recently in the wastewater treatment industry, and it is highly recommended for non-easily removal of organic compounds. The efficiency of AOPs is compound specific, therefore, the optimization of each process should be done based on different aspects.
Keywords: advanced oxidation process, photochemical processes, degradation, organic contaminantsProcedia PDF Downloads 398
25 Entrepreneurship and the Discovery and Exploitation of Business Opportunities: Empirical Evidence from the Malawian Tourism Sector
Authors: Aravind Mohan Krishnan
Abstract:This paper identifies a research gap in the literature on tourism entrepreneurship in Malawi, Africa, and investigates how entrepreneurs from the Malawian tourism sector discover and exploit business opportunities. In particular, the importance of prior experience and business networks in the opportunity development process is debated. Another area of empirical research examined here is the opportunity recognition-venture creation sequence. While Malawi presents fruitful business opportunities, exploiting these opportunities into fully realized business ideas is a real challenge due to the country’s difficult business environment and poor promotional and marketing efforts. The study concludes by calling for further research in Sub-Saharan Africa in order to develop our understanding of entrepreneurship in this (African) context.
Keywords: entrepreneurship, Malawi, opportunities, tourismProcedia PDF Downloads 265
24 Exact Solutions of a Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation with Kerr Law Nonlinearity
Authors: Muna Alghabshi, Edmana Krishnan
Abstract:A nonlinear Schrodinger equation has been considered for solving by mapping methods in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions (JEFs). The equation under consideration has a linear evolution term, linear and nonlinear dispersion terms, the Kerr law nonlinearity term and three terms representing the contribution of meta materials. This equation which has applications in optical fibers is found to have soliton solutions, shock wave solutions, and singular wave solutions when the modulus of the JEFs approach 1 which is the infinite period limit. The equation with special values of the parameters has also been solved using the tanh method.
Keywords: Jacobi elliptic function, mapping methods, nonlinear Schrodinger Equation, tanh methodProcedia PDF Downloads 235
23 Kinetics of Cu(II) Transport through Bulk Liquid Membrane with Different Membrane Materials
Authors: Siu Hua Chang, Ayub Md Som, Jagannathan Krishnan
Abstract:The kinetics of Cu(II) transport through a bulk liquid membrane with different membrane materials was investigated in this work. Three types of membrane materials were used: Fresh cooking oil, waste cooking oil, and kerosene each of which was mixed with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (carrier) and tributylphosphate (modifier). Kinetic models derived from the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions were used to study the facilitated transport of Cu(II) across the source, membrane, and receiving phases of bulk liquid membrane. It was found that the transport kinetics of Cu(II) across the source phase was not affected by different types of membrane materials but decreased considerably when the membrane materials changed from kerosene, waste cooking oil to fresh cooking oil. The rate constants of Cu(II) removal and recovery processes through the bulk liquid membrane were also determined.
Keywords: transport kinetics, Cu(II), bulk liquid membrane, waste cooking oilProcedia PDF Downloads 344
22 Power Quality Audit Using Fluke Analyzer
Authors: N. Ravikumar, S. Krishnan, B. Yokeshkumar
Abstract:In present days, the power quality issues are increases due to non-linear loads like fridge, AC, washing machines, induction motor, etc. This power quality issues will affects the output voltages, output current, and output power of the total performance of the generator. This paper explains how to test the generator using the Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser. This Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser is used to measure the voltage, current, power, energy, total harmonic distortion (THD), current harmonics, voltage harmonics, power factor, and frequency. The Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser have several advantages. They are i) it will records output in analog and digital format. ii) the fluke analyzer will records at every 0.25 sec. iii) it will also measure all the electrical parameter at a time.
Keywords: THD, harmonics, power quality, TNEB, Fluke 435Procedia PDF Downloads 108
21 Power Control in Solar Battery Charging Station Using Fuzzy Decision Support System
Authors: Krishnan Manickavasagam, Manikandan Shanmugam
Abstract:Clean and abundant renewable energy sources (RES) such as solar energy is seen as the best solution to replace conventional energy source. Unpredictable power generation is a major issue in the penetration of solar energy, as power generated is governed by the irradiance received. Controlling the power generated from solar PV (SPV) panels to battery and load is a challenging task. In this paper, power flow control from SPV to load and energy storage device (ESD) is controlled by a fuzzy decision support system (FDSS) on the availability of solar irradiation. The results show that FDSS implemented with the energy management system (EMS) is capable of managing power within the area, and if excess power is available, then shared with the neighboring area.
