Search results for: Computer Forensics
2194 Digital Image Forensics: Discovering the History of Digital Images
Authors: Gurinder Singh, Kulbir Singh
Abstract:Digital multimedia contents such as image, video, and audio can be tampered easily due to the availability of powerful editing softwares. Multimedia forensics is devoted to analyze these contents by using various digital forensic techniques in order to validate their authenticity. Digital image forensics is dedicated to investigate the reliability of digital images by analyzing the integrity of data and by reconstructing the historical information of an image related to its acquisition phase. In this paper, a survey is carried out on the forgery detection by considering the most recent and promising digital image forensic techniques.
Keywords: Computer Forensics, Multimedia Forensics, Image Ballistics, Camera Source Identification, Forgery DetectionProcedia PDF Downloads 156
2193 Establishing Digital Forensics Capability and Capacity among Malaysia's Law Enforcement Agencies: Issues, Challenges and Recommendations
Authors: Sarah Taylor, Nor Zarina Zainal Abidin, Mohd Zabri Adil Talib
Abstract:Although cybercrime is on the rise, yet many Law Enforcement Agencies in Malaysia faces difficulty in establishing own digital forensics capability and capacity. The main reasons are undoubtedly because of the high cost and difficulty in convincing their management. A survey has been conducted among Malaysia’s Law Enforcement Agencies owning a digital forensics laboratory to understand their history of building digital forensics capacity and capability, the challenges and the impact of having own laboratory to their case investigation. The result of the study shall be used by other Law Enforcement Agencies in justifying to their management to establish own digital forensics capability and capacity.
Keywords: digital forensics, digital forensics capacity and capability, laboratory, law enforcement agencyProcedia PDF Downloads 154
2192 Digital Forensics Compute Cluster: A High Speed Distributed Computing Capability for Digital Forensics
Authors: Daniel Gonzales, Zev Winkelman, Trung Tran, Ricardo Sanchez, Dulani Woods, John Hollywood
Abstract:We have developed a distributed computing capability, Digital Forensics Compute Cluster (DFORC2) to speed up the ingestion and processing of digital evidence that is resident on computer hard drives. DFORC2 parallelizes evidence ingestion and file processing steps. It can be run on a standalone computer cluster or in the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud. When running in a virtualized computing environment, its cluster resources can be dynamically scaled up or down using Kubernetes. DFORC2 is an open source project that uses Autopsy, Apache Spark and Kafka, and other open source software packages. It extends the proven open source digital forensics capabilities of Autopsy to compute clusters and cloud architectures, so digital forensics tasks can be accomplished efficiently by a scalable array of cluster compute nodes. In this paper, we describe DFORC2 and compare it with a standalone version of Autopsy when both are used to process evidence from hard drives of different sizes.
Keywords: digital forensics, cloud computing, cyber security, spark, Kubernetes, KafkaProcedia PDF Downloads 337
2191 Towards a Proof Acceptance by Overcoming Challenges in Collecting Digital Evidence
Authors: Lilian Noronha Nassif
Abstract:Cybercrime investigation demands an appropriated evidence collection mechanism. If the investigator does not acquire digital proofs in a forensic sound, some important information can be lost, and judges can discard case evidence because the acquisition was inadequate. The correct digital forensic seizing involves preparation of professionals from fields of law, police, and computer science. This paper presents important challenges faced during evidence collection in different perspectives of places. The crime scene can be virtual or real, and technical obstacles and privacy concerns must be considered. All pointed challenges here highlight the precautions to be taken in the digital evidence collection and the suggested procedures contribute to the best practices in the digital forensics field.
