Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3357

Search results for: mental status

3357 An Appraisal of the Relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Mental Toughness of Cricketers

Authors: Punam Shaw

Abstract:

Relationship often refers to the acquaintance or association between two or more things, which are interrelated and interdependent. The socio-economic status is obviously a blending of two states, would, therefore, be a ranking of an individual by the society he or she lives in, and in terms of his/her material belonging, cultural possessions along with the degree of respect, power and influence wield. Hence, education, income and occupation of an individual play a significant role in society. Positive mental attitude leads to achieve the set goal, and improve performance particularly in team cohesiveness, which may be determined by various interrelated aspects, which can predict the future assessment in their respective field accordingly. The study intended to examine and explore the relationship between Socio-economic Status and Mental Toughness of cricketers. For the present study descriptive survey research method was used and selected 40 (male=20 female=20) U-17 years registered players under Cricket Association of Bengal (CAB), as the sample population. Modified Socio-Economic Status Scale was used to collect the data regarding players, socioeconomic Status and to assess the mental toughness; Scott Barry Kaufman questionnaire was used. The data had been analysed through applying Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient and t-test as statistical techniques. The findings of the study showed that there is a positive correlation between socioeconomic Status and Mental Toughness among cricketers, it was found that significant difference was presented between male and female SES group. It was further revealed that there is no significant difference between male and female cricketers and in their different socioeconomic class with respect to their mental toughness.

Keywords: cricketers, mental toughness, relationship, socio-economic status

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3356 Experience of Intimate Partner Violence and Mental Health Status of Women of Reproductive Age Group in a Rural Community in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Ayodeji Adebayo, Tolulope Soyannwo, Oluwakemi A. Sigbeku

Abstract:

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with adverse health consequences. There is increasing evidence of association of IPV with mental health problems. Understanding the association between IPV and mental health status of women of reproductive aged group in the rural communities in Nigeria can provide information to improve maternal health status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between experience of IPV and mental health status of women of reproductive aged group in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted using a cluster sampling technique to select 283 non-pregnant women of reproductive age group (15-49 years Mental health was assessed based on respondents’ experience of any symptoms of depression, anxiety and/or low self-esteem. IPV was assessed over a period of 12 months and the forms of IPV assessed were emotional, physical and sexual. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on experience of IPV, reproductive history and factors influencing mental health. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression at 5% level of significance. The mean age of respondents was 26.1± 7.8 with 57.1% aged 15-24years. More than half (58.0%) were married. Overall, 60.7% of respondents had mental health problems while 84.8% experienced all categories of violence. The pattern of IPV includes physical violence (10.7%), emotional violence (82.7%) and sexual violence (20.8%). Women who experienced sexual violence by a partner are most likely to suffer from all mental issues. Also, gynaecological morbidities are associated with increasing risk of mental health problems. The research demonstrates an urgent need for mental health policies to recognize the relationship between intimate partner violence, gynaecological morbidities and mental health problems in women in Nigeria.

Keywords: intimate partner violence, mental health, reproductive age group, women

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3355 Responding to the Mental Health Service Needs of Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers in China: Current Situation and Future Directions

Authors: Yujun Liu, Maosheng Ran

Abstract:

Background: Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers’ mental health problems raise attentions from different social sectors. However, situation of present mental health services provided to this population has not been discovered. This study attempts to describe the current mental health service situation, identify the gaps and give the future directions based on the quantitative data. Methods: Questionnaire surveys were conducted among 2017 rural-to-urban migrant workers in 13 cities and 100 social work service organizations in 5 cities in 2014. Data was collected by face-to-face structured interview by trained interviewers. Findings: Migrant workers’ mental health status was not good. Compared to the severity of mental distress, mental health service for this population was lacking and insufficient, which accounted for only 14.4% of all services in our sample. And the group work and case work were the most frequently-used methods. By estimating a series of regression models, we revealed that life experiences and working conditions were significantly associated with migrant workers’ mental health status. Therefore, the macro social work practices aimed at this whole group were advocated to promote their mental wellbeing. That is, practitioners should not only focus on the improvement of migrant workers’ emotion management capacity, but also pay attention to raise awareness and improve their living and working condition; not only concentrate on the solving of individuals’ dilemma, but also promote gradual reformation of present labor regime and hukou system in China.

Keywords: Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers, macro social work practice, mental health service needs, mental health status

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3354 Food Insecurity and Mental Health among Adolescents in Southwest Ethiopia: Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

Authors: Mulusew G. Jebena, David Lindstrom, Tefera Belachew, Craig Hadley, Carl Lachat, Patrick Kolsteren

Abstract:

Background: The biological and psychosocial consequence of food insecurity on physical health and nutritional status has been reported. But, its effect on mental health during adolescence remains unexplored. Thus, the main aim of this analysis is to examine the mechanism by which food insecurity is linked to mental health among adolescents living in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: We used data from third round observation of Jimma Longitudinal Family and Youth Survey (JLFSY). A total of 1,521 adolescents included for the main analysis. Food insecurity was measured using 5-items scale and The Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to measure mental distress. Structural equation modeling analysis was done using maximum likelihood estimation method. Model diagnostics test was reported. All p values were two tailed and P value ≤ 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Results: The prevalence of mental distress was 20.8%, 95% CI: (18.8, 22.9). After adjusted for covariates, the final model depicts food insecurity was associated with adolescent mental distress (β=.324). This analysis showed 94.1% of the effect of food insecurity on mental distress is direct. By contrast, 5.9% of the food insecurity effect is mediated by physical health. In addition, Self-rated health (β=.356), socioeconomic status (β=-.078) parental educational (β= .170), living in urban (β= .193) and female headed household (β=.205) were associated with adolescent mental distress. Conclusions: This finding highlights the direct effect of food insecurity on adolescent mental distress. Therefore, any intervention aimed to improve mental distress of adolescents should consider strategies to improve access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food. Beside this, prevention of underlying factors such as psychosomatic health illness and improving socio economic status is also very critical. Furthermore longitudinal relationship of the long term effect of food insecurity on mental health should be investigated.