Keywords: renewable energy sources, fuzzy decision support system, solar photovoltaic, energy storage device, energy management systemProcedia PDF Downloads 38
20 Normal Spectral Emissivity of Roughened Aluminum Alloy AL 6061 Surfaces at High Temperature
Authors: Sumeet Kumar, C. V. Krishnamurthy, Krishnan Balasubramaniam
Abstract:Normal spectral emissivity of Al 6061 alloys with different surface finishes was experimentally measured at 833°K. Four different samples were prepared by polishing the surfaces of the alloy by 80, 220, 600 grit sizes of SiC abrasive papers and diamond paste. The samples were heated in air for 6 h at 833°K, and the emissivity was measured during the process from pyrometers operating at wavelengths of 3.9, 5.14 and 7.8 μm. The results indicated that the emissivity was increasing with heating time and the rate of increase was rapid during the initial stage of heating in comparison with the later stage. This appears to be because of the parabolic rate law followed by the process of oxidation. Further, it is found that the increase in emissivity with heating time was higher for rough surfaces than that for polished surfaces. Both the results were analyzed at all the three wavelengths, and qualitatively similar results were obtained for all of them. In this way emissivity of the alloy can be increased by roughening the surfaces and heating it at high temperature until the surfaces are oxidized.
Keywords: aluminum alloy, high temperature, normal spectral emissivity, surface roughnessProcedia PDF Downloads 125
19 Generic Hybrid Models for Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Guided Wave Problems
Authors: Manoj Reghu, Prabhu Rajagopal, C. V. Krishnamurthy, Krishnan Balasubramaniam
Abstract:A thorough understanding of guided ultrasonic wave behavior in structures is essential for the application of existing Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) technologies, as well as for the development of new methods. However, the analysis of guided wave phenomena is challenging because of their complex dispersive and multimodal nature. Although numerical solution procedures have proven to be very useful in this regard, the increasing complexity of features and defects to be considered, as well as the desire to improve the accuracy of inspection often imposes a large computational cost. Hybrid models that combine numerical solutions for wave scattering with faster alternative methods for wave propagation have long been considered as a solution to this problem. However usually such models require modification of the base code of the solution procedure. Here we aim to develop Generic Hybrid models that can be directly applied to any two different solution procedures. With this goal in mind, a Numerical Hybrid model and an Analytical-Numerical Hybrid model has been developed. The concept and implementation of these Hybrid models are discussed in this paper.
Keywords: guided ultrasonic waves, Finite Element Method (FEM), Hybrid modelProcedia PDF Downloads 373
18 Early Detection of Lymphedema in Post-Surgery Oncology Patients
Authors: Sneha Noble, Rahul Krishnan, Uma G., D. K. Vijaykumar
Abstract:Breast-Cancer related Lymphedema is a major problem that affects many women. Lymphedema is the swelling that generally occurs in the arms or legs caused by the removal of or damage to lymph nodes as a part of cancer treatment. Treating it at the earliest possible stage is the best way to manage the condition and prevent it from leading to pain, recurrent infection, reduced mobility, and impaired function. So, this project aims to focus on the multi-modal approaches to identify the risks of Lymphedema in post-surgical oncology patients and prevent it at the earliest. The Kinect IR Sensor is utilized to capture the images of the body and after image processing techniques, the region of interest is obtained. Then, performing the voxelization method will provide volume measurements in pre-operative and post-operative periods in patients. The formation of a mathematical model will help in the comparison of values. Clinical pathological data of patients will be investigated to assess the factors responsible for the development of lymphedema and its risks.