Keywords: digital evidence, digital forensics process and procedures, mobile forensics, cloud forensicsProcedia PDF Downloads 337
2190 A Novel Methodology for Browser Forensics to Retrieve Searched Keywords from Windows 10 Physical Memory Dump
Authors: Dija Sulekha
Abstract:Nowadays, a good percentage of reported cybercrimes involve the usage of the Internet, directly or indirectly for committing the crime. Usually, Web Browsers leave traces of browsing activities on the host computer’s hard disk, which can be used by investigators to identify internet-based activities of the suspect. But criminals, who involve in some organized crimes, disable browser file generation feature to hide the evidence while doing illegal activities through the Internet. In such cases, even though browser files were not generated in the storage media of the system, traces of recent and ongoing activities were generated in the Physical Memory of the system. As a result, the analysis of Physical Memory Dump collected from the suspect's machine retrieves lots of forensically crucial information related to the browsing history of the Suspect. This information enables the cyber forensic investigators to concentrate on a few highly relevant selected artefacts while doing the Offline Forensics analysis of storage media. This paper addresses the reconstruction of web browsing activities by conducting live forensics to identify searched terms, downloaded files, visited sites, email headers, email ids, etc. from the physical memory dump collected from Windows 10 Systems. Well-known entry points are available for retrieving all the above artefacts except searched terms. The paper describes a novel methodology to retrieve the searched terms from Windows 10 Physical Memory. The searched terms retrieved in this way can be used for doing advanced file and keyword search in the storage media files reconstructed from the file system recovery in offline forensics.
Keywords: browser forensics, digital forensics, live Forensics, physical memory forensicsProcedia PDF Downloads 55
2189 The Forensic Swing of Things: The Current Legal and Technical Challenges of IoT Forensics
Authors: Pantaleon Lutta, Mohamed Sedky, Mohamed Hassan
Abstract:The inability of organizations to put in place management control measures for Internet of Things (IoT) complexities persists to be a risk concern. Policy makers have been left to scamper in finding measures to combat these security and privacy concerns. IoT forensics is a cumbersome process as there is no standardization of the IoT products, no or limited historical data are stored on the devices. This paper highlights why IoT forensics is a unique adventure and brought out the legal challenges encountered in the investigation process. A quadrant model is presented to study the conflicting aspects in IoT forensics. The model analyses the effectiveness of forensic investigation process versus the admissibility of the evidence integrity; taking into account the user privacy and the providers’ compliance with the laws and regulations. Our analysis concludes that a semi-automated forensic process using machine learning, could eliminate the human factor from the profiling and surveillance processes, and hence resolves the issues of data protection (privacy and confidentiality).
Keywords: cloud forensics, data protection Laws, GDPR, IoT forensics, machine LearningProcedia PDF Downloads 83
2188 Organizational Decision to Adopt Digital Forensics: An Empirical Investigation in the Case of Malaysian Law Enforcement Agencies
Authors: Siti N. I. Mat Kamal, Othman Ibrahim, Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Jafalizan M. Jali
Abstract:The use of digital forensics (DF) is nowadays essential for law enforcement agencies to identify analysis and interpret the digital information derived from digital sources. In Malaysia, the engagement of Malaysian Law Enforcement Agencies (MLEA) with this new technology is not evenly distributed. To investigate the factors influencing the adoption of DF in Malaysia law enforcement agencies’ operational environment, this study proposed the initial theoretical framework based on the integration of technology organization environment (TOE), institutional theory, and human organization technology (HOT) fit model. A questionnaire survey was conducted on selected law enforcement agencies in Malaysia to verify the validity of the initial integrated framework. Relative advantage, compatibility, coercive pressure, normative pressure, vendor support and perceived technical competence of technical staff were found as the influential factors on digital forensics adoption. In addition to the only moderator of this study (agency size), any significant moderating effect on the perceived technical competence and the decision to adopt digital forensics by Malaysian law enforcement agencies was found insignificant. Thus, these results indicated that the developed integrated framework provides an effective prediction of the digital forensics adoption by Malaysian law enforcement agencies.
Keywords: digital forensics, digital forensics adoption, digital information, law enforcement agencyProcedia PDF Downloads 86
2187 Gender Identification Using Digital Forensics
Authors: Vinod C. Nayak
Abstract:In day-to-day forensic practice, identification is always a difficult task. Availability of anti-mortem and postmortem records plays a major rule in facilitating this tough task. However, the advent of digital forensic is a boon for forensic experts. This study has made use of digital forensics to establish identity by radiological dimensions of maxillary sinus using workstation software. The findings suggest a significant association between maxillary sinus dimensions and human gender. The author will be discussing the methods and results of the study in this e-poster.