Keywords: adolescent, Ethiopia, food insecurity, mental health

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3353 Effect of Community Education and Early Intervention and Rehabilitation in Minimising the Impact on Mental Illness

Authors: Akanle Florence Foluso, Richard Oni, Ola Tolulo, Lani Ofie

Abstract:

Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Society’s attitude to mental health and primary prevention is the key instrument in a better understanding of the mental illness. This paper attempted to investigate the effect of community education and early intervention and rehabilitation in minimizing the impact of mental illness. The study involved 50 adolescents who were randomly selected and assigned to two groups, the control and the experimental. Subjects in the experimental group were exposed to treatment, while those in the control group were not. The subject exposed to treatment had an increased understanding of what mental illness is. Those with mental illness were better understood, less feared, less discriminated against, and tertiary prevention strategies were reported to minimize the impact of mental illness when it occurs

Keywords: community, health, improve, status

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3352 Psychopathy Evaluation for People with Intellectual Disability Living in Institute Using Chinese Version of the Psychopathology Inventory

Authors: Lin Fu-Gong

Abstract:

Background: As WHO announced, people with intellectual disability (ID) were vulnerable to mental health problems. And there were few custom-made mental health scales for those people to monitor their mental health. Those people with mental problems often accompanied worse prognosis and usually became to be a heavier burden on the caregivers. Purpose: In this study, we intend to develop a psychopathy scale as a practical tool for monitoring the mental health for people with ID living in institute. Methods: In this study, we adopt the Psychopathology Inventory for Mentally Retarded Adults developed by professor Matson with certified reliability and validity in Western countries with Dr. Matson’s agreement in advance. We first translated the inventory into Chinese validated version considering the domestic culture background in the past year. And the validity and reliability evaluation of mental health status using this inventory among the people with intellectual living in the institute were done. Results: The inventory includes eight psychiatric disorder scales as schizophrenic, affective, psychosexual, adjustment, anxiety, somatoform, personality disorders and inappropriate mental adjustment. Around 83% of 40 invested people, who randomly selected from the institute, were found to have at least one disorder who were recommended with medical help by two evaluators. Among the residents examined, somatoform disorder and inappropriate mental adjustment were most popular with 60% and 78% people respectively. Conclusion: The result showed the prevalence psychiatric disorders were relatively high among people with ID in institute and the mental problems need to be further cared and followed for their mental health. The results showed that the psychopathology inventory was a useful tool for institute caregiver, manager and for long-term care policy to the government. In the coming stage, we plan to extend the use of the valid Chinese version inventory among more different type institutes for people with ID to establish their dynamic mental health status including medical need, relapse and rehabilitation to promote their mental health.

Keywords: intellectual disability, psychiatric disorder, psychopathology inventory, mental health, the institute

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3351 The Effect of Mental Workload Towards Mental Fatigue on Customer Care Agent Using Electroencephalogram

Authors: Maya Arlini Puspasari, Shafira Karamina Alifah, Hardianto Iridiastadi

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High mental workload can lead to fatigue and further result in decreased concentration and work performance. This study is conducted to see the effects of mental workload towards mental fatigue. Mental fatigue measurement was conducted at the first and the last 10 minutes of the working time using electroencephalogram, while mental workload measurement was conducted after the work is completed using the NASA-TLX questionnaire. The result shows that there is an increase in alpha band which indicates an increase in mental fatigue. This study also shows absolute alpha is more sensitive compared to the relative alpha. This study proves that there is a relationship between mental workload and mental fatigue although not relatively strong.

Keywords: mental workload, electroencephalogram, customer care agents, NASA-TLX

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3350 Mental Health Co-Morbidity and Women’s Diabetes Self-Management Behaviours

Authors: Tracey Oorschot

Abstract:

Women with diabetes have different co-morbidity risks and self-management characteristics to men. A known co-morbidity risk of significance for women relates to mental health. Women are more likely to have existing mental health co-morbidities such as depression or anxiety and are more likely to develop these mental health conditions due to a DM diagnosis than men. The presence of either anxiety or depression is also known to be an influencing factor that can impede a range of self-care behaviours, including adherence to medications, healthy diet, smoking cessation, exercise programs, and following routine care treatment protocols. Additionally, women with any chronic disease, including DM or a mental health condition, are known to be high users of complementary medicine (CM). Women are also known to concurrently use CM in conjunction with conventional health care. CM can include practitioner consultation (e.g. naturopath), product use (e.g. herbals) or practices (e.g. yoga). This use can also have associated clinical governance risks, due to a lack of disclosure of CM use (especially to conventional health care practitioners), alongside health care practitioners lacking training and/or support to work with patients who are engaging in CM use. Gender-based research of conventional health care use in connection with DM is also inconsistent. Some aspects of women’s self-management behaviours have been researched, such as women are known to be high users of primary care to discuss their mental health concerns with their family physician/general practitioner. However, less is known about aspects of women’s diabetes care routines, such as allied health service use. Furthermore, there is a lack of research examining if mental health status influences conventional health service choices. In order to support health care practitioners that work with women with diabetes, it is essential that more is known about women’s self-management behaviours in relation to both conventional and CM health service use. In addition, exploration of if or how mental health status is influencing diabetes self-management routines is required. Discovering the answers to these topic areas will not only address present knowledge gaps but will also aid in the development of training and education programs to support health care practitioners who work in diabetes chronic disease management.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, self-management, mental health, women's health