Keywords: Kinect IR sensor, Lymphedema, voxelization, lymph nodesProcedia PDF Downloads 24
17 Rubber Crumbs in Alkali Activated Clay Roof Tiles at Low Temperature
Authors: Aswin Kumar Krishnan, Yat Choy Wong, Reiza Mukhlis, Zipeng Zhang, Arul Arulrajah
Abstract:The continuous increase in vehicle uptake escalates the number of rubber tyre waste which need to be managed to avoid landfilling and stockpiling. The present research focused on the sustainable use of rubber crumbs in clay roof tiles. The properties of roof tiles composed of clay, rubber crumbs, NaOH, and Na₂SiO₃ with a 10% alkaline activator were studied. Tile samples were fabricated by heating the compacted mixtures at 50°C for 72 hours, followed by a higher heating temperature of 200°C for 24 hours. The effect of rubber crumbs aggregates as a substitution for the raw clay materials was investigated by varying their concentration from 0% to 2.5%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses have been conducted to study the phases and microstructures of the samples. It was found that the optimum rubber crumbs concentration was at 0.5% and 1%, while cracks and larger porosity were found at higher crumbs concentrations. Water absorption and compressive strength test results demonstrated that rubber crumbs and clay satisfied the standard requirement for the roof tiles.
Keywords: rubber crumbs, clay, roof tiles, alkaline activatorsProcedia PDF Downloads 33
16 Malaysian Challenges and Experiences with National Higher Education Fund Corporation’s Educational Loan Default
Authors: Anjali Dewi Krishnan
Abstract:This paper attempts to explore the factors causing student loan defaults among NHEFC borrower besides measuring the enforcement actions that have been took by NHEFC to improve repayment rate. It starts by reviewing the causes of student loan default from the perspective of the loan borrowers besides finding out about the effectiveness of approaches taken by NHEFC (National Higher Education Fund Corporation) until now in order to increase the repayment rate and recover student loan default. The results gathered from the research used to investigate or identify the relationship between job statuses, gender, and ethnicity of the borrowers with repayment status, enforcement from the NHEFC side in the sense of student loan repayment; and respondent's opinion about enforcement in encouraging repayment of student loan and recover loan default. A combination of unemployment, financial constraint, inefficient repayment method and some other reasons of student loan defaults were discovered through this research. It finishes by presenting the reality whereby a student loan default is a result of inability to pay back and not about willingness to pay back.
Keywords: loan default, loan recovery, loan repayment, national higher education fund corporationProcedia PDF Downloads 272
15 Effect of Blanching and Drying Methods on the Degradation Kinetics and Color Stability of Radish (Raphanus sativus) Leaves
Authors: K. Radha Krishnan, Mirajul Alom
Abstract:Dehydrated powder prepared from fresh radish (Raphanus sativus) leaves were investigated for the color stability by different drying methods (tray, sun and solar). The effect of blanching conditions, drying methods as well as drying temperatures (50 – 90°C) were considered for studying the color degradation kinetics of chlorophyll in the dehydrated powder. The hunter color parameters (L*, a*, b*) and total color difference (TCD) were determined in order to investigate the color degradation kinetics of chlorophyll. Blanching conditions, drying method and drying temperature influenced the changes in L*, a*, b* and TCD values. The changes in color values during processing were described by a first order kinetic model. The temperature dependence of chlorophyll degradation was adequately modeled by Arrhenius equation. To predict the losses in green color, a mathematical model was developed from the steady state kinetic parameters. The results from this study indicated the protective effect of blanching conditions on the color stability of dehydrated radish powder.
Keywords: chlorophyll, color stability, degradation kinetics, dryingProcedia PDF Downloads 313
14 Indian Road Traffic Flow Analysis Using Blob Tracking from Video Sequences
Authors: Balaji Ganesh Rajagopal, Subramanian Appavu alias Balamurugan, Ayyalraj Midhun Kumar, Krishnan Nallaperumal
Abstract:Intelligent Transportation System is an Emerging area to solve multiple transportation problems. Several forms of inputs are needed in order to solve ITS problems. Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) is a core and important ITS area of this modern era. This involves travel time forecasting, efficient road map analysis and cost based path selection, Detection of the vehicle in the dynamic conditions and Traffic congestion state forecasting. This Article designs and provides an algorithm for traffic data generation which can be used for the above said ATIS application. By inputting the real world traffic situation in the form of video sequences, the algorithm determines the Traffic density in terms of congestion, number of vehicles in a given path which can be fed for various ATIS applications. The Algorithm deduces the key frame from the video sequences and follows the Blob detection, Identification and Tracking using connected components algorithm to determine the correlation between the vehicles moving in the real road scene.
