Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 190

Search results for: SiO2

190 Characterisation and in vitro Corrosion Resistance of Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite and Hydroxyapatite: Silicon Oxide Coatings on 316L SS

Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Buta Singh Sidhu


In the current investigation plasma spray technique was used for depositing hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA – silicon oxide (SiO2) coatings on 316L SS substrate. In HA-SiO2 coating, 20 wt% SiO2 was mixed with HA. The feedstock and coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The corrosion resistance of the uncoated, HA coated and HA + 20 wt% SiO2 coated 316L SS was investigated by electrochemical corrosion testing in simulated human body fluid (Ringer’s solution). The influence of SiO2 (20 wt%) on corrosion resistance was determined. After the corrosion testing, the samples were analyzed by XRD and SEM/EDX analyses. The addition of SiO2 reduces the crystallinity of the coating. The corrosion resistance of the 316L SS was found to increase after the deposition of the HA + 20 wt% SiO2 and HA coatings.

Keywords: HA, SiO2, corrosion, Ringer’s solution, 316L SS

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
189 Propylene Self-Metathesis to Ethylene and Butene over WOx/SiO2, Effect of Nano-Sized Extra Supports (SiO2 and TiO2)

Authors: Adisak Guntida


Propylene self-metathesis to ethylene and butene was studied over WOx/SiO2 catalysts at 450 °C and atmospheric pressure. The WOx/SiO2 catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of ammonium metatungstate aqueous solution. It was found that, adding nano-sized extra supports (SiO2 and TiO2) by physical mixing with the WOx/SiO2 enhanced propylene conversion. The UV-Vis and FT-Raman results revealed that WOx could migrate from the original silica support to the extra support, leading to a better dispersion of WOx. The ICP-OES results also indicate that WOx existed on the extra support. Coke formation was investigated on the catalysts after 10 h time-on-stream by TPO. However, adding nano-sized extra supports led to higher coke formation which may be related to acidity as characterized by NH3-TPD.

Keywords: extra support, nanomaterial, propylene self-metathesis, tungsten oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
188 Preparation of Magnetic Hydroxyapatite Composite by Wet Chemical Process for Phycobiliproteins Adsorption

Authors: Shu-Jen Chen, Yi-Chien Wan, Ruey-Chi Wang


Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAp) can be applied to the fabrication of bone replacement materials, the composite of dental filling, and the adsorption of biomolecules and dyes. The integration of HAp and magnetic materials would offer several advantages for bio-separation process because the magnetic adsorbents is capable of recovered by applied magnetic field. C-phycocyanin (C-PC) and Allophycocyanin (APC), isolated from Spirulina platensis, can be used in fluorescent labeling probes, health care foods and clinical diagnostic reagents. Although the purification of C-PC and APC are reported by HAp adsorption, the adsorption of C-PC and APC by magnetic HAp composites was not reported yet. Therefore, the fabrication of HAp with magnetic silica nanoparticles for proteins adsorption was investigated in this work. First, the magnetic silica particles were prepared by covering silica layer on Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a reverse micelle method. Then, the [email protected] nanoparticles were mixed with calcium carbonate to obtain magnetic silica/calcium carbonate composites ([email protected]/CaCO3). The [email protected]/CaCO3 was further reacted with K2HPO4 for preparing the magnetic silica/hydroxyapatite composites ([email protected]/HAp). The adsorption experiments indicated that the adsorption capacity of [email protected]/HAp toward C-PC and APC were highest at pH 6. The adsorption of C-PC and APC by [email protected]/HAp could be correlated by the pseudo-second-order model, indicating chemical adsorption dominating the adsorption process. Furthermore, the adsorption data showed that the adsorption of [email protected]/HAp toward C-PC and APC followed the Langmuir isotherm. The isoelectric points of C-PC and APC were around 5.0. Additionally, the zeta potential data showed the [email protected]/HAp composite was negative charged at pH 6. Accordingly, the adsorption mechanism of [email protected]/HAp toward C-PC and APC should be governed by hydrogen bonding rather than electrostatic interaction. On the other hand, as compared to C-PC, the [email protected]/HAp shows higher adsorption affinity toward APC. Although the [email protected]/HAp cannot recover C-PC and APC from Spirulina platensis homogenate, the [email protected]/HAp can be applied to separate C-PC and APC.

Keywords: hydroxyapatite, magnetic, C-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
187 The Effect of the Calcination Temperature and SiO2 Addition on the Physical Properties’ of Sol Gel TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Nour El Houda Arabi, Aicha Iratni, Talaighil Razika, Bruno Capoen, Mohamed Bouazaoui


In this paper, we report the effect of the calcination temperature and SiO2 addition on structural, optical and hydrophilicity of TiO2 films deposited by deep-coating sol-gel process. XRD investigation of the structural TiO2 films with increasing the temperature calcination, reveals that rutile phase will appear for the high temperature (>1000°C). However, the addition of SiO2 relate the densification of TiO2 films. Ellipsometric and UV-visible measure show that the refractive index grow with increasing temperature, against the film thickness decreases. On the other hand, the addition of SiO2 decreases the refractive index and increases the TiO2 film thickness. Finally, the hydrophilicity is assisted by contact angle measurement. It is found that addition of 50% of SiO2 to TiO2 is most effective for reducing the contact angle of water.