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3349 Health Promotion Programs for Fifteen Years Decreased Loneliness and Increased Happiness for Elementary School Children in Yuzawa Town, Japan

Authors: Takeo Shibata, Arihito Endo, Chika Hiraga, Akemi Kunimatsu, Yoko Shimizu

Abstract:

Introduction: A health promotion program, Yuzawa family health plan, was initiated in 2002. It has been held for fifteen years. Yuzawa Town is famous with hot springs and ski resorts. We evaluated the changes in mental status in elementary school children. Methods: questionnaires survey had been held every five years. 196 questionnaires were corrected (94 boys and 102 girls). Changes for their anxieties, loneliness, confiding, problem-solving, risk breaching, communications, happiness, and life satisfaction were evaluated by chi-square test. Results: The rate of loneliness and life dissatisfactions decreased. The rates of happiness, confiding in grandparents, and risk breaching, increased. Especially, happiness rates increased for boys, loneliness rate decreased for girls, confiding in grandparents and risk breaching rate increased for girls. Conclusion: Our health promotion programs could increase mental health status in elementary school children.

Keywords: health promotion, mental status, elementary school, loneliness, happiness

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3348 Physical Health, Depression and Related Factors for Elementary School Students in Seoul, South Korea

Authors: Kyung-Sook Bang

Abstract:

Background: The health status of school-age children has a great influence on their growth and life-long health. The purposes of this study were to identify physical and mental health status of late school-age children in Seoul, South Korea and to investigate the related factors for their health. Methods: After gaining the approval from Institutional Review Board (IRB), a cross-sectional study was conducted with elementary students in grade 4 or 5. Questionnaires were distributed to eight elementary schools located different regions of Seoul in November, 2016, and 302 participants were finally included. From all participants, informed consents from the parents, and assents from children were received. Children's socioeconomic status, family functioning, peer relations, physical health symptoms, and depression were measured with self-reported questionnaires. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test, Pearson’s correlations, and multiple regression. Results: Children's physical health symptoms and depression were not significantly different, and only their peer relations were significantly different according to their socioeconomic status (t=-3.93, p<.001). Depression showed significant positive correlation with physical health symptoms (r=.720, p<.001) and negative correlations with family functioning (r=-.428, p<.001) and peer relations (r=-.775, p<.001). The multiple regression model, which explained 73.5% of variance, showed peer relations (r2 =.604), physical health symptoms (r2 change=.125), and family functioning (r2 change=.005) as significant predictors for depression. Only the peer relations was significant predictor for their physical health symptoms and explained 50.6% of it. Conclusions: The peer relations was the most important factor in their physical and mental health at this age, and it can be affected by their socioeconomic status. Nursing interventions for promoting social relations and family functioning are required to improve children’s physical and mental health, especially for vulnerable population.

Keywords: child, depression, health, peer relation

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3347 The Conception of the Students about the Presence of Mental Illness at School

Authors: Aline Giardin, Maria Rosa Chitolina, Maria Catarina Zanini

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In this paper, we analyze the conceptions of high school students about mental health issues, and discuss the creation of mental basic health programs in schools. We base our findings in a quantitative survey carried out by us with 156 high school students of CTISM (Colégio Técnico Industrial de Santa Maria) school, located in Santa Maria city, Brazil. We have found that: (a) 28 students relate the subject ‘mental health’ with psychiatric hospitals and lunatic asylums; (b) 28 students have relatives affected by mental diseases; (c) 76 students believe that mental patients, if treated, can live a healthy life; (d) depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are the most cited diseases; (e) 84 students have contact with mental patients, but know nothing about the disease; (f) 123 students have never been instructed about mental diseases while in the school; and (g) 135 students think that a mental health program would be important in the school. We argue that these numbers reflect a vision of mental health that can be related to the reductionist education still present in schools and to the lack of integration between health professionals, sciences teachers, and students. Furthermore, this vision can also be related to a stigmatization process, which interferes with the interactions and with the representations regarding mental disorders and mental patients in society.