Keywords: digital forensics, identification, maxillary sinus, radiologyProcedia PDF Downloads 328
2186 The Use of Ontology Framework for Automation Digital Forensics Investigation
Authors: Ahmad Luthfi
Abstract:One of the main goals of a computer forensic analyst is to determine the cause and effect of the acquisition of a digital evidence in order to obtain relevant information on the case is being handled. In order to get fast and accurate results, this paper will discuss the approach known as ontology framework. This model uses a structured hierarchy of layers that create connectivity between the variant and searching investigation of activity that a computer forensic analysis activities can be carried out automatically. There are two main layers are used, namely analysis tools and operating system. By using the concept of ontology, the second layer is automatically designed to help investigator to perform the acquisition of digital evidence. The methodology of automation approach of this research is by utilizing forward chaining where the system will perform a search against investigative steps and atomically structured in accordance with the rules of the ontology.
Keywords: ontology, framework, automation, forensicsProcedia PDF Downloads 261
2185 O.MG- It’s a Cyber-Enabled Fraud
Authors: Damola O. Lawal, David W. Gresty, Diane E. Gan, Louise Hewitt
Abstract:This paper investigates the feasibility of using a programmable USB such as the O.MG Cable to perform a file tampering attack. Here, the O.MG Cable, an apparently harmless mobile device charger, is used in an unauthorized way to alter the content of a file (accounts record-January_Contributions.xlsx). The aim is to determine if a forensics analyst can reliably determine who has altered the target file; the O.MG Cable or the user of the machine. This work highlights some of the traces of the O.MG Cable left behind on the target computer itself, such as the Product ID (PID) and Vendor ID (ID). Also discussed is the O.MG Cable’s behavior during the experiments. We determine if a forensics analyst could identify if any evidence has been left behind by the programmable device on the target file once it has been removed from the computer to establish if the analyst would be able to link the traces left by the O.MG Cable to the file tampering. It was discovered that the forensic analyst might mistake the actions of the O.MG Cable for the computer users. Experiments carried out in this work could further the discussion as to whether an innocent user could be punished for the unauthorized changes made by a programmable device.
Keywords: O.MG cable, programmable USB, file tampering attack, digital evidence credibility, miscarriage of justice, cyber fraudProcedia PDF Downloads 93
2184 Strategies and Approaches for Curriculum Development and Training of Faculty in Cybersecurity Education
Authors: Lucy Tsado
Abstract:As cybercrime and cyberattacks continue to increase, the need to respond will follow suit. When cybercrimes occur, the duty to respond sometimes falls on law enforcement. However, criminal justice students are not taught concepts in cybersecurity and digital forensics. There is, therefore, an urgent need for many more institutions to begin teaching cybersecurity and related courses to social science students especially criminal justice students. However, many faculty in universities, colleges, and high schools are not equipped to teach these courses or do not have the knowledge and resources to teach important concepts in cybersecurity or digital forensics to criminal justice students. This research intends to develop curricula and training programs to equip faculty with the skills to meet this need. There is a current call to involve non-technical fields to fill the cybersecurity skills gap, according to experts. There is a general belief among non-technical fields that cybersecurity education is only attainable within computer science and technologically oriented fields. As seen from current calls, this is not entirely the case. Transitioning into the field is possible through curriculum development, training, certifications, internships and apprenticeships, and competitions. There is a need to identify how a cybersecurity eco-system can be created at a university to encourage/start programs that will lead to an interest in cybersecurity education as well as attract potential students. A short-term strategy can address this problem through curricula development, while a long-term strategy will address developing training faculty to teach cybersecurity and digital forensics. Therefore this research project addresses this overall problem in two parts, through curricula development for the criminal justice discipline; and training of faculty in criminal justice to teaching the important concepts of cybersecurity and digital forensics.
Keywords: cybersecurity education, criminal justice, curricula development, nontechnical cybersecurity, cybersecurity, digital forensicsProcedia PDF Downloads 37
2183 Analysis of Various Copy Move Image Forgery Techniques for Better Detection Accuracy
Authors: Grishma D. Solanki, Karshan Kandoriya
Abstract:In modern era of information age, digitalization has revolutionized like never before. Powerful computers, advanced photo editing software packages and high resolution capturing devices have made manipulation of digital images incredibly easy. As per as image forensics concerns, one of the most actively researched area are detection of copy move forgeries. Higher computational complexity is one of the major component of existing techniques to detect such tampering. Moreover, copy move forgery is usually performed in three steps. First, copying of a region in an image then pasting the same one in the same respective image and finally doing some post-processing like rotation, scaling, shift, noise, etc. Consequently, pseudo Zernike moment is used as a features extraction method for matching image blocks and as a primary factor on which performance of detection algorithms depends.