Keywords: traffic transportation, traffic density estimation, blob identification and tracking, relative velocity of vehicles, correlation between vehiclesProcedia PDF Downloads 417
13 Titanium Nitride Nanoparticles for Biological Applications
Authors: Nicole Nazario Bayon, Prathima Prabhu Tumkur, Nithin Krisshna Gunasekaran, Krishnan Prabhakaran, Joseph C. Hall, Govindarajan T. Ramesh
Abstract:Titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles have sparked interest over the past decade due to their characteristics such as thermal stability, extreme hardness, low production cost, and similar optical properties to gold. In this study, TiN nanoparticles were synthesized via a thermal benzene route to obtain a black powder of nanoparticles. The final product was drop cast onto conductive carbon tape and sputter coated with gold/palladium at a thickness of 4 nm for characterization by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) that revealed they were spherical. ImageJ software determined the average size of the TiN nanoparticles was 79 nm in diameter. EDX revealed the elements present in the sample and showed no impurities. Further characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed characteristic peaks of cubic phase titanium nitride, and crystallite size was calculated to be 14 nm using the Debye-Scherrer method. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis revealed the size and size distribution of the TiN nanoparticles, with average size being 154 nm. Zeta potential concluded the surface of the TiN nanoparticles is negatively charged. Biocompatibility studies using MTT(3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assay showed TiN nanoparticles are not cytotoxic at low concentrations (2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 mcg/well), and cell viability began to decrease at a concentration of 100 mcg/well.
Keywords: biocompatibility, characterization, cytotoxicity, nanoparticles, synthesis, titanium nitrideProcedia PDF Downloads 99
12 Turmeric Mediated Synthesis and Characterization of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles
Authors: Nithin Krisshna Gunasekaran, Prathima Prabhu Tumkur, Nicole Nazario Bayon, Krishnan Prabhakaran, Joseph C. Hall, Govindarajan T. Ramesh
Abstract:Cerium oxide and turmeric have antioxidant properties, which have gained interest among researchers to study their applications in the field of biomedicine, such asanti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial applications. In this study, the turmeric extract was prepared and mixed with cerium nitrate hexahydrate, stirred continuously to obtain a homogeneous solution and then heated on a hot plate to get the supernatant evaporated, then calcinated at 600°C to obtain the cerium oxide nanoparticles. Characterization of synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles through Scanning Electron Microscopy determined the particle size to be in the range of 70 nm to 250 nm. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy determined the elemental composition of cerium and oxygen. Individual particles were identified through the characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, in which the particles were determined to be spherical and in the size of around 70 nm. The presence of cerium oxide was assured by analyzing the spectrum obtained through the characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The crystal structure of cerium oxide nanoparticles was determined to be face-centered cubic by analyzing the peaks obtained through theX-Ray Diffraction method. The crystal size of cerium oxide nanoparticles was determined to be around 13 nm by using the Debye Scherer equation. This study confirmed the synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles using turmeric extract.
Keywords: antioxidant, characterization, cerium oxide, synthesis, turmericProcedia PDF Downloads 89
11 Face Recognition Using Body-Worn Camera: Dataset and Baseline Algorithms
Authors: Ali Almadan, Anoop Krishnan, Ajita Rattani
Abstract:Facial recognition is a widely adopted technology in surveillance, border control, healthcare, banking services, and lately, in mobile user authentication with Apple introducing “Face ID” moniker with iPhone X. A lot of research has been conducted in the area of face recognition on datasets captured by surveillance cameras, DSLR, and mobile devices. Recently, face recognition technology has also been deployed on body-worn cameras to keep officers safe, enabling situational awareness and providing evidence for trial. However, limited academic research has been conducted on this topic so far, without the availability of any publicly available datasets with a sufficient sample size. This paper aims to advance research in the area of face recognition using body-worn cameras. To this aim, the contribution of this work is two-fold: (1) collection of a dataset consisting of a total of 136,939 facial images of 102 subjects captured using body-worn cameras in in-door and daylight conditions and (2) evaluation of various deep-learning architectures for face identification on the collected dataset. Experimental results suggest a maximum True Positive Rate(TPR) of 99.86% at False Positive Rate(FPR) of 0.000 obtained by SphereFace based deep learning architecture in daylight condition. The collected dataset and the baseline algorithms will promote further research and development. A downloadable link of the dataset and the algorithms is available by contacting the authors.