Keywords: physical properties, sol, gel, TiO2/SiO2 composite films

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
186 Anti-Reflective Nanostructured TiO2/SiO2 Multilayer Coatings

Authors: Najme lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi


Multilayer structure of thin films by the sol–gel process attracts great attention for antireflection applications. In this paper, antireflective nanometric multilayer SiO2-TiO2 films are formed on both sides of the glass substrates by combining the sol–gel method and the dip-coating technique. SiO2 and TiO2 sols were prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrabutylorthotitanate (TBOT) as precursors and also nitric acid as catalyst. Prepared coatings were investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) and UV–visible spectrophotometer. After evaluation, all of SiO2 top layer coatings showed excellent antireflection in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm where the transmittance of glass substrate is significantly lower. By increasing the number of double TiO2-SiO2 layers, the transmission of the coated glass increases due to applied multilayer coating properties. 6-layer sol–gel TiO2-SiO2 shows the highest visible transmittance about 99.25% at the band of 550-650 nm.

Keywords: thin films, optical properties, sol-gel, multilayer

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
185 Phenolic-Based Chemical Production from Catalytic Depolymerization of Alkaline Lignin over Fumed Silica Catalyst

Authors: S. Totong, P. Daorattanachai, N. Laosiripojana


Lignin depolymerization into phenolic-based chemicals is an interesting process for utilizing and upgrading a benefit and value of lignin. In this study, the depolymerization reaction was performed to convert alkaline lignin into smaller molecule compounds. Fumed SiO₂ was used as a catalyst to improve catalytic activity in lignin decomposition. The important parameters in depolymerization process (i.e., reaction temperature, reaction time, etc.) were also investigated. In addition, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), flame-ironized detector (GC-FID), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to analyze and characterize the lignin products. It was found that fumed SiO₂ catalyst led the good catalytic activity in lignin depolymerization. The main products from catalytic depolymerization were guaiacol, syringol, vanillin, and phenols. Additionally, metal supported on fumed SiO₂ such as Cu/SiO₂ and Ni/SiO₂ increased the catalyst activity in terms of phenolic products yield.

Keywords: alkaline lignin, catalytic, depolymerization, fumed SiO₂, phenolic-based chemicals

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
184 Sol-Gel SiO2-TiO2 Multilayer Coatings for Anti-Reflective Applications

Authors: Najme Lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi


Multilayer structure of thin films by the sol–gel process attracts great attention for antireflection applications. In this paper, antireflective nanometric multilayer SiO2-TiO2 films are formed on both sides of the glass substrates by combining the sol–gel method and the dip-coating technique. SiO2 and TiO2 sols were prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrabutylorthotitanate (TBOT) as precursors and nitric acid as catalyst. Prepared coatings were investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) and UV–visible spectrophotometer. After evaluation, all of SiO2 top layer coatings showed excellent antireflection in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm where the transmittance of glass substrate is significantly lower. By increasing the number of double TiO2-SiO2 layers, the transmission of the coated glass increases due to applied multilayer coating properties. 6-layer sol–gel TiO2-SiO2 shows the highest visible transmittance about 99.25% at the band of 550-650 nm.

Keywords: thin films, optical properties, sol-gel, multilayer

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
183 Impacts of CuO, TiO2, SiO2 Nanoparticles on Biological Phosphorus Removal

Authors: H. Shiu, M.S. Lu, Y.P. Tsai


This study explored the impacts of CuO, TiO2, SiO2 nanoparticles on biological phosphorus removal. Experimental results showed that the phosphorus removal ability of phosphorus accumulating organism (PAO) was initially inhibited when CuO nanoparticle concentration was 5 mgl-1. The inhibition of phosphorus removal for 1000 mgl-1 of TiO2 with sunlight was higher than without sunlight case. The inhibition of phosphorus removal began at 500 mgl-1 SiO2 nanoparticle concentration. Inhibition became apparent when SiO2 nanoparticle concentration was up to 1000 mgl-1.