Keywords: mental health, schools, mental illness, conception

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3346 Internalized HIV Stigma, Mental Health, Coping, and Perceived Social Support among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Aizawl District, Mizoram

Authors: Mary Ann L. Halliday, Zoengpari Gohain

Abstract:

The stigma associated with HIV-AIDS negatively affect mental health and ability to effectively manage the disease. While the number of People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) has been increasing day by day in Mizoram (a small north-eastern state in India), research on HIV/AIDS stigma has so far been limited. Despite the potential significance of Internalized HIV Stigma (IHS) in the lives of PLHIV, there has been very limited research in this area. It was therefore, felt necessary to explore the internalized HIV stigma, mental health, coping and perceived social support of PLHIV in Aizawl District, Mizoram. The present study was designed with the objectives to determine the degree of IHS, to study the relationship between the socio-demographic characteristics and level of IHS, to highlight the mental health status, coping strategies and perceived social support of PLHIV and to elucidate the relationship between these psychosocial variables. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, six hypotheses were formulated and statistical analyses conducted accordingly. The sample consisted of 300 PLWHA from Aizawl District, 150 males and 150 females, of the age group 20 to 70 years. Two- way classification of “Gender” (male and female) and three-way classification of “Level of IHS” (High IHS, Moderate IHS, Low IHS) on the dependent variables was employed, to elucidate the relationship between Internalized HIV Stigma, mental health, coping and perceived social support of PLHIV. The overall analysis revealed moderate level of IHS (67.3%) among PLHIV in Aizawl District, with a small proportion of subjects reporting high level of IHS. IHS was found to be significantly different on the basis of disclosure status, with the disclosure status of PLHIV accounting for 9% variability in IHS.  Results also revealed more or less good mental health among the participants, which was assessed by minimal depression (50.3%) and minimal anxiety (45%), with females with high IHS scoring significantly higher in both depression and anxiety (p<.01). Examination of the coping strategies of PLHIV found that the most frequently used coping styles were Acceptance (91%), Religion (84.3%), Planning (74.7%), Active Coping (66%) and Emotional Support (52.7%). High perception of perceived social support (48%) was found in the present study. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive relationships between IHS and depression as well as anxiety (p<.01), thus revealing that IHS negatively affects the mental health of PLHIV. Results however revealed that this effect may be lessened by the use of various coping strategies by PLHIV as well as their perception of social support.

Keywords: Aizawl, anxiety, depression, internalized HIV stigma, HIV/AIDS, mental health, mizoram, perceived social support

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3345 The Effect of Exercise on the Mental Health of Elderly People

Authors: Vivek Kumar

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The effects of physical activity on the human body have been well understood. It just not only keeps us healthy and away from many diseases but also helpful in delay ageing. Those who exercise every day are physically as well as mentally strong. As the age advance, we often see that there is a loss of memory in the elderly people and their retention power weaken with time. The association between physical health and mental health of elderly people nowadays is an important topic of research. Many people at their old age who all were suffering from Alzheimer or Parkinson disease or were at the stage of dementia have been benefited significantly on exercise at daily basis. We would conduct a randomized control trial, where we will select a number of old age people (65 years old or above). These selected old age people will have some sorts of mental illness and currently receiving treatment for the same. We will divide them into 3 groups. The first group of people will receive their normal treatment i.e. taking medicines. The second group of people will receive medicine as well as will do exercise for 45 minutes every day in the early morning, the 3rd group of people will do exercise everyday for 45 minutes but will be given placebo instead of medicine. All the member of these groups will be monitored carefully for 6 months of time and making this sure that all the members of the group are taking medicines or doing exercise according to the group they belong to. The mental status of all the participants will be measured; the data will be analyzed accordingly. Expected results- This research will be helpful in establishing the effect of exercise on the mental health of the old age people. Also, it will be examined that whether the medicines along with regular exercise for can months can cure the mental illness significantly.

Keywords: mental health, elderly people, physical activity, randomized control trial

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3344 Mental Health Literacy in the Arabic Community

Authors: Yamam Abuzinadah

Abstract:

Mental health literacy has become a very influential topic around the world due to the increase of mental health issues that have been reported through national research and surveys. Mental health literacy refers to the awareness, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills when dealing with mental illness. This research explores mental health literacy in the Arabic and the ways culture informs perceptions of mental health in general. Also, the impact of mental health literacy on: help-seeking attitudes, relationships and community interactions. The outcomes of this research will contribute to raising mental health awareness among the Arabic community, develop and enhance mental health service provision and explore new ideas in regards to elevating mental health literacy in the Arabic community. This research aims to explore attitudes, beliefs, perspective, values and perceptions toward mental health in general among the Arabic community. It will also aim to highlight the factors contributing to theses beliefs, perspective, value and perception and accordingly the role these factors play in regards to awareness, services access, recovery and care provided from the family and the community. This thesis will aim to reflect a detailed theorisation and exploration of: (1) The impact of cultural factors on mental health literacy ie. attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills. (2) The ways culture informs perceptions of mental health literacy. (3) The impact of mental health literacy on: help-seeking behaviors, and relationships and community interactions.

Keywords: Arab, mental health, literacy, awareness

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3343 Exploring the Meaning of Safety in Acute Mental Health Inpatient Units from the Consumer Perspective

Authors: Natalie Cutler, Lorna Moxham, Moira Stephens

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Safety is a priority in mental health services, and no more so than in the acute inpatient setting. Mental health service policies and accreditation frameworks commonly approach safety from a risk reduction or elimination perspective leading to service approaches that are arguably more focused on risk than on safety. An exploration what safety means for people who have experienced admission to an acute mental health inpatient unit is currently under way in Sydney, Australia. Using a phenomenographic research approach, this study is seeking to understand the meaning of safety from the perspective of people who use, rather than those who deliver mental health services. Preliminary findings suggest that the meanings of safety for users of mental health services vary from the meanings inherent in the policies and frameworks that inform how mental health services and mental health practice are delivered. This variance has implications for the physical and environmental design of acute mental health inpatient facilities, the policies and practices, and the education and training of mental health staff in particular nurses, who comprise the majority of the mental health workforce. These variances will be presented, along with their implications for the way quality and safety in mental health services are evaluated.