Keywords: face recognition, body-worn cameras, deep learning, person identificationProcedia PDF Downloads 67
10 Quantum Dot – DNA Conjugates for Biological Applications
Authors: A. Banerjee, C. Grazon, B. Nadal, T. Pons, Y. Krishnan, B. Dubertret
Abstract:Quantum Dots (QDs) have emerged as novel fluorescent probes for biomedical applications. The photophysical properties of QDs such as broad absorption, narrow emission spectrum, reduced blinking, and enhanced photostability make them advantageous over organic fluorophores. However, for some biological applications, QDs need to be first targeted to specific intracellular locations. It parallel, base pairing properties and biocompatibility of DNA has been extensively used for biosensing, targetting and intracellular delivery of numerous bioactive agents. The combination of the photophysical properties of QDs and targettability of DNA has yielded fluorescent, stable and targetable nanosensors. QD-DNA conjugates have used in drug delivery, siRNA, intracellular pH sensing and several other applications; and continue to be an active area of research. In this project, a novel method to synthesise QD-DNA conjugates and their applications in bioimaging are investigated. QDs are first solubilized in water using a thiol based amphiphilic co-polymer and, then conjugated to amine functionalized DNA using a heterobifunctional linker. The conjugates are purified by size exclusion chromatography and characterized by UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, electrophoresis and microscopy. Parameters that influence the conjugation yield such as reducing agents, the excess of salt and pH have been investigated in detail. In optimized reaction conditions, up to 12 single-stranded DNA (15 mer length) can be conjugated per QD. After conjugation, the QDs retain their colloidal stability and high quantum yield; and the DNA is available for hybridization. The reaction has also been successfully tested on QDs emitting different colors and on Gold nanoparticles and therefore highly generalizable. After extensive characterization and robust synthesis of QD-DNA conjugates in vitro, the physical properties of these conjugates in cellular milieu are being invistigated. Modification of QD surface with DNA appears to remarkably alter the fate of QD inside cells and can have potential implications in therapeutic applications.
Keywords: bioimaging, cellular targeting, drug delivery, photostabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 365
9 Kenaf MDF Panels with Soy Based Adhesive. The Influence of Preparation Parameters on Physciomechanical Properties
Authors: Imtiaz Ali, Krishnan Jayaraman, Debes Bhattacharyya
Abstract:Soybean concentrate is abundant material and renewable product that is recently been explored as an alternative to conventional formaldehyde based resins in wood based products. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the technical feasibility of manufacturing environment friendly MDF panels from renewable resources. The panels are made by using kenaf bast fibers (KB) as wood substitute and soy based adhesive as bonding material. Second order response surface regression models are used to understand the effects and interactions of resin content (RC) and pressing time (PT) on the mechanical and water soaking properties of kenaf panels. The mechanical and water soaking properties are significantly improved as the RC increased and reached at the highest level at maximum resin loading (12%). The effect of pressing time is significant in the first phase when the pressing time increased from 4 to 6 min; however the effect was not as significant when pressing time further increased to 8 min. The second order regression equations further confirm that the variation in process parameters has strong relationship with the physciomechanical properties. The MDF panels the minimum requirements of internal bond strength, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity as recommended by US wood MDF standard specifications for G110, G120, G130 and G140 grade MDF panels. However, the thickness swelling results are considerably poorer than the recommended values of general purpose standard requirements. This deficiency can be counterbalanced by the advantage of being formaldehyde free panels made from renewable sources and by making them suitable alternative for less humid environment applications.