Keywords: nano copper oxide, nano titanium dioxide, nano silica, enhanced biological phosphate removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
182 Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂ Nanoparticles as Catalyst for Recovery of Gold from the Mixture of Au(III) and Cu(II) Ions

Authors: Eko S. Kunarti, Akhmad Syoufian, Indriana Kartini, Agnes


Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂ nanoparticles have been synthesized and applied as a photocatalyst for the recovery of gold from the mixture of Au(III) and Cu(II) ions. The synthesis was started by the preparation of magnetite (Fe₃O₄) using coprecipitation and sonication methods, followed by SiO₂ coating on magnetite using sol-gel reactions, and then TiO₂ coating using sol-gel process. Characterization was performed by using infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy methods. Activity of Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂ nanoparticles was evaluated as a photocatalyst for recovery of gold through photoreduction of Au(III) ions in Au(III) and Cu(II) ions mixture with a ratio of 1:1, in a closed reactor equipped with UV lamp. The photoreduction yield was represented as a percentage (%) of reduced Au(III) which was calculated by substraction of initial Au(III) concentration by the unreduced one. The unreduced Au(III) was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that the Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂ nanoparticles were successfully synthesised with excellent magnetic and photocatalytic properties. The nanoparticles present optimum activity at a pH of 5 under UV irradiation for 120 minutes. At the optimum condition, the Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂ nanoparticles could reduce Au³⁺ to Au⁰ 97.24%. In the mixture of Au(III) and Cu(II) ions, the Au(III) ions are more easily reducible than Cu(II) ions with the reduction results of 96.9% and 45.80% for Au(III) and Cu(II) ions, respectively. In addition, the presence of Cu(II) ions has no significant effect on the amount of gold recovered and its reduction reaction rate.

Keywords: Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂, photocatalyst, recovery, gold, Au(III) and Cu(II) mixture

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
181 The Effect of Parameters on Production of NİO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 Composite Nanofibers by Using Sol-Gel Processing and Electrospinning Technique

Authors: F. Sevim, E. Sevimli, F. Demir, T. Çalban


For the first time, nanofibers of PVA /nickel nitrate/silica/alumina izopropoxide/boric acid composite were prepared by using sol-gel processing and electrospinning technique. By high temperature calcinations of the above precursor fibers, nanofibers of NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 composite with diameters of 500 nm could be successfully obtained. The fibers were characterized by TG/DTA, FT-IR, XRD and SEM analyses.

Keywords: nano fibers, NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 composite, sol-gel processing, electro spinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
180 Iron Catalyst for Decomposition of Methane: Influence of Al/Si Ratio Support

Authors: A. S. Al-Fatesh, A. A. Ibrahim, A. M. AlSharekh, F. S. Alqahtani, S. O. Kasim, A. H. Fakeeha


Hydrogen is the expected future fuel since it produces energy without any pollution. It can be used as a fuel directly or through the fuel cell. It is also used in chemical and petrochemical industry as reducing agent or in hydrogenation processes. It is produced by different methods such as reforming of hydrocarbon, electrolytic method and methane decomposition. The objective of the present paper is to study the decomposition of methane reaction at 700°C and 800°C. The catalysts were prepared via impregnation method using 20%Fe and different proportions of combined alumina and silica support using the following ratios [100%, 90%, 80%, and 0% Al₂O₃/SiO₂]. The prepared catalysts were calcined and activated at 600 OC and 500 OC respectively. The reaction was carried out in fixed bed reactor at atmospheric pressure using 0.3g of catalyst and feed gas ratio of 1.5/1 CH₄/N₂ with a total flow rate 25 mL/min. Catalyst characterizations (TPR, TGA, BET, XRD, etc.) have been employed to study the behavior of catalysts before and after the reaction. Moreover, a brief description of the weight loss and the CH₄ conversions versus time on stream relating the different support ratios over 20%Fe/Al₂O₃/SiO₂ catalysts has been added as well. The results of TGA analysis provided higher weights losses for catalysts operated at 700°C than 800°C. For the 90% Al₂O₃/SiO₂, the activity decreases with the time on stream using 800°C reaction temperature from 73.9% initial CH₄ conversion to 46.3% for a period of 300min, whereas the activity for the same catalyst increases from 47.1% to 64.8% when 700°C reaction temperature is employed. Likewise, for 80% Al₂O₃/SiO₂ the trend of activity is similar to that of 90% Al₂O₃/SiO₂ but with a different rate of activity variation. It can be inferred from the activity results that the ratio of Al₂O₃ to SiO₂ is crucial and it is directly proportional with the activity. Whenever the Al/Si ratio decreases the activity declines. Indeed, the CH₄ conversion of 100% SiO₂ support was less than 5%.

Keywords: Al₂O₃, SiO₂, CH₄ decomposition, hydrogen, iron

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179 Zinc Oxid Nanotubes Modified by SiO2 as a Recyclable Catalyst for the Synthesis of 2,3-Dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-Ones

Authors: Rakhshan Hakimelahi


In recent years, zinc oxid nano tubes have attracted much attention. The direct use of zinc oxid nano tubes modified by SiO2 as recoverable catalysts for organic reactions is very rare. The catalysts were characterized by XRD. The average particle size of ZnO catalysts is 57 nm and there are high density defects on nano tubes surfaces. A simple and efficient method for the quinazolin derivatives synthesis from the condensation isatoic anhydride and an aromatic aldehyde with ammonium acetate in the presence of a catalytic amount zinc oxid nano tubes modified by SiO2 is described. The reason proposed for higher catalytic activity of zinc oxid nano tubes modified by SiO2 is a combination effect of the small particle size and high-density surface defects. The practical and simple method led to excellent yields of the 2,3-Di hydro quinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives under mild conditions and within short times.