Keywords: acute inpatient, mental health, nursing, phenomenography, recovery, safety

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3342 Organisational Culture and the Role of the Mental Health Nurse: An Ethnography of the New Graduate Nurse Experience

Authors: Mary-Ellen Hooper, Graeme Browne, Anthony Paul O'Brien

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Background: It has been reported that the experience of the organisational workplace culture for new graduate mental health nurses plays an important role in their attraction and retention to the discipline. Additionally, other research indicates that a negative workplace culture contributes to their dissatisfaction and attrition rate. Method: An ethnographic research design was applied to explore the subcultural experiences of new graduate nurses as they encounter mental health nursing. Data was collected between April and September 2017 across 6 separate Australian, NSW, mental health units. Data comprised of semi-structured interviews (n=24) and 31 episodes of field observation (62 hours). A total number of 26 new graduate and recent graduate nurses participated in the study – 14 new graduate nurses and 12 recently graduated nurses. Results: A key finding from this study was the New Graduate difficulty in articulating the role the of mental health nurse. Participants described a dichotomy between their ideological view of the mental health nurse and the reality of clinical practice. The participants’ ideological view of the mental health nurse involved providing holistic and individualised care within a flexible framework. Participants, however, described feeling powerless to change the recovery practices within the mental health service(s) because of their low status within the hierarchy. Resulting in participants choosing to fit into the existing culture, or considering leaving the field altogether. Conclusion: An incongruence between the values and ideals of an organisational culture and the reality shock of practice are shown to contribute to role ambiguity within its members. New graduate nurses entering the culture of mental health nursing describe role ambiguity resulting in dissatisfaction with practice. The culture and philosophy inherent to a service are posited to be crucial in creating positive experiences for graduate nurses.

Keywords: culture, mental health nurse, mental health nursing role, new graduate nurse

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3341 Genetic Counseling for Severe Mental Disorders. Integrating Innovative Services and Prophylactic Interventions in an Online Platform - MENTALICA

Authors: Ramona Moldovan, Doina Cosman, Sebastian Moldovan, Radu Popp, Victor Pop

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MENTALICA is a project aimed at developing and evaluating a platform that can assist individuals diagnosed with severe mental disorders and their families in managing the consequences associated with severe mental disorders, recurrence risks, prevention strategies and treatment options. MENTALICA is a platform based on guidance issued by some of the most prominent scientific organizations in the world. In order to personalize the information provided, the program explores details about the personal and family history of mental disorders. MENTALICA summarizes the answers and gives respondents a personal assessment. This includes personalized information and support about schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder. MENTALICA includes several modules: Family history tools, Risk assessment tools and Risk factor sheets, Practical guides for patients, Practical guides for families, Guidelines for clinicians. Currently, there are no available guidelines for genetic counselling for mental disorders. Respondents can print out their reports and discuss them with family members or their doctors. We will briefly present the current status of MENTALICA and its implications for patients, professionals and the community.

Keywords: genetic counseling, mental disorders, platform

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3340 A Comparative Study of Selected Psychological Variable of Basketball and Volleyball Sportsperson of Bangladesh Krirra Shiskha Protifsthan

Authors: M. Ashadur Rahman

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This study presents the psychological status of basketball and volleyball sportspersons of Bangladesh Krira Shikkha Protifsthan (BKSP) in Bangladesh. The subjects of the study were 34 sportspersons which were 20 Basketball and 14 Volleyball Sportspersons in BKSP. The age ranges of the subjects were 15 to 20 years. The subjects were all male sportspersons and regular students of BKSP. Anxiety control, concentration, confidence, mental preparation, and motivation were selected as psychological variables. Psychological Skill Inventory for Sport (PST) prepared by Mahoney Gabiel, Perking (1987) was used to assess the psychological skills of sportspersons to different sports. Mean standard deviation and independent t-test were used to analyze the data, and level of significance was set at 0.05. Significant differences were not found between psychological status between basketball and volleyball sportspersons of BKSP in Bangladesh.

Keywords: psychological variable, anxiety control, concentration, confidence, mental preparation, motivation

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3339 Impact of Stress on Physical-Mental Wellbeing of Working Women in India: Awareness and Acceptability

Authors: Meera Shanker

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Excellent education and financial need have encouraged Indian women to go out and work in well-paid and high-status occupations. In the era of cutthroat competition, women are expected to work hard to produce the desired result; hence, workload and expectations haveincreased. At home, they are anticipated to take care of family members, children, and household work. Women are stretching themselves mechanically to remain in the job competition and try to give their best at home. Consequentially, they are under tremendous pressure, stressed, and having issues related to physical-mental wellness. Mental healthcare is often ignored and not accepted due to a lack of awareness and cultural barriers. These further compounds the problem, resulting in decreased productivity in economic terms and an increase in stress-related physical-mental ailments. The main objective of the study was to find out the impact of stress on the physical-mental wellbeing of working women in India, along with their awareness and acceptability related to mental health. Six hundred and one woman working at various levels took part in this study, responding to the items related to stress and physical-mental illness. Finally, 21 items were retained under four meaningful factors measuring stress dimensions along with 17 items with three factors measuring physical-mental wellbeing. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), path analysis, in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), was used to get a relationship, validity of the instruments. The psychometric properties of items and Cronbach’s Alpha reliabilities calculated for the subscales were relatively acceptable. The subscale correlations, regression, and path analysis of stress dimensions with physical-mental illness were found to be positive, indicating the growing stress among working women in India, which is impacting their physical-mental health. Single item analysis revealed that 77 percent of women have never visited psychologists. However, 70 percent of working women were not ready to seek the help of a psychologist.