Keywords: copy-move image forgery, digital forensics, image forensics, image forgeryProcedia PDF Downloads 201
2182 WormHex: Evidence Retrieval Tool of Social Media from Volatile Memory
Authors: Norah Almubairik, Wadha Almattar, Amani Alqarni
Abstract:Social media applications are increasingly being used in our everyday communications. These applications utilise end-to-end encryption mechanisms, which make them suitable tools for criminals to exchange messages. These messages are preserved in the volatile memory until the device is restarted. Therefore, volatile forensics has become an important branch of digital forensics. In this study, the WormHex tool was developed to inspect the memory dump files of Windows and Mac-based workstations. The tool supports digital investigators to extract valuable data written in Arabic and English through web-based WhatsApp and Twitter applications. The results verify that social media applications write their data into the memory regardless of the operating system running the application, with there being no major differences between Windows and Mac.
Keywords: volatile memory, REGEX, digital forensics, memory acquisitionProcedia PDF Downloads 64
2181 A Method to Enhance the Accuracy of Digital Forensic in the Absence of Sufficient Evidence in Saudi Arabia
Authors: Fahad Alanazi, Andrew Jones
Abstract:Digital forensics seeks to achieve the successful investigation of digital crimes through obtaining acceptable evidence from digital devices that can be presented in a court of law. Thus, the digital forensics investigation is normally performed through a number of phases in order to achieve the required level of accuracy in the investigation processes. Since 1984 there have been a number of models and frameworks developed to support the digital investigation processes. In this paper, we review a number of the investigation processes that have been produced throughout the years and introduce a proposed digital forensic model which is based on the scope of the Saudi Arabia investigation process. The proposed model has been integrated with existing models for the investigation processes and produced a new phase to deal with a situation where there is initially insufficient evidence.
Keywords: digital forensics, process, metadata, Traceback, Sauid ArabiaProcedia PDF Downloads 282
2180 A Unified Approach for Digital Forensics Analysis
Authors: Ali Alshumrani, Nathan Clarke, Bogdan Ghite, Stavros Shiaeles
Abstract:Digital forensics has become an essential tool in the investigation of cyber and computer-assisted crime. Arguably, given the prevalence of technology and the subsequent digital footprints that exist, it could have a significant role across almost all crimes. However, the variety of technology platforms (such as computers, mobiles, Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV), Internet of Things (IoT), databases, drones, cloud computing services), heterogeneity and volume of data, forensic tool capability, and the investigative cost make investigations both technically challenging and prohibitively expensive. Forensic tools also tend to be siloed into specific technologies, e.g., File System Forensic Analysis Tools (FS-FAT) and Network Forensic Analysis Tools (N-FAT), and a good deal of data sources has little to no specialist forensic tools. Increasingly it also becomes essential to compare and correlate evidence across data sources and to do so in an efficient and effective manner enabling an investigator to answer high-level questions of the data in a timely manner without having to trawl through data and perform the correlation manually. This paper proposes a Unified Forensic Analysis Tool (U-FAT), which aims to establish a common language for electronic information and permit multi-source forensic analysis. Core to this approach is the identification and development of forensic analyses that automate complex data correlations, enabling investigators to investigate cases more efficiently. The paper presents a systematic analysis of major crime categories and identifies what forensic analyses could be used. For example, in a child abduction, an investigation team might have evidence from a range of sources including computing devices (mobile phone, PC), CCTV (potentially a large number), ISP records, and mobile network cell tower data, in addition to third party databases such as the National Sex Offender registry and tax records, with the desire to auto-correlate and across sources and visualize in a cognitively effective manner. U-FAT provides a holistic, flexible, and extensible approach to providing digital forensics in technology, application, and data-agnostic manner, providing powerful and automated forensic analysis.