Keywords: 2, 3-Dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives, reusable catalyst, SiO2, zinc oxid nanotubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
178 Comparative Study of Ni Catalysts Supported by Silica and Modified by Metal Additions Co and Ce for The Steam Reforming of Methane

Authors: Ali Zazi, Ouiza Cherifi


The Catalysts materials Ni-SiO₂, Ni-Co-SiO₂ and Ni-Ce-SiO₂ were synthetized by classical method impregnation and supported by silica. This involves combing the silica with an adequate rate of the solution of nickel nitrates, or nickel nitrate and cobalt nitrate, or nickel nitrate and cerium nitrate, mixed, dried and calcined at 700 ° c. These catalysts have been characterized by different physicochemical analysis techniques. The atomic absorption spectrometry indicates that the real contents of nickel, cerium and cobalt are close to the theoretical contents previously assumed, which let's say that the nitrate solutions have impregnated well the silica support. The BET results show that the surface area of the specific surfaces decreases slightly after impregnation with nickel nitrates or Co and Ce metals and a further slight decrease after the reaction. This is likely due to coke deposition. X-ray diffraction shows the presence of the different SiO₂ and NiO phases for all catalysts—theCoO phase for that promoted by Co and the Ce₂O₂ phase for that promoted by Ce. The methane steam reforming reaction was carried out on a quartz reactor in a fixed bed. Reactants and products of the reaction were analyzed by a gas chromatograph. This study shows that the metal addition of Cerium or Cobalt improves the majority of the catalytic performance of Ni for the steam reforming reaction of methane. And we conclude the classification of our Catalysts in order of decreasing activity and catalytic performances as follows: Ni-Ce / SiO₂ >Ni-Co / SiO₂> Ni / SiO₂ .

Keywords: cerium, cobalt, heterogeneous catalysis, hydrogen, methane, steam reforming, synthesis gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
177 Multifunctional Coating of Nylon Using Nano-Si, Nano-Ti and SiO2-TiO2 Nancomposite :Properties of Colorimetric and Flammability

Authors: E. Fereydouni, Laleh Maleknia , M. E. Olya


The present research, nylon fabric dyed by pressure method with nano-Si, nano-Ti particles and SiO2-TiO2 nancomposite. The influence of the amount of Si, Ti and SiO2-TiO2 on the performance of nylon fabric was investigated by the use of Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR), horizontal flammability apparatus (HFA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX), water contact angle tester (WCA) and CIE LAB colorimetric system. The possible interactions between particles and nylon fiber were elucidated by the FTIR spectroscopy. Results indicated that the stabilized nanoparticles and nanocomposite enhances flame retardancy of nylon fabrics. Also, the prominet features of nanoparticles and nanocomposite treatment can note increase of adsorption and fixation of dye.

Keywords: nano-Si, nano- Ti, SiO2-TiO2 nancomposite, nylon fabric, flame retardant nylon

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
176 Rare Earth Metal Ion-Doped SiO2 Nanocomposite Membranes for Gas Separation in Steam Atmosphere

Authors: Md. Hasan Zahir


Y2O3-doped silica membranes were synthesized with the sol-gel method by using a tetraethyl orthosilicate-derived sol mixed with yttrium nitrate hexahydrate. These solutions were used to fabricate hydrogen separation microporous membranes with a sandwich-type structure on γ-Al2O3 supported by tubular α-Al2O3. Pore size distribution measurements were conducted directly on the membranes before and after hydrothermal treatment with a nano-permporometer. The gas permeance properties of the membranes were measured in the temperature range 100–500°C. The Y-doped SiO2 membrane (Si/Y = 3/1) was found to exhibit asymptotically stable permeances of 2.39×10-7 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 for He and 6.19 ×10-10 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 for CO2, with a high selectivity of 386 (He/CO2) at 500°C for 20 h in the presence of steam. The Y-doped silica membranes exhibit very high gas permeances for molecules with smaller kinetic diameters. The apparent activation energies of the H2 permeance at 400°C were 24.2±0.2 and 21.3±0.7 kJ mol−1 for SiO2 and Si/Y, respectively. Very high permeances were obtained for N2 and O2, 2.2 and 5 × 10-8 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 respectively, which demonstrates that these materials are promising air purification and/or separation systems that block larger impurity molecules by molecular sieving effects. Y-doped SiO2 exhibits greater hydrothermal stability at high temperatures and higher selectivity than SiO2 membranes.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, gas separation, hydrothermal stability, rare earth doped-Silica