Keywords: working women, stress, physical-mental well-being, confirmatory factor analysis

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3338 Assessment of the Psychoemotional State and Quality of Life at Women Teachers of the Senior Age Group

Authors: Meruyert Burumbayeva, Aiman Mussina, Gulnoza Aldabekova, Aiymtory Abildaeva, Gulshat Yerdenova, Aigul Kairgeldina

Abstract:

this article introduces results of a research which purpose is evaluation the quality of life, the psychophysiological status, expressiveness of uneasiness at women teachers of the senior age group. At a research of quality of life of teachers the lowest values have been received from the indicators of the general state of health, vital activity, role emotional functioning and mental health. Every second woman-teacher noted high personal uneasiness; every third woman-teacher noted moderate situational uneasiness, confirming the existence of a professional stress. Revealed the interrelation between alarming conditions and a decrease in a mental component of health. Moreover, there was revealed exhaustion signs at low activity values that indicate a high tension of labor process.

Keywords: expressiveness of uneasiness, quality of life, psychophysiological status, component of health

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3337 Impact of Social Stress on Mental Health: A Study on Sanitation Workers of India and Social Work

Authors: Farhat Nigar

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Social stress is stress which arises from one's relationships with others and from the social environment. When a person finds that they are not capable of coping with a situation, stress arises. Sanitation workers faces a lot of discrimination from the society which leads to stress and have severe impact on their mental health. Sanitation workers face lot of work pressure which sometimes leads to mental health problems, but there is lack of proper data of sanitation workers dealing with mental health problems which is a big obstacle before evolving policies for the welfare of sewage and septic tank workers which needs attention. The objective of the study is to find out the effect of social stress on the mental health of sanitation workers and to explore the scope of social work in coping with mental health problems of workers. This descriptive and analytical study was conducted on 100 sanitation workers of Aligarh city through convenience sampling. Data were collected from respondents by schedule and interview method. Most of the respondents said that they don’t enjoy equal status in society and at the workplace as well which leads to stress. Many of them said that social stress leads to poor performance in the workplace. Some of the workers feel depressed when their work is not appreciated and recognized in society. Majority of respondents has stress in financial and employment-related difficulties. Thus it can be said that social stress has several impacts on mental health which leads to poor performance, lack of confidence, and motivation which sometimes leads to depression. Social work can play a very important and challenging role in overcoming these difficulties by providing education, motivation and guiding them and by making them aware of their rights and duties.

Keywords: discrimination, health, stress, sanitation workers

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3336 Teachers' Mental Health: Perceived Social Justice and Life Satisfaction

Authors: Yan Li, Qi-Fan Jia, Jie Zhou

Abstract:

In today’s China, primary and secondary teachers are living a hard life with high pressure but low payment, which results in a sense of unfair and less satisfaction of life. However, teachers’ life satisfaction is a significant factor of their mental health and plays an important role in the development and progress of the society. This study was aimed to explore the effect of teachers’ perception of social justice on life satisfaction. 450 primary and secondary teachers from China were measured with life satisfaction scales, social justice scales, income satisfaction scale, job satisfaction scale, pressure condition scale, and major life event scale. Results showed their pressure is significantly higher than average, while life satisfaction, job satisfaction, income satisfaction and perceived social justice are lower. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that demographic variables, i.e., gender, age, education level and matric status, and factors related to occupation, i.e., professional title, school type and working hours per day cannot predict teachers’ life satisfaction. Teachers who had worked for 11-20 years had a lower life satisfaction compared to those with 1-5 years working experience. However, social status, monthly household income, income satisfaction, as well as job satisfaction were positively related to life satisfaction, whereas pressure condition was negatively related to it. After controlling for demographic factors and individual attitudes, social justice still had a positive effect on life satisfaction, among which distributive justice played a more important role than procedural justice. The suggestions on teachers’ condition in China and the implications for education reform to improve teachers’ mental health are discussed.