Keywords: digital forensics, evidence correlation, heterogeneous data, forensics toolProcedia PDF Downloads 91
2179 Hash Based Block Matching for Digital Evidence Image Files from Forensic Software Tools
Abstract:Internet use, intelligent communication tools, and social media have all become an integral part of our daily life as a result of rapid developments in information technology. However, this widespread use increases crimes committed in the digital environment. Therefore, digital forensics, dealing with various crimes committed in digital environment, has become an important research topic. It is in the research scope of digital forensics to investigate digital evidences such as computer, cell phone, hard disk, DVD, etc. and to report whether it contains any crime related elements. There are many software and hardware tools developed for use in the digital evidence acquisition process. Today, the most widely used digital evidence investigation tools are based on the principle of finding all the data taken place in digital evidence that is matched with specified criteria and presenting it to the investigator (e.g. text files, files starting with letter A, etc.). Then, digital forensics experts carry out data analysis to figure out whether these data are related to a potential crime. Examination of a 1 TB hard disk may take hours or even days, depending on the expertise and experience of the examiner. In addition, it depends on examiner’s experience, and may change overall result involving in different cases overlooked. In this study, a hash-based matching and digital evidence evaluation method is proposed, and it is aimed to automatically classify the evidence containing criminal elements, thereby shortening the time of the digital evidence examination process and preventing human errors.
Keywords: block matching, digital evidence, hash list, evaluation of digital evidenceProcedia PDF Downloads 192
2178 Forensic Analysis of Thumbnail Images in Windows 10
Authors: George Kurian, Hongmei Chi
Abstract:Digital evidence plays a critical role in most legal investigations. In many cases, thumbnail databases show important information in that investigation. The probability of having digital evidence retrieved from a computer or smart device has increased, even though the previous user removed data and deleted apps on those devices. Due to the increase in digital forensics, the ability to store residual information from various thumbnail applications has improved. This paper will focus on investigating thumbnail information from Windows 10. Thumbnail images of interest in forensic investigations may be intact even when the original pictures have been deleted. It is our research goal to recover useful information from thumbnails. In this research project, we use various forensics tools to collect left thumbnail information from deleted videos or pictures. We examine and describe the various thumbnail sources in Windows and propose a methodology for thumbnail collection and analysis from laptops or desktops. A machine learning algorithm is adopted to help speed up content from thumbnail pictures.
Keywords: digital forensic, forensic tools, soundness, thumbnail, machine learning, OCRProcedia PDF Downloads 35
2177 Applications of Forensics/DNA Tools in Combating Gender-Based Violence: A Case Study in Nigeria
Authors: Edeaghe Ehikhamenor, Jennifer Nnamdi
Abstract:Introduction: Gender-based violence (GBV) was a well-known global crisis before the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic burden only intensified the crisis. With prevailing lockdowns, increased poverty due to high unemployment, especially affecting females, and other mobility restrictions that have left many women trapped with their abusers, plus isolation from social contact and support networks, GBV cases spiraled out of control. Prevalence of economic with cultural disparity, which is greatly manifested in Nigeria, is a major contributory factor to GBV. This is made worst by religious adherents where the females are virtually relegated to the background. Our societal approaches to investigations and sanctions to culprits have not sufficiently applied forensic/DNA tools in combating these major vices. Violence against women or some rare cases against men can prevent them from carrying out their duties regardless of the position they hold. Objective: The main objective of this research is to highlight the origin of GBV, the victims, types, contributing factors, and the applications of forensics/DNA tools and remedies so as to minimize GBV in our society. Methods: Descriptive information was obtained through the search on our daily newspapers, electronic media, google scholar websites, other authors' observations and personal experiences, plus anecdotal reports. Results: Findings from our exploratory searches revealed a high incidence of GBV with very limited or no applications of Forensics/DNA tools as an intervening mechanism to reduce GBV in Nigeria. Conclusion: Nigeria needs to develop clear-cut policies on forensics/DNA tools in terms of institutional framework to develop a curriculum for the training of all stakeholders to fast-track justice for victims of GBV so as to serve as a deterrent to other culprits.