Keywords: kenaf, Medium density fibreboard, soy adhesive, mechanical properties, water soaking propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 294
8 The Effect of Mixing and Degassing Conditions on the Properties of Epoxy/Anhydride Resin System
Authors: Latha Krishnan, Andrew Cobley
Abstract:Epoxy resin is most widely used as matrices for composites of aerospace, automotive and electronic applications due to its outstanding mechanical properties. These properties are chiefly predetermined by the chemical structure of the prepolymer and type of hardener but can also be varied by the processing conditions such as prepolymer and hardener mixing, degassing and curing conditions. In this research, the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and the void occurrence is experimentally evaluated for epoxy /anhydride resin system. The epoxy prepolymer was mixed with an anhydride hardener and accelerator in an appropriate quantity. In order to investigate the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and void content of the resin, the uncured resin samples were prepared using three different methods: 1) no degassing 2) degassing on prepolymer and 3) degassing on mixed solution of prepolymer and hardener with an accelerator. The uncured resins were tested in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to observe the changes in curing behaviour of the above three resin samples by analysing factors such as gel temperature, peak cure temperature and heat of reaction/heat flow in curing. Additionally, the completely cured samples were tested in DSC to identify the changes in the glass transition temperature (Tg) between the three samples. In order to evaluate the effect of degassing on the void content and morphology changes in the cured epoxy resin, the fractured surfaces of cured epoxy resin were examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Also, the changes in the mechanical properties of the cured resin were studied by three-point bending test. It was found that degassing at different stages of resin mixing had significant effects on properties such as glass transition temperature, the void content and void size of the epoxy/anhydride resin system. For example, degassing (vacuum applied on the mixed resin) has shown higher glass transition temperature (Tg) with lower void content.
Keywords: anhydride epoxy, curing behaviour, degassing, void occurrenceProcedia PDF Downloads 255
7 Myosin-Driven Movement of Nanoparticles – An Approach to High-Speed Tracking
Authors: Sneha Kumari, Ravi Krishnan Elangovan
Abstract:This abstract describes the development of a high-speed tracking method by modification in motor components for nanoparticle attachment. Myosin motors are nano-sized protein machines powering movement that defines life. These miniature molecular devices serve as engines utilizing chemical energy stored in ATP to produce useful mechanical energy in the form of a few nanometre displacement events leading to force generation that is required for cargo transport, cell division, cell locomotion, translated to macroscopic movements like running etc. With the advent of in vitro motility assay (IVMA), detailed functional studies of the actomyosin system could be performed. The major challenge with the currently available IVMA for tracking actin filaments is a resolution limitation of ± 50nm. To overcome this, we are trying to develop Single Molecule IVMA in which nanoparticle (GNP/QD) will be attached along or on the barbed end of actin filaments using CapZ protein and visualization by a compact TIRF module called ‘cTIRF’. The waveguide-based illumination by cTIRF offers a unique separation of excitation and collection optics, enabling imaging by scattering without emission filters. So, this technology is well equipped to perform tracking with high precision in temporal resolution of 2ms with significantly improved SNR by 100-fold as compared to conventional TIRF. Also, the nanoparticles (QD/GNP) attached to actin filament act as a point source of light coffering ease in filament tracking compared to conventional manual tracking. Moreover, the attachment of cargo (QD/GNP) to the thin filament paves the way for various nano-technological applications through their transportation to different predetermined locations on the chip
Keywords: actin, cargo, IVMA, myosin motors and single-molecule systemProcedia PDF Downloads 31
6 Influence of Degassing on the Curing Behaviour and Void Occurrence Properties of Epoxy / Anhydride Resin System
Authors: Latha Krishnan, Andrew Cobley
Abstract:Epoxy resin is most widely used as matrices for composites of aerospace, automotive and electronic applications due to its outstanding mechanical properties. These properties are chiefly predetermined by the chemical structure of the prepolymer and type of hardener but can also be varied by the processing conditions such as prepolymer and hardener mixing, degassing and curing conditions. In this research, the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and the void occurrence is experimentally evaluated for epoxy /anhydride resin system. The epoxy prepolymer was mixed with an anhydride hardener and accelerator in an appropriate quantity. In order to investigate the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and void content of the resin, the uncured resin samples were prepared using three different methods: 1) no degassing 2) degassing on prepolymer and 3) degassing on mixed solution of prepolymer and hardener with an accelerator. The uncured resins were tested in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to observe the changes in curing behaviour of the above three resin samples by analysing factors such as gel temperature, peak cure temperature and heat of reaction/heat flow in curing. Additionally, the completely cured samples were tested in DSC to identify the changes in the glass transition temperature (Tg) between the three samples. In order to evaluate the effect of degassing on the void content and morphology changes in the cured epoxy resin, the fractured surfaces of cured epoxy resin were examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the amount of void, void geometry and void fraction were also investigated using an optical microscope and image J software (image analysis software). It was found that degassing at different stages of resin mixing had significant effects on properties such as glass transition temperature, the void content and void size of the epoxy/anhydride resin system. For example, degassing (vacuum applied on the mixed resin) has shown higher glass transition temperature (Tg) with lower void content.