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
175 Air-Purifying Properties of Cement Mortars Intermixed with TiO₂-SiO₂ Composites

Authors: A.M. Kaja, Q. Yu, H.J.H Brouwers


An increased functionality of concrete towards higher eco-efficiency is nowadays of great importance due to the decreasing air quality in urban areas. Surface modifications of concrete walls and roads, as a coating or an intermixing of the surface layer with TiO₂, provide an opportunity to improve the air quality by reducing NOx via photocatalytic phenomena. Nevertheless, there are still concerns regarding the cost-efficiency as well as the toxicity of intermediate products which can be produced during the photocatalysis, limiting a widespread adoption of these materials. This study addresses the problem of the selectivity of cement mortars towards nitrate in terms of microstructural characteristics and hydration products. The ability of cement mortars matrix intermixed with commercial TiO₂ and TiO₂-SiO₂ composite to abate NO₂ is investigated. The influence of hydration products formed under the carbonation facilitating conditions is discussed and solutions how to optimize the mix design are proposed. The incorporation of the TiO₂-SiO₂ composite into cement mortar is found to increase the nitrate selectivity index.

Keywords: cement matrix, NO₂ abatement, photocatalysis, TiO₂-SiO₂ composite

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174 Mesoporous Carbon Ceramic SiO2/C Prepared by Sol-Gel Method and Modified with Cobalt Phthalocyanine and Used as an Electrochemical Sensor for Nitrite

Authors: Abdur Rahim, Lauro Tatsuo Kubota, Yoshitaka Gushikem


Carbon ceramic mesoporous SiO2/50wt%C (SBET= 170 m2g-1), where C is graphite, was prepared by the sol gel method. Scanning electron microscopy images and the respective element mapping showed that, within the magnification used, no phase segregation was detectable. It presented the electric conductivities of 0.49 S cm-1. This material was used to support cobalt phthalocyanine, prepared in situ, to assure a homogeneous dispersion of the electro active complex in the pores of the matrix. The surface density of cobalt phthalocyanine, on the matrix surfaces was 0.015 mol cm-2. Pressed disk, made with SiO2/50wt%C/CoPc, was used to fabricate an electrode and tested as sensors for nitrite determination by electro chemical technique. A linear response range between 0.039 and 0.42 mmol l−1,and correlation coefficient r=0.9996 was obtained. The electrode was chemically very stable and presented very high sensitivity for this analyte, with a limit of detection, LOD = 1.087 x 10-6 mol L-1.

Keywords: SiO2/C/CoPc, sol-gel method, electrochemical sensor, nitrite oxidation, carbon ceramic material, cobalt phthalocyanine

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
173 Optimization of Sintering Process with Deteriorating Quality of Iron Ore Fines

Authors: Chandra Shekhar Verma, Umesh Chandra Mishra


Blast Furnace performance mainly depends on the quality of sinter as a major portion of iron-bearing material occupies by it hence its quality w.r.t. Tumbler Index (TI), Reducibility Index (RI) and Reduction Degradation Index (RDI) are the key performance indicators of sinter plant. Now it became very tough to maintain the desired quality with the increasing alumina (Al₂O₃) content in iron fines and study is focused on it. Alumina is a refractory material and required more heat input to fuse thereby affecting the desired sintering temperature, i.e. 1300°C. It goes in between the grain boundaries of the bond and makes it weaker. Sinter strength decreases with increasing alumina content, and weak sinter generates more fines thereby reduces the net sinter production as well as plant productivity. Presence of impurities beyond the acceptable norm: such as LOI, Al₂O₃, MnO, TiO₂, K₂O, Na₂O, Hydrates (Goethite & Limonite), SiO₂, phosphorous and zinc, has led to greater challenges in the thrust areas such as productivity, quality and cost. The ultimate aim of this study is maintaining the sinter strength even with high Al₂O without hampering the plant productivity. This study includes mineralogy test of iron fines to find out the fraction of different phases present in the ore and phase analysis of product sinter to know the distribution of different phases. Corrections were done focusing majorly on varying Al₂O₃/SiO₂ ratio, basicity: B2 (CaO/SiO₂), B3 (CaO+MgO/SiO₂) and B4 (CaO+MgO/SiO₂+Al₂O₃). The concept of Alumina / Silica ratio, B3 & B4 found to be useful. We used to vary MgO, Al₂O₃/SiO₂, B2, B3 and B4 to get the desired sinter strength even at high alumina (4.2 - 4.5%) in sinter. The study concludes with the establishment of B4, and Al₂O₃/SiO₂ ratio in between 1.53-1.60 and 0.63- 0.70 respectively and have achieved tumbler index (Drum Index) 76 plus with the plant productivity of 1.58-1.6 t/m2/hr. at JSPL, Raigarh. Study shows that despite of high alumina in sinter, its physical quality can be controlled by maintaining the above-mentioned parameters.