Keywords: gender-based violence, forensics, DNA, justiceProcedia PDF Downloads 19
2176 Anomaly Detection of Log Analysis using Data Visualization Techniques for Digital Forensics Audit and Investigation
Authors: Mohamed Fadzlee Sulaiman, Zainurrasyid Abdullah, Mohd Zabri Adil Talib, Aswami Fadillah Mohd Ariffin
Abstract:In common digital forensics cases, investigation may rely on the analysis conducted on specific and relevant exhibits involved. Usually the investigation officer may define and advise digital forensic analyst about the goals and objectives to be achieved in reconstructing the trail of evidence while maintaining the specific scope of investigation. With the technology growth, people are starting to realize the importance of cyber security to their organization and this new perspective creates awareness that digital forensics auditing must come in place in order to measure possible threat or attack to their cyber-infrastructure. Instead of performing investigation on incident basis, auditing may broaden the scope of investigation to the level of anomaly detection in daily operation of organization’s cyber space. While handling a huge amount of data such as log files, performing digital forensics audit for large organization proven to be onerous task for the analyst either to analyze the huge files or to translate the findings in a way where the stakeholder can clearly understand. Data visualization can be emphasized in conducting digital forensic audit and investigation to resolve both needs. This study will identify the important factors that should be considered to perform data visualization techniques in order to detect anomaly that meet the digital forensic audit and investigation objectives.
Keywords: digital forensic, data visualization, anomaly detection , log analysis, forensic audit, visualization techniquesProcedia PDF Downloads 220
2175 Cryptocurrency Forensics: Analysis on Bitcoin E-Wallet from Computer Source Evidence
Authors: Muhammad Nooraiman bin Noorashid, Mohd Sharizuan bin Mohd Omar, Mohd Zabri Adil bin Talib, Aswami Fadillah bin Mohd Ariffin
Abstract:Nowadays cryptocurrency has become a global phenomenon known to most people. People using this alternative digital money to do a transaction in many ways (e.g. Used for online shopping, wealth management, and fundraising). However, this digital asset also widely used in criminal activities since its use decentralized control as opposed to centralized electronic money and central banking systems and this makes a user, who used this currency invisible. The high-value exchange of these digital currencies also has been a target to criminal activities. The cryptocurrency crimes have become a challenge for the law enforcement to analyze and to proof the evidence as criminal devices. In this paper, our focus is more on bitcoin cryptocurrency and the possible artifacts that can be obtained from the different type of digital wallet, which is software and browser-based application. The process memory and physical hard disk are examined with the aims of identifying and recovering potential digital evidence. The stage of data acquisition divided by three states which are the initial creation of the wallet, transaction that consists transfer and receiving a coin and the last state is after the wallet is being deleted. Findings from this study suggest that both data from software and browser type of wallet process memory is a valuable source of evidence, and many of the artifacts found in process memory are also available from the application and wallet files on the client computer storage.
Keywords: cryptocurrency, bitcoin, digital wallet, digital forensicsProcedia PDF Downloads 263
2174 Classification of Computer Generated Images from Photographic Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks
Authors: Chaitanya Chawla, Divya Panwar, Gurneesh Singh Anand, M. P. S Bhatia
Abstract:This paper presents a deep-learning mechanism for classifying computer generated images and photographic images. The proposed method accounts for a convolutional layer capable of automatically learning correlation between neighbouring pixels. In the current form, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) will learn features based on an image's content instead of the structural features of the image. The layer is particularly designed to subdue an image's content and robustly learn the sensor pattern noise features (usually inherited from image processing in a camera) as well as the statistical properties of images. The paper was assessed on latest natural and computer generated images, and it was concluded that it performs better than the current state of the art methods.
Keywords: image forensics, computer graphics, classification, deep learning, convolutional neural networksProcedia PDF Downloads 241
2173 An Analysis of Digital Forensic Laboratory Development among Malaysia’s Law Enforcement Agencies
Authors: Sarah K. Taylor, Miratun M. Saharuddin, Zabri A. Talib
Abstract:Cybercrime is on the rise, and yet many Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) in Malaysia have no Digital Forensics Laboratory (DFL) to assist them in the attrition and analysis of digital evidence. From the estimated number of 30 LEAs in Malaysia, sadly, only eight of them owned a DFL. All of the DFLs are concentrated in the capital of Malaysia and none at the state level. LEAs are still depending on the national DFL (CyberSecurity Malaysia) even for simple and straightforward cases. A survey was conducted among LEAs in Malaysia owning a DFL to understand their history of establishing the DFL, the challenges that they faced and the significance of the DFL to their case investigation. The results showed that the while some LEAs faced no challenge in establishing a DFL, some of them took seven to 10 years to do so. The reason was due to the difficulty in convincing their management because of the high costs involved. The results also revealed that with the establishment of a DFL, LEAs were better able to get faster forensic result and to meet agency’s timeline expectation. It is also found that LEAs were also able to get more meaningful forensic results on cases that require niche expertise, compared to sending off cases to the national DFL. Other than that, cases are getting more complex, and hence, a continuous stream of budget for equipment and training is inevitable. The result derived from the study is hoped to be used by other LEAs in justifying to their management the benefits of establishing an in-house DFL.