Keywords: anhydride epoxy, curing behaviour, degassing, void occurrenceProcedia PDF Downloads 157
5 A Sustainable Supplier Selection and Order Allocation Based on Manufacturing Processes and Product Tolerances: A Multi-Criteria Decision Making and Multi-Objective Optimization Approach
Authors: Ravi Patel, Krishna K. Krishnan
Abstract:In global supply chains, appropriate and sustainable suppliers play a vital role in supply chain development and feasibility. In a larger organization with huge number of suppliers, it is necessary to divide suppliers based on their past history of quality and delivery of each product category. Since performance of any organization widely depends on their suppliers, well evaluated selection criteria and decision-making models lead to improved supplier assessment and development. In this paper, SCOR® performance evaluation approach and ISO standards are used to determine selection criteria for better utilization of supplier assessment by using hybrid model of Analytic Hierchchy Problem (AHP) and Fuzzy Techniques for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (FTOPSIS). AHP is used to determine the global weightage of criteria which helps TOPSIS to get supplier score by using triangular fuzzy set theory. Both qualitative and quantitative criteria are taken into consideration for the proposed model. In addition, a multi-product and multi-time period model is selected for order allocation. The optimization model integrates multi-objective integer linear programming (MOILP) for order allocation and a hybrid approach for supplier selection. The proposed MOILP model optimizes order allocation based on manufacturing process and product tolerances as per manufacturer’s requirement for quality product. The integrated model and solution approach are tested to find optimized solutions for different scenario. The detailed analysis shows the superiority of proposed model over other solutions which considered individual decision making models.
Keywords: AHP, fuzzy set theory, multi-criteria decision making, multi-objective integer linear programming, TOPSISProcedia PDF Downloads 116
4 Preparation and Properties of Polylactic Acid/MDI Modified Thermoplastic Starch Blends
Authors: Sukhila Krishnan, Smita Mohanty, Sanjay K. Nayak
Abstract:Polylactide (PLA) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) are the most promising bio-based materials presently available on the market. Polylactic acid is one of the versatile biodegradable polyester showing wide range of applications in various fields and starch is a biopolymer which is renewable, cheap as well as extensively available. The usual increase in the cost of petroleum-based commodities in the next decades opens bright future for these materials. Their biodegradability and compostability was an added advantage in applications that are difficult to recycle. Currently, thermoplastic starch (TPS) has been used as a substitute for synthetic plastic in several commercial products. But, TPS shows some limitations mainly due to its brittle and hydrophilic nature, which has to be resolved to widen its application.The objective of the work we report here was to initiate chemical modifications on TPS and to build up a process to control its chemical structure using a solution process which can reduce its water sensitive properties and then blended it with PLA to improve compatibility between PLA and TPS. The method involves in cleavage of starch amylose and amylopectin chain backbone to plasticize with glycerol and water in batch mixer and then the prepared TPS was reacted in solution with diisocyanates i.e, 4,4'-Methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate (MDI).This diisocyanate was used before with great success for the chemical modification of TPS surface. The method utilized here will form an urethane-linkages between reactive isocyanate groups (–NCO) and hydroxyl groups (-OH) of starch as well as of glycerol. New polymer synthesised shows a reduced crystallinity, less hydrophilic and enhanced compatibility with other polymers. The TPS was prepared by Haake Rheomix 600 batch mixer with roller rotors operating at 50 rpm. The produced material is then refluxed for 5hrs with MDI in toluene with constant stirring. Finally, the modified TPS was melt blended with PLA in different compositions. Blends obtained shows an improved mechanical properties. These materials produced are characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR), DSC, X-Ray diffraction and mechanical tests.
Keywords: polylactic acid, thermoplastic starch, Methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate, Polylactide (PLA)Procedia PDF Downloads 331