Keywords: Basicity-2, Basicity-3, Basicity-4, Sinter

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172 The Effect of SIO2 Addition on the Formation and Superconducting Properties of BI2SR2CACU2O8+D System

Authors: N. Boussouf, M. F. Mosbah, M.Hamel, S. Menassel


SiO2 particles were inserted (added) into Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d precursor powders in various weight fractions. The influence of Si addition to the Bi2212 system on its phase formation, microstructure and transport properties is investigated. Samples are characterized by means of X ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), magnetic AC susceptibility and resistivity measurements. For 1% of added Si, the results showed an increase of the apparent superconducting volume fraction. All the samples doped with Si contained a majority fraction of the high TC superconducting Bi2212 phase. SEM observation showed that the average grain size of the Si added samples increased more than that of the sample without Si. From resistivity measurement the Tconset was found to be increased by 7 K for 1% and 5% of added Si compared to the pure sample.

Keywords: superconductors, Bi2212, doping, SiO2 particles

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171 Evaluation of Marwit Rod El Leqah Quartz Deposits As A Strategic Source of High Purity Quartz

Authors: Suzan Sami Ibrahim, Mohamed Gad Shahien, Ali Quarny Seliem, Mostafa Ragab Abukhadra


Pegmatite quartz deposits of Marwit Rod El Leqah area classify as medium purity quartz with 99.575 % average SiO2 content and therefore do not match the requirements of high technical applications (99.8 % SiO2 for solar cells, 99.8% SiO2 for electronics). Petrographic field and petrographic investigations reveal that, the reduction of the silica content attributed mainly to impurities of iron oxide, muscovite, rutile, orthoclase, granitic rafts and fluid inclusions. Such impurities resulted in raising Fe2O3, Al2O3, MgO, CaO, K2O and Na2O relative to the silica content. Structural impurities are the main source of trace elements in the quartz samples.

Keywords: High purity quartz, High-tech applications, solid impurities, structural impurities

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
170 Investigation of the Morphology of SiO2 Nano-Particles Using Different Synthesis Techniques

Authors: E. Gandomkar, S. Sabbaghi


In this paper, the effects of variation synthesized methods on morphology and size of silica nanostructure via modifying sol-gel and precipitation method have been investigated. Meanwhile, resulting products have been characterized by particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. As result, the shape of SiO2 with sol-gel and precipitation methods was spherical but with modifying sol-gel method we have been had nanolayer structure.

Keywords: modified sol-gel, precipitation, nanolayer, Na2SiO3, nanoparticle

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
169 Influence of MgO Physically Mixed with Tungsten Oxide Supported Silica Catalyst on Coke Formation

Authors: Thidaya Thitiapichart


The effect of additional magnesium oxide (MgO) was investigated by using the tungsten oxide supported on silica catalyst (WOx/SiO2) physically mixed with MgO in a weight ratio 1:1. The both fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by FT-Raman spectrometer, UV-Vis spectrometer, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). The results indicated that the additional MgO could enhance the conversion of trans-2-butene due to isomerization reaction. However, adding MgO would increase the amount of coke deposit on the WOx/SiO2 catalyst. The TPO profile presents two peaks when the WOx/SiO2 catalyst was physically mixed with MgO. The further peak was suggested to be coming from the coke precursor that could be produced by isomerization reaction of the undesired product. Then, the occurred coke precursor could deposit and form coke on the acid catalyst.

Keywords: coke formation, metathesis, magnesium oxide, physically mix

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
168 HCIO4-SiO2 Nanoparticles as an Efficient Catalyst for Three-Component Synthesis of Triazolo[1,2-A]Indazole-Triones

Authors: Hossein Anaraki-Ardakani, Tayebe Heidari-Rakati


An environmentally benign protocol for the one-pot, three-component synthesis of Triazolo[1,2-a]indazole-1,3,8-trione derivatives by condensation of dimedone, urazole and aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by HClO4/SiO2 NPS as an ecofriendly catalyst with high catalytic activity and reusability at 100 ºC under solvent-free conditions is reported. The reaction proceeds to completion within 20-30 min in 77-86 % yield.