Keywords: life satisfaction, mental health, primary and secondary teachers, social justice

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3335 Emerging Issues of Non-Communicable Diseases among Older Persons in India

Authors: Dhananjay W. Bansod, Santosh Phad

Abstract:

Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) are major contributing factors to the disease burden in the world as well as in India. With a growing proportion of older persons in India gives rise to several challenges. With the advancement of age, elderly is exposed to various kinds of health problems more specifically NCDs. Therefore, an effort has been made to examine the prevalence of NCDs among older persons and its treatment-seeking behaviour, also it is tried to explore the association between the NCDs and its effect on the overall wellbeing of older persons. Data used from “Building Knowledge Base of Population Ageing Survey” conducted in 2011 in seven states of India. Six chronic diseases used (non-communicable diseases) namely Arthritis, Hypertension, Cataract, Diabetes, Asthma and Heart diseases to understand the issues related to NCDs. Also seen the effect of NCDs on the wellbeing of the elderly, the subjective well-being consists of nine questions from which SUBI score generated for mental health status, which ranges from 9 to 27. This Index indicates that lower the score better is the mental health status. Further, this index modified and generated three categories of Better (9-15), Average (16-20) and Worse (21-27). The reliability analysis is carried out with the coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha) of the scale was 0.8884. The result shows that Orthopedic / musculoskeletal ailments involving arthritis, rheumatism and osteoarthritis are the most common type of ailment followed by hypertension. Two-thirds of the elderly reported suffering from at least one chronic ailment. Most chronic illness conditions received some form of treatment and mainly depend on public health facilities. Financial insecurity is the primary obstruction in seeking treatment for most of the chronic ailments which typically require a longer duration of medication and repeated medical consultations, both having significant economic implications. According to SUBI index, only 15 per cent of the elderly are in Better mental health status, and one-third of the elderly are with the worse score. Elderly with the ailments like Cataract, Asthma and Arthritis have worse mental health. It depicts that the burden of disease is more among the elderly and it is directly affecting the overall wellbeing of older persons.

Keywords: NCD, well-being, older person, India

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3334 Self –Engineering Strategy of Six Dimensional Inter-Subcultural Mental Images

Authors: Mostafa Jafari

Abstract:

How the people continually create and recreate the six dimensional inter- sub-cultural relationships from the strategic point of view? Can they engineer and direct it toward creating a set of peaceful subcultures? This paper answers to these questions. Our mental images shape the quantity and quality of our relationships. The six dimensions of mental images are: my mental image about myself, your mental image about yourself, my mental image about you, your mental image about me, my imagination about your image about me and your imagination about my mental image about you. Strategic engineering is dynamically shaping these images and imaginations.Methodology: This survey, which is based on object and the relation between the variables, is explanatory, correlative and quantitative. The target community members are 90 educated people from universities. The data has been collected through questionnaire and interview and has been analyzed by descriptive statistical techniques and qualitative method. Results: Our findings show that engineering and deliberatly managing the process of inter- sub-cultural transactions in the national and global level can enable us to continually reform a peaceful set of learner sub-culturals toward recreate a peaceful unit global Home.

Keywords: strategic engineering, mental image, six dimensional mental images strategy , cultural literacy, radar technique

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3333 Athletes with High Mental Toughness Levels Experiencing Less Anxiety

Authors: H. Analuie, M. Faruque, S. Saha, H. Hashim, M. Muzaimi

Abstract:

Though mental toughness has long been explored in sport psychology, much of our understanding on the topic remains largely unexplored. The concept is used widely, but empirical evidence is required to fully understand the construct and its related variables. This research investigated the correlation between mental toughness and trait anxiety to determine whether mentally tough athletes generally experience more or less anxiety. A sample of 57 men (M age = 25.4 years, s=4.66) and 45 women (M age = 23.5 years, s=5.73) participated in a variety of sports were recruited, where mental toughness was measured using MTQ48. Levels of trait anxiety were assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Series of Pearson correlations between trait anxiety, overall mental toughness, and the six subscales of mental toughness showed significant (p> .05) relationships. As predicted, greater mental toughness was associated with less reported trait anxiety. Independent t-tests found significant differences (p> .05) in overall mental toughness, the mental toughness subscales or trait anxiety between men and women. More research is required to understand how mentally tough athletes experience less anxiety in comparison to those who are not as mentally tough. Our findings suggest that relationships observed in this study emphasize the need for the inclusion of trait anxiety in mental toughness interventions.

Keywords: mental toughness, trait anxiety, MTQ48, sport psychology

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3332 Comparison between Mental Toughness and Level of Physical Activity between Staff and Students in University of Tabriz

Authors: Mahta Eskandarnejad

Abstract:

The aim of this paper was to compare physical activity and mental toughness in the staff and students of the University of Tabriz. 615 people participated in this study and filled demographic questionnaire, mental thoughness48 (MTQ48) questionnaire and habitual physical activity questionnaire (Baecke physical activity questionnaire). The research sample included 355 students and 260 staff (615 questionnaires). For analyzing hypotheses MANOVA, correlation and independent t-test were used. Based on the result; some subscales of mental toughness and physical activity were significantly related. The result showed the significant correlation between mental toughness and physical activity in student and no significant correlation in staff. Students were significantly physically more active than staff, and mental toughness was higher in staff. There was no difference in mental toughness variable between active participants (active staff and student). The results of this study showed that mental toughness could influence the way a person cope with living conditions. It is expected that mental toughness changes can lead to changing in levels of physical activity. It should be noted that the other variables should not be ignored.

