Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: AODV

22 Performance Comparison of AODV and Soft AODV Routing Protocol

Authors: Abhishek, Seema Devi, Jyoti Ohri

Abstract:

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) represents a system of wireless mobile nodes that can self-organize freely and dynamically into arbitrary and temporary network topology. Unlike a wired network, wireless network interface has limited transmission range. Routing is the task of forwarding data packets from source to a given destination. Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol creates a path for a destination only when it required. This paper describes the implementation of AODV routing protocol using MATLAB-based Truetime simulator. In MANET's node movements are not fixed while they are random in nature. Hence intelligent techniques i.e. fuzzy and ANFIS are used to optimize the transmission range. In this paper, we compared the transmission range of AODV, fuzzy AODV and ANFIS AODV. For soft computing AODV, we have taken transmitted power and received threshold as input and transmission range as output. ANFIS gives better results as compared to fuzzy AODV.

Keywords: ANFIS, AODV, fuzzy, MANET, reactive routing protocol, routing protocol, truetime

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21 An Enhanced AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

Authors: Apidet Booranawong, Wiklom Teerapabkajorndet

Abstract:

An enhanced ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing (E-AODV) protocol for control system applications in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) is proposed. Our routing algorithm is designed by considering both wireless network communication and the control system aspects. Control system error and network delay are the main selection criteria in our routing protocol. The control and communication performance is evaluated on multi-hop IEEE 802.15.4 networks for building-temperature control systems. The Gilbert-Elliott error model is employed to simulate packet loss in wireless networks. The simulation results demonstrate that the E-AODV routing approach can significantly improve the communication performance better than an original AODV routing under various packet loss rates. However, the control performance result by our approach is not much improved compared with the AODV routing solution.

Keywords: WSANs, building temperature control, AODV routing protocol, control system error, settling time, delay, delivery ratio

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20 Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Mobile Adhoc Networks

Authors: Anu Malhotra

Abstract:

An Ad-hoc network is one that is an autonomous, self configuring network made up of mobile nodes connected via wireless links. Ad-hoc networks often consist of nodes, mobile hosts (MH) or mobile stations (MS, also serving as routers) connected by wireless links. Different routing protocols are used for data transmission in between the nodes in an adhoc network. In this paper two protocols (OLSR and AODV) are analyzed on the basis of two parameters i.e. time delay and throughput with different data rates. On the basis of these analysis, we observed that with same data rate, AODV protocol is having more time delay than the OLSR protocol whereas throughput for the OLSR protocol is less compared to the AODV protocol.

Keywords: routing adhoc, mobile hosts, mobile stations, OLSR protocol, AODV protocol

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19 Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for WLAN Based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Authors: Noman Shabbir, Roheel Nawaz, Muhammad N. Iqbal, Junaid Zafar

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the performance evaluation of routing protocols in WLAN based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A comparative analysis of routing protocols such as Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing System (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) is been made against different network parameters like network load, end to end delay and throughput in small, medium and large-scale sensor network scenarios to identify the best performing protocol. Simulation results indicate that OLSR gives minimum network load in all three scenarios while AODV gives the best throughput in small scale network but in medium and large scale networks, DSR is better. In terms of delay, OLSR is more efficient in small and medium scale network while AODV is slightly better in large networks.

Keywords: WLAN, WSN, AODV, DSR, OLSR

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18 Comparative Analysis of Geographical Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Rahul Malhotra

Abstract:

The field of wireless sensor networks (WSN) engages a lot of associates in the research community as an interdisciplinary field of interest. This type of network is inexpensive, multifunctionally attributable to advances in micro-electromechanical systems and conjointly the explosion and expansion of wireless communications. A mobile ad hoc network is a wireless network without fastened infrastructure or federal management. Due to the infrastructure-less mode of operation, mobile ad-hoc networks are gaining quality. During this work, we have performed an efficient performance study of the two major routing protocols: Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocols. We have used an accurate simulation model supported NS2 for this purpose. Our simulation results showed that AODV mitigates the drawbacks of the DSDV and provides better performance as compared to DSDV.