Keywords: one-pot reaction, dimedone, triazoloindazole, urazole

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167 Optical and Structural Properties of ZnO Quantum Dots Functionalized with 3-Aminopropylsiloxane Prepared by Sol-gel Method

Authors: M. Pacio, H. Juárez, R. Pérez-Cuapio E. Rosendo, T. Díaz, G. García


In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) quantum dots (QDs) have been prepared by a simple route. The growth parameters for ZnO QDs were systematically studied inside a SiO2 shell; this shell acts as a capping agent and also enhances stability of the nanoparticles in water. ZnO QDs in silica shell could be produced by initially synthesizing a ZnO colloid (containing ZnO nanoparticles in methanol solution) and then was mixed with 3-aminopropylsiloxane used as SiO2 precursor. ZnO QDs were deposited onto silicon substrates (100) orientation by spin-coating technique. ZnO QDs into a SiO2 shell were pre-heated at 300 °C for 10 min after each coating, that procedure was repeated five times. The films were subsequently annealing in air atmosphere at 500 °C for 2 h to remove the trapped fluid inside the amorphous silica cage. ZnO QDs showed hexagonal wurtzite structure and about 5 nm in diameter. The composition of the films at the surface and in the bulk was obtained by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), the spectra revealed the presence of Zn- and Si- related clusters associated to the chemical species in the solid matrix. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra under 325 nm of excitation only show a strong UV emission band corresponding to ZnO QDs, such emission is enhanced with annealing. Our results showed that the method is appropriate for the preparation of ZnO QDs films embedded in a SiO2 shell with high UV photoluminescence.

Keywords: ZnO QDs, sol gel, functionalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
166 Dehydration of Glycerol to Acrolein with Solid Acid Catalysts

Authors: Lin Huang, Bo Wang, Armando Borgna


Dehydration of glycerol to acrolein was conducted with solid acid catalysts in liquid phase in a batch reactor and in gas phase in a fix-bed reactor, respectively. In the liquid-phase reaction, ZSM-5, H3PO4-modified ZSM-5 and heteropolyacids including H3PW12O40•xH2O (HPW) and Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 (CsPW) were studied as catalysts. High temperatures and high boiling point solvents such as sulfolane improved the selectivity to acrolein through suppressing the formation of polyglycerols and coke. Catalytic results and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia showed that the yield of acrolein increased with increasing catalyst acidity within the range of weak acid strength. Weak acid sites favored the selectivity to acrolein whereas strong acid sites promoted the formation of coke. ZSM-5 possessing only acid sites led to a high acrolein yield, while heteropolyacid catalysts with strong acid sites produced a low acrolein yield. In the gas-phase reaction, HPW and CsPW supported on metal oxides such as SiO2, γ-Al2O3, SiO2-Al2O3, ZrO2 and silicate TUD-1 were studied as catalysts. HPW/TUD-1 was most active for the production of acrolein, followed by HPW/SiO2. An acrolein yield of 61 % was obtained over HPW/TUD-1. X-ray diffraction study suggested that HPW and CsPW were stable and more dispersed on SiO2, silicate TUD-1 and SiO2-Al2O3. It was found that the structures of HPW and CsPW were destroyed by interaction with γ-Al2O3 and ZrO2. Compared to CsPW/TUD-1, the higher acrolein yield with HPW/TUD-1 may be attributed to more Brønsted acid sites on HPW/TUD-1, based on preliminary pyridine adsorption IR study.

Keywords: dehydration, glycerol, acrolein, solid acid catalysts, gas-phase, liquid-phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
165 Catalytic Production of Hydrogen and Carbon Nanotubes over Metal/SiO2 Core-Shell Catalyst from Plastic Wastes Gasification

Authors: Wei-Jing Li, Ren-Xuan Yang, Kui-Hao Chuang, Ming-Yen Wey


Nowadays, plastic product and utilization are extensive and have greatly improved our life. Yet, plastic wastes are stable and non-biodegradable challenging issues to the environment. Waste-to-energy strategies emerge a promising way for waste management. This work investigated the co-production of hydrogen and carbon nanotubes from the syngas which was from the gasification of polypropylene. A nickel-silica core-shell catalyst was applied for syngas reaction from plastic waste gasification in a fixed-bed reactor. SiO2 were prepared through various synthesis solvents by Stöber process. Ni plays a role as modified SiO2 support, which were synthesized by deposition-precipitation method. Core-shell catalysts have strong interaction between active phase and support, in order to avoid catalyst sintering. Moreover, Fe or Co metal acts as promoter to enhance catalytic activity. The effects of calcined atmosphere, second metal addition, and reaction temperature on hydrogen production and carbon yield were examined. In this study, the catalytic activity and carbon yield results revealed that the Ni/SiO2 catalyst calcined under H2 atmosphere exhibited the best performance. Furthermore, Co promoted Ni/SiO2 catalyst produced 3 times more than Ni/SiO2 on carbon yield at long-term operation. The structure and morphological nature of the calcined and spent catalysts were examined using different characterization techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction. In addition, the quality and thermal stability of the nano-carbon materials were also evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.