Keywords: digital evidence, digital forensics, digital forensics laboratory, law enforcement agencyProcedia PDF Downloads 107
2172 The Use of Artificial Intelligence in Digital Forensics and Incident Response in a Constrained Environment
Authors: Dipo Dunsin, Mohamed C. Ghanem, Karim Ouazzane
Abstract:Digital investigators often have a hard time spotting evidence in digital information. It has become hard to determine which source of proof relates to a specific investigation. A growing concern is that the various processes, technology, and specific procedures used in the digital investigation are not keeping up with criminal developments. Therefore, criminals are taking advantage of these weaknesses to commit further crimes. In digital forensics investigations, artificial intelligence is invaluable in identifying crime. It has been observed that an algorithm based on artificial intelligence (AI) is highly effective in detecting risks, preventing criminal activity, and forecasting illegal activity. Providing objective data and conducting an assessment is the goal of digital forensics and digital investigation, which will assist in developing a plausible theory that can be presented as evidence in court. Researchers and other authorities have used the available data as evidence in court to convict a person. This research paper aims at developing a multiagent framework for digital investigations using specific intelligent software agents (ISA). The agents communicate to address particular tasks jointly and keep the same objectives in mind during each task. The rules and knowledge contained within each agent are dependent on the investigation type. A criminal investigation is classified quickly and efficiently using the case-based reasoning (CBR) technique. The MADIK is implemented using the Java Agent Development Framework and implemented using Eclipse, Postgres repository, and a rule engine for agent reasoning. The proposed framework was tested using the Lone Wolf image files and datasets. Experiments were conducted using various sets of ISA and VMs. There was a significant reduction in the time taken for the Hash Set Agent to execute. As a result of loading the agents, 5 percent of the time was lost, as the File Path Agent prescribed deleting 1,510, while the Timeline Agent found multiple executable files. In comparison, the integrity check carried out on the Lone Wolf image file using a digital forensic tool kit took approximately 48 minutes (2,880 ms), whereas the MADIK framework accomplished this in 16 minutes (960 ms). The framework is integrated with Python, allowing for further integration of other digital forensic tools, such as AccessData Forensic Toolkit (FTK), Wireshark, Volatility, and Scapy.
Keywords: artificial intelligence, computer science, criminal investigation, digital forensicsProcedia PDF Downloads 147
2171 Digital Forensics Analysis Focusing on the Onion Router Browser Artifacts in Windows 10
Authors: Zainurrasyid Abdullah, Mohamed Fadzlee Sulaiman, Muhammad Fadzlan Zainal, M. Zabri Adil Talib, Aswami Fadillah M. Ariffin
Abstract:The Onion Router (Tor) browser is a well-known tool and widely used by people who seeking for web anonymity when browsing the internet. Criminals are taking this advantage to be anonymous over the internet. Accessing the dark web could be the significant reason for the criminal in order for them to perform illegal activities while maintaining their anonymity. For a digital forensic analyst, it is crucial to extract the trail of evidence in proving that the criminal’s computer has used Tor browser to conduct such illegal activities. By applying the digital forensic methodology, several techniques could be performed including application analysis, memory analysis, and registry analysis. Since Windows 10 is the latest operating system released by Microsoft Corporation, this study will use Windows 10 as the operating system platform that running Tor browser. From the analysis, significant artifacts left by Tor browser were discovered such as the execution date, application installation date and browsing history that can be used as an evidence. Although Tor browser was designed to achieved anonymity, there is still some trail of evidence can be found in Windows 10 platform that can be useful for investigation.