Keywords: routing protocol, MANET, AODV, On Demand Distance Vector Routing, DSR, Dynamic Source Routing

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17 Mechanism for Network Security via Routing Protocols Estimated with Network Simulator 2 (NS-2)

Authors: Rashid Mahmood, Muhammad Sufyan, Nasir Ahmed

Abstract:

The MANETs have lessened transportation and decentralized network. There are numerous basis of routing protocols. We derived the MANETs protocol into three major categories like Reactive, Proactive and hybrid. In these protocols, we discussed only some protocols like Distance Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). The AODV and DSR are both reactive type of protocols. On the other hand, DSDV is proactive type protocol here. We compare these routing protocols for network security estimated by network simulator (NS-2). In this dissertation some parameters discussed such as simulation time, packet size, number of node, packet delivery fraction, push time and speed etc. We will construct all these parameters on routing protocols under suitable conditions for network security measures.

Keywords: DSDV, AODV, DSR NS-2, PDF, push time

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16 Securing Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Utilizing OPNET Simulator

Authors: Tariq A. El Shheibia, Halima Mohamed Belhamad

Abstract:

This paper is considered securing data based on multi-path protocol (SDMP) in mobile ad hoc network utilizing OPNET simulator modular 14.5, including the AODV routing protocol at the network as based multi-path algorithm for message security in MANETs. The main idea of this work is to present a way that is able to detect the attacker inside the MANETs. The detection for this attacker will be performed by adding some effective parameters to the network.

Keywords: MANET, AODV, malicious node, OPNET

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15 Reactive Analysis of Different Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

Authors: Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper, we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR, and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyze these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show how to pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, sent data traffic, throughput, retransmission attempts.

Keywords: AODV, DSDV, DSR, ZRP

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14 Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti, Kumar Prashant

Abstract:

Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyses these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show that how pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, data traffic sent, throughput, retransmission attempts.

Keywords: MANET, AODV, DSDV, DSR, ZRP

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13 Comparative Study of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks for Smart City

Authors: Khadija Raissi, Bechir Ben Gouissem

Abstract:

In this paper, we perform the investigation of some routing protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) context. Indeed, we study the efficiency of protocols like Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Optimized Link State Routing convention (OLSR) and Vehicular Multi-hop algorithm for Stable Clustering (VMASC) in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR) and throughput. The performance evaluation and comparison between the studied protocols shows that the VMASC is the best protocols regarding fast data transmission and link stability in VANETs. The validation of all results is done by the NS3 simulator.

Keywords: VANET, smart city, AODV, OLSR, DSR, OLSR, VMASC, routing protocols, NS3

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12 Performance Analysis and Energy Consumption of Routing Protocol in Manet Using Grid Topology

Authors: Vivek Kumar Singh, Tripti Singh

Abstract:

An ad hoc wireless network consists of mobile networks which creates an underlying architecture for communication without the help of traditional fixed-position routers. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) is a routing protocol used for Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). Nevertheless, the architecture must maintain communication routes although the hosts are mobile and they have limited transmission range. There are different protocols for handling the routing in the mobile environment. Routing protocols used in fixed infrastructure networks cannot be efficiently used for mobile ad-hoc networks, so that MANET requires different protocols. This paper presents the performance analysis of the routing protocols used various parameter-patterns with Two-ray model.

Keywords: AODV, packet transmission rate, pause time, ZRP, QualNet 6.1

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11 Review of Energy Efficiency Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

Authors: P. R. Dushantha Chaminda, Peng Kai

Abstract:

In this review paper, we enclose the thought of wireless ad hoc networks and particularly mobile ad hoc network (MANET), their field of study, intention, concern, benefit and disadvantages, modifications, with relation of AODV routing protocol. Mobile computing is developing speedily with progression in wireless communications and wireless networking protocols. Making communication easy, we function most wireless network devices and sensor networks, movable, battery-powered, thus control on a highly constrained energy budget. However, progress in battery technology presents that only little improvements in battery volume can be expected in the near future. Moreover, recharging or substitution batteries is costly or unworkable, it is preferable to support energy waste level of devices low.