Keywords: plastic wastes, hydrogen, carbon nanotube, core-shell catalysts

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164 Investigation of Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in Circular Microchannels

Authors: Bayram Sahin, Hourieh Bayramian, Emre Mandev, Murat Ceylan


In industrial applications, the demand for the enhancement of heat transfer is a common engineering problem. The use of additives to heat transfer fluid is a technique applied to enhance the heat transfer performance of base fluids. In this study, the thermal performance of nanofluids consisting of SiO2 particles and deionized water in circular microchannels was investigated experimentally. SiO2 nanoparticles with diameter of 15 nm were added to water to prepare nanofluids with 0.2% and 0.4% volume fractions. Heat transfer characteristics were calculated by using temperature, flow and pressure measurements. The thermal conductivity and viscosity values required for the calculations are measured separately. It is observed that the Nusselt number increases at the all volume fraction of particles, by increasing the Reynolds number and the volumetric ratios of the particles. The highest heat transfer enhancement is obtained at Re = 2160 and 0.4 % vol. by 14% under the condition of a constant pumping power.

Keywords: nanofluid, microchannel, heat transfer, SiO2-water nanofluid

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163 Formation of Stable Aqueous Dispersions of Polyaniline-Silica Particles for Application in Anticorrosive Coatings on Steel

Authors: K. Kamburova, N. Boshkova, N. Boshkov, T. Radeva


Coatings based on polyaniline (PANI) can improve the resistance of steel against corrosion. Two forms of PANI are generally accepted to have effective protection of steel: the conducting emeraldine salt (ES) and the non-conducting emeraldine base (EB). The ability to intercept electrons at the metal surface and to transport them is typically attributed to ES, while the success of EB as an anticorrosive additive in the coating is attributed to its ability to oxidize and reduce in a reversible way. This electrochemical mechanism is probably combined with barrier effect against corrosion species. In this work, we describe the preparation of stable suspensions of colloidal PANI-SiO₂ particles, suitable for obtaining of composite anticorrosive coating on steel. Electrokinetic data as a function of pH are presented, showing that the zeta potentials of the PANI-SiO₂ particles are governed primarily by the charged groups at the silica oxide surface. Electrosteric stabilization of the PANI-SiO₂ particles’ suspension against aggregation is realized at pH > 5.5 (EB form of PANI) by adsorption of positively charged polyelectrolyte molecules onto negatively charged PANI-SiO₂ particles. We anticipate that incorporation of the small particles will provide a more homogeneous distribution in the coating matrix and will decrease the negative effect on barrier properties of the composite coating.

Keywords: particles, stable dispersion, composite coatings, corrosion protection

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162 High Aspect Ratio Sio2 Capillary Based On Silicon Etching and Thermal Oxidation Process for Optical Modulator

Authors: Nguyen Van Toan, Suguru Sangu, Tetsuro Saito, Naoki Inomata, Takahito Ono


This paper presents the design and fabrication of an optical window for an optical modulator toward image sensing applications. An optical window consists of micrometer-order SiO2 capillaries (porous solid) that can modulate transmission light intensity by moving the liquid in and out of porous solid. A high optical transmittance of the optical window can be achieved due to refractive index matching when the liquid is penetrated into the porous solid. Otherwise, its light transmittance is lower because of light reflection and scattering by air holes and capillary walls. Silicon capillaries fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process are completely oxidized to form the SiO2 capillaries. Therefore, high aspect ratio SiO2 capillaries can be achieved based on silicon capillaries formed by DRIE technique. Large compressive stress of the oxide causes bending of the capillary structure, which is reduced by optimizing the design of device structure. The large stress of the optical window can be released via thin supporting beams. A 7.2 mm x 9.6 mm optical window area toward a fully integrated with the image sensor format is successfully fabricated and its optical transmittance is evaluated with and without inserting liquids (ethanol and matching oil). The achieved modulation range is approximately 20% to 35% with and without liquid penetration in visible region (wavelength range from 450 nm to 650 nm).

Keywords: thermal oxidation process, SiO2 capillaries, optical window, light transmittance, image sensor, liquid penetration

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161 Synthesis, Microstructure and Photoluminescence Properties of Yttrium Orthovanadates: Influences of Silica Nano-Particles and Nano-Layers

Authors: Seyed Mahdi Rafiaei


In this investigation, firstly Eu3+ doped YVO4 phosphor was synthesized using solid-state method. Then silica was coated on the surface of particles via sol-gel method. To study the influence of SiO2 addition on microstructure and photoluminescence characteristics of YVO4:4% Eu3+ phosphor materials, we employed X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), High-Resolution Transmitted Electron Microscope (HRTEM), Focused Ion Beam (FIB), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET), Inductively coupled plasma (ICP), Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and Photoluminescence (PL) equipments. The XPS characterization confirmed the formation of Y–O–Si and V-O-Si bondings between YVO4:Eu3+ phosphor particle and SiO2 coating. In addition, it was found that although the amounts of added SiO2 were not remarkable, but it resulted in enhancement of emission intensity of the phosphors. Finally by employing ESR analysis, it was shown that surface oxygen vacancies, result in reduction of V5+ to the lower valence state of V4+.

Keywords: solid state, sol-gel, silica, coating, photoluminescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 133