Keywords: Baecke physical activity questionnaire, mental toughness, physical activity, university staff, university student

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3331 Teacher Mental Health during Online Teaching

Authors: Elisabeth Desiana Mayasari, Laurensia Aptik Evanjeli, Brigitta Erlita Tri Anggadewi

Abstract:

The condition of the COVID-19 pandemic demands adaptation in various aspects of human life, including in the field of education. Teachers are expected to do distance learning or Learning From Home (LFH). The teacher said that he experienced stress, anxiety, feeling depressed, and afraid based on the interview. Learning adaptations and pandemic situations can impact the mental health of teachers, so the purpose of this study is to determine the mental health of teachers while teaching online. This research was conducted with a quantitative approach using a survey method. The subjects in this study were 330 elementary school teachers under the auspices of a foundation in Yogyakarta. Teachers' mental health was measured using the Indonesian version of The Mental Health Inventory (MHI-38), which has a reliability of 0.888. The results showed that the teachers generally had a good mental health condition marked by a lower negative aspect score than the positive aspect. In addition, the overall mental health aspect shows that some teachers have better mental health when compared to the average score, as well as higher positive aspect scores in all sub-aspects.

Keywords: mental health, teacher, COVID-19 pandemic, MHI-38

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3330 Protection against the Hazards of Stress on Health in Older Adults through Mindfulness

Authors: Cindy de Frias, Erum Whyne

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Objectives: The current study examined whether the link between stress and health-related quality of life was buffered by protective factors, namely mindfulness, in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 134 healthy, community-dwelling adults (aged 50–85 years) were recruited from Dallas, Texas. The participants were screened for depressive symptoms and severity (using the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]). All participants completed measures of self-reported health status (i.e., SF-36v2: mental and physical health composites), life stress (using the Elder’s Life Stress Inventory [ELSI]), and trait mindfulness (i.e., Mindful Attention Awareness Scale). Results: Hierarchical regressions (covarying for age, gender, and education) showed that life stress was inversely related to physical and mental health. Mindfulness was positively related to mental health. The negative effect of life stress on mental health was weakened for those individuals with greater trait mindfulness. Discussion: The results suggest that mindfulness is a powerful, adaptive strategy that may protect middle-aged and older adults from the well-known harmful effects of stress on healthy aging.

Keywords: health, stress, mindfulness, aging

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3329 Perception of Health Care Providers: A Need to Introduce Screening of Maternal Mental Health at Primary Health Care in Nepal

Authors: Manisha Singh, Padam Simkhada

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Background: Although mental health policy has been adapted in Nepal since 1997, the implementation of the policy framework is yet to happen. The fact that mental health services are largely concentrated in urban areas more specific to treatment only provides a clear picture of the scarcity of mental health services in the country. The shreds of evidence from around the world, along with WHO’s (World Health Organization) Mental Health Gap Action Program (mhGAP) suggest that effective mental health services can be provided from Primary Health Care (PHC) centers through community-based programs without having to place a specialized health worker. However, the country is still facing the same challenges to date with very few psychiatrists and psychologists, but they are largely based in cities. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are; (a) to understand the perception of health workers at PHC on maternal mental health, and (b) to assess the availability of the mental health services at PHC to address maternal mental health. Methods: This study used a qualitative approach where an in-depth interview was conducted with the health workers at the primary level. “Mayadevi” rural municipality in Rupendehi District that comprised of 13 small villages, was chosen as the study site. A total 8 health institutions which covered all 13 sites were included where either the health post in- charge or health worker working in maternal and child health care was interviewed for the study. All the health posts in the study area were included in the study. The interviews were conducted in Nepali; later, they were translated in English, transcribed, and triangulated. NViVO was used for the analysis. Results: The findings show that most of the health workers understood what maternal mental health was and deemed it as a public health issue. They could explain the symptoms and knew what medication to prescribe if need be. However, the majority of them failed to name the screening tools in place for maternal mental health. Moreover, they hadn’t even seen one. None of the health care centers had any provision for screening mental health status. However, one of the centers prescribed medication when the patients displayed symptoms of depression. But they believed there were a significant number of hidden cases in the community due to the stigma around mental health and being a woman with mental health problem makes the situation even difficult. Nonetheless, the health workers understood the importance of having screening tools and acknowledged the need of training and support in order to provide the services from PHC. Conclusion: Community health workers can identify cases with mental health problems and prevent them from deteriorating further. But there is a need for robust training and support to build the capacity of the health workers. The screening tools on mental health needs to be encouraged to be used in the PHC levels. Furthermore, community-based culture-sensitive programs need to be initiated and implemented to mitigate the stigma related issues around mental health.

Keywords: maternal mental health, health care providers, screening, Nepal

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3328 Mental Health Status among the Transgender Community: A Study of Mumbai

Authors: Mithlesh Chourase

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Health of the transgender is as important as any other population sub-groups. However, little is known about the issues of mental health problems and health seeking behaviour of transgender in India. This paper examines the depression, stigma problem and suicidality (risk of suicide) among the transgender people in Mumbai city. The study used the primary survey data conducted in Mumbai city among the transgender community with a total sample of 120 among the transgender. Both qualitative and quantitative data was collected on demographic and socio-economic characteristic, general health and sexual health problems, mental health and health seeking behaviour among transgender. The quantitative results revealed that among the transgender, the prevalence of depression was very high. In this community 58.3% and 45.8 % of the transgender were suffered from depression and stigma problem respectively. On the other hand 42% and 48% of the transgender attempted suicide and experienced discrimination in the society. The qualitative results also revealed that the transgender were suffered from physical violence especially due to being a transgender, stressed due to being a transgender, experienced discrimination everywhere, experienced sexual health problems especially HIV, partner problem etc. As a result the prevalence of depression, self-harm attempt and suicidal attempt was common among this community.

Keywords: transgender, depression, Mumbai, mental health

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