Keywords: wireless ad hoc network, energy efficient routing protocols, AODV, EOAODV, AODVEA, AODVM, AOMDV, FF-AOMDV, AOMR-LM

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10 Energy Efficient Routing Protocol with Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector for MANET

Authors: K. Thamizhmaran, Akshaya Devi Arivazhagan, M. Anitha

Abstract:

On the case of most important systematic issue that must need to be solved in means of implementing a data transmission algorithm on the source of Mobile adhoc networks (MANETs). That is, how to save mobile nodes energy on meeting the requirements of applications or users as the mobile nodes are with battery limited. On while satisfying the energy saving requirement, hence it is also necessary of need to achieve the quality of service. In case of emergency work, it is necessary to deliver the data on mean time. Achieving quality of service in MANETs is also important on while. In order to achieve this requirement, Hence, we further implement the Energy-Aware routing protocol for system of Mobile adhoc networks were it being proposed, that on which saves the energy as on every node by means of efficiently selecting the mode of energy efficient path in the routing process by means of Enhanced AODV routing protocol.

Keywords: Ad-Hoc networks, MANET, routing, AODV, EAODV

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9 Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Vehicular Adhoc Networks

Authors: Salman Naseer, Usman Zafar, Iqra Zafar

Abstract:

This study explores the implication of Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET) - in the rural and urban scenarios that is one domain of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET). VANET provides wireless communication between vehicle to vehicle and also roadside units. The Federal Commission Committee of United States of American has been allocated 75 MHz of the spectrum band in the 5.9 GHz frequency range for dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) that are specifically designed to enhance any road safety applications and entertainment/information applications. There are several vehicular related projects viz; California path, car 2 car communication consortium, the ETSI, and IEEE 1609 working group that have already been conducted to improve the overall road safety or traffic management. After the critical literature review, the selection of routing protocols is determined, and its performance was well thought-out in the urban and rural scenarios. Numerous routing protocols for VANET are applied to carry out current research. Its evaluation was conceded with the help of selected protocols through simulation via performance metric i.e. throughput and packet drop. Excel and Google graph API tools are used for plotting the graphs after the simulation results in order to compare the selected routing protocols which result with each other. In addition, the sum of the output from each scenario was computed to undoubtedly present the divergence in results. The findings of the current study present that DSR gives enhanced performance for low packet drop and high throughput as compared to AODV and DSDV in an urban congested area and in rural environments. On the other hand, in low-density area, VANET AODV gives better results as compared to DSR. The worth of the current study may be judged as the information exchanged between vehicles is useful for comfort, safety, and entertainment. Furthermore, the communication system performance depends on the way routing is done in the network and moreover, the routing of the data based on protocols implement in the network. The above-presented results lead to policy implication and develop our understanding of the broader spectrum of VANET.

Keywords: AODV, DSDV, DSR, Adhoc network

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8 Analysis of Network Connectivity for Ship-To-Ship Maritime Communication Using IEEE 802.11 on Maritime Environment of Tanjung Perak, Indonesia

Authors: Ahmad Fauzi Makarim, Okkie Puspitorini, Hani'ah Mahmudah, Nur Adi Siswandari, Ari Wijayanti

Abstract:

As a maritime country, Indonesia needs a solution in maritime connectivity which can assist the maritime communication system which including communication from harbor to the ship or ship to ship. The needs of many application services for maritime communication, whether for safety reasons until voyage service to help the process of voyage activity needs connection with a high bandwith. To support the government efforts in handling that kind of problem, a research is conducted in maritime communication issue by applying the new developed technology in Indonesia, namely IEEE 802.11. In this research, 3 outdoor WiFi devices are used in which have a frequency of 5.8 GHz. Maritime of Tanjung Perak harbor in Surabaya until Karang Jamuang Island are used as the location of the research with defining permission of ship node spreading by Navigation District Class 1. That maritime area formed by state 1 and state 2 areas which are the narrow area with average wave height of 0.7 meter based on the data from BMKG S urabaya. After that, wave height used as one of the parameters which are used in analyzing characteristic of signal propagation at sea surface, so it can be determined on the coverage area of transmitter system. In this research has been used three samples of outdoor wifi, there is the coverage of device A can be determined about 2256 meter, device B 4000 meter, and device C 1174 meter. Then to analyze of network connectivity for the ship to ship is used AODV routing algorithm system based on the value of the power transmit was smallest of all nodes within the transmitter coverage.

Keywords: maritime of Indonesia, maritime communications, outdoor wifi, coverage, AODV

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7 A Survey on Various Technique of Modified TORA over MANET

Authors: Shreyansh Adesara, Sneha Pandiya

Abstract:

The mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an important and open area research for the examination and determination of the performance evolution. Temporary ordered routing algorithm (TORA) is adaptable and distributed MANET routing algorithm which is totally dependent on internet MANET Encapsulation protocol (IMEP) for the detection of the link and sensing of the link. If IMEP detect the wrong link failure then the network suffer from congestion and unnecessary route maintenance. Thus, the improvement in link detection method of TORA is introduced by various methods on IMEP by different perspective from different person. There are also different reactive routing protocols like AODV, TORA and DSR has been compared for the knowledge of the routing scenario for different parameter and using different model.

Keywords: IMEP, mobile ad-hoc network, protocol, TORA

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6 Performance Study of ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Afif Saleh Abugharsa

Abstract:

The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is designed for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPAN) with focus on enabling wireless sensor networks. It aims to give a low data rate, low power consumption, and low cost wireless networking on the device-level communication. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 based networks using simulation tool. In this project the network simulator 2 NS2 was used to several performance measures of wireless sensor networks. Three scenarios were considered, multi hop network with a single coordinator, star topology, and an ad hoc on demand distance vector AODV. Results such as packet delivery ratio, hop delay, and number of collisions are obtained from these scenarios.

Keywords: ZigBee, wireless sensor networks, IEEE 802.15.4, low power, low data rate

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5 A Secure Survey against Black Hole Attack in MANET

Authors: G. Usha, S. Kannimuthu, K. Mahalakshmi

Abstract:

Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is one of the most promising technologies that have applications ranging from various portable devices to military networks. MANET has no fixed infrastructure and the security of such network is a big concern. Therefore, in order to operate MANET’s securely, the misbehavior and intrusions should be detected before the attackers affect the network communication. In this article, we make a comprehensive survey against black hole attack that is a serious threat against MANET that exploits the routing behavior of the MANET. We have given broad survey solutions that detect black hole attacks in MANET. This is achieved by analyzing the techniques involved in detecting the attacks in each scheme. Furthermore, we examine about the challenges to the researchers for constructing an in-depth solution against black hole attack.

Keywords: AODV, cross layer security, mobile Adhoc network (MANET), packet delivery ratio, single layer security

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4 Intelligent Rescheduling Trains for Air Pollution Management

Authors: Kainat Affrin, P. Reshma, G. Narendra Kumar

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Optimization of timetable is the need of the day for the rescheduling and routing of trains in real time. Trains are scheduled in parallel with the road transport vehicles to the same destination. As the number of trains is restricted due to single track, customers usually opt for road transport to use frequently. The air pollution increases as the density of vehicles on road transport is increased. Use of an alternate mode of transport like train helps in reducing air-pollution. This paper mainly aims at attracting the passengers to Train transport by proper rescheduling of trains using hybrid of stop-skip algorithm and iterative convex programming algorithm. Rescheduling of train bi-directionally is achieved on a single track with dynamic dual time and varying stops. Introduction of more trains attract customers to use rail transport frequently, thereby decreasing the pollution. The results are simulated using Network Simulator (NS-2).

Keywords: air pollution, AODV, re-scheduling, WSNs

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3 A Weighted K-Medoids Clustering Algorithm for Effective Stability in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Rejab Hajlaoui, Tarek Moulahi, Hervé Guyennet

Abstract:

In a highway scenario, the vehicle speed can exceed 120 kmph. Therefore, any vehicle can enter or leave the network within a very short time. This mobility adversely affects the network connectivity and decreases the life time of all established links. To ensure an effective stability in vehicular ad hoc networks with minimum broadcasting storm, we have developed a weighted algorithm based on the k-medoids clustering algorithm (WKCA). Indeed, the number of clusters and the initial cluster heads will not be selected randomly as usual, but considering the available transmission range and the environment size. Then, to ensure optimal assignment of nodes to clusters in both k-medoids phases, the combined weight of any node will be computed according to additional metrics including direction, relative speed and proximity. Empirical results prove that in addition to the convergence speed that characterizes the k-medoids algorithm, our proposed model performs well both AODV-Clustering and OLSR-Clustering protocols under different densities and velocities in term of end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, and throughput.

Keywords: communication, clustering algorithm, k-medoids, sensor, vehicular ad hoc network

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2 A Review of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc NETworks (MANET)

Authors: Hafiza Khaddija Saman, Muhammad Sufyan

Abstract:

The increase in availability and popularity of mobile wireless devices has led researchers to develop a wide variety of Mobile Ad-hoc Networking (MANET) protocols to exploit the unique communication opportunities presented by these devices. Devices are able to communicate directly using the wireless spectrum in a peer-to-peer fashion, and route messages through intermediate nodes, however, the nature of wireless shared communication and mobile devices result in many routing and security challenges which must be addressed before deploying a MANET. In this paper, we investigate the range of MANET routing protocols available and discuss the functionalities of several ranging from early protocols such as DSDV to more advanced such as MAODV, our protocol study focuses upon works by Perkins in developing and improving MANET routing. A range of literature relating to the field of MANET routing was identified and reviewed, we also reviewed literature on the topic of securing AODV based MANETs as this may be the most popular MANET protocol. The literature review identified a number of trends within research papers such as exclusive use of the random waypoint mobility model, excluding key metrics from simulation results and not comparing protocol performance against available alternatives.

Keywords: protocol, MANET, ad-Hoc, communication

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1 Applicability of Fuzzy Logic for Intrusion Detection in Mobile Adhoc Networks

Authors: Ruchi Makani, B. V. R. Reddy

Abstract:

Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs) are gaining popularity due to their potential of providing low-cost mobile connectivity solutions to real-world communication problems. Integrating Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) in MANETs is a tedious task by reason of its distinctive features such as dynamic topology, de-centralized authority and highly controlled/limited resource environment. IDS primarily use automated soft-computing techniques to monitor the inflow/outflow of traffic packets in a given network to detect intrusion. Use of machine learning techniques in IDS enables system to make decisions on intrusion while continuous keep learning about their dynamic environment. An appropriate IDS model is essential to be selected to expedite this application challenges. Thus, this paper focused on fuzzy-logic based machine learning IDS technique for MANETs and presented their applicability for achieving effectiveness in identifying the intrusions. Further, the selection of appropriate protocol attributes and fuzzy rules generation plays significant role for accuracy of the fuzzy-logic based IDS, have been discussed. This paper also presents the critical attributes of MANET’s routing protocol and its applicability in fuzzy logic based IDS.

Keywords: AODV, mobile adhoc networks, intrusion detection, anomaly detection, fuzzy logic, fuzzy membership function, fuzzy inference system

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