Keywords: artifacts analysis, digital forensics, forensic analysis, memory analysis, registry analysis, tor browser, Windows 10Procedia PDF Downloads 105
2170 Three Tier Indoor Localization System for Digital Forensics
Authors: Dennis L. Owuor, Okuthe P. Kogeda, Johnson I. Agbinya
Keywords: indoor localization, digital forensics, fingerprinting, tracking and cloudProcedia PDF Downloads 262
2169 Texture-Based Image Forensics from Video Frame
Authors: Li Zhou, Yanmei Fang
Abstract:With current technology, images and videos can be obtained more easily than ever. It is so easy to manipulate these digital multimedia information when obtained, and that the content or source of the image and video could be easily tampered. In this paper, we propose to identify the image and video frame by the texture-based approach, e.g. Markov Transition Probability (MTP), which is in space domain, DCT domain and DWT domain, respectively. In the experiment, image and video frame database is constructed, and is used to train and test the classifier Support Vector Machine (SVM). Experiment results show that the texture-based approach has good performance. In order to verify the experiment result, and testify the universality and robustness of algorithm, we build a random testing dataset, the random testing result is in keeping with above experiment.
Keywords: multimedia forensics, video frame, LBP, MTP, SVMProcedia PDF Downloads 351
2168 Use of Digital Forensics for Sex Determination by Nasal Index
Authors: Ashwini Kumar, Vinod Nayak, Shankar M. Bakkannavar
Abstract:The identification of humans is important in forensic investigations not only in living but also in dead, especially in cases of mass disorders. The procedure followed in dead known as post-mortem identification is a challenging task for the forensic pathologist. However, it is mandatory in terms of the law to fulfill the social norms. Many times, due to mutilation of body parts, the normal methods of identification using skeletal remains cannot be used in the process of identification. In such cases, the intact components of the skeletal remains or bony parts play an important role in identification. In these situations, digital forensics can come to our rescue. The authors hereby made a study for determination of sex based on nasal index by using (Big Bore 16 Slice) Multidetector Computed Tomography 2D Scans. The results are represented as a poster.
Keywords: sex determination, multidetector computed tomography, nasal index, digital forensicProcedia PDF Downloads 326
2167 Determination of Rare Earth Element Patterns in Uranium Matrix for Nuclear Forensics Application: Method Development for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) Measurements
Authors: Bernadett Henn, Katalin Tálos, Éva Kováss Széles
Abstract:During the last 50 years, the worldwide permeation of the nuclear techniques induces several new problems in the environmental and in the human life. Nowadays, due to the increasing of the risk of terrorism worldwide, the potential occurrence of terrorist attacks using also weapon of mass destruction containing radioactive or nuclear materials as e.g. dirty bombs, is a real threat. For instance, the uranium pellets are one of the potential nuclear materials which are suitable for making special weapons. The nuclear forensics mainly focuses on the determination of the origin of the confiscated or found nuclear and other radioactive materials, which could be used for making any radioactive dispersive device. One of the most important signatures in nuclear forensics to find the origin of the material is the determination of the rare earth element patterns (REE) in the seized or found radioactive or nuclear samples. The concentration and the normalized pattern of the REE can be used as an evidence of uranium origin. The REE are the fourteen Lanthanides in addition scandium and yttrium what are mostly found together and really low concentration in uranium pellets. The problems of the REE determination using ICP-MS technique are the uranium matrix (high concentration of uranium) and the interferences among Lanthanides. In this work, our aim was to develop an effective chemical sample preparation process using extraction chromatography for separation the uranium matrix and the rare earth elements from each other following some publications can be found in the literature and modified them. Secondly, our purpose was the optimization of the ICP-MS measuring process for REE concentration. During method development, in the first step, a REE model solution was used in two different types of extraction chromatographic resins (LN® and TRU®) and different acidic media for environmental testing the Lanthanides separation. Uranium matrix was added to the model solution and was proved in the same conditions. Methods were tested and validated using REE UOC (uranium ore concentrate) reference materials. Samples were analyzed by sector field mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS).
Keywords: extraction chromatography, nuclear forensics, rare earth elements, uraniumProcedia PDF Downloads 230
2166 Using Multi-Level Analysis to Identify Future Trends in Small Device Digital Communication Examinations
Authors: Mark A. Spooner
Abstract:The growth of technological advances in the digital communications industry has dictated the way forensic examination laboratories receive, analyze, and report on digital evidence. This study looks at the trends in a medium sized digital forensics lab that examines small communications devices (i.e., cellular telephones, tablets, thumb drives, etc.) over the past five years. As law enforcement and homeland security organizations budgets shrink, many agencies are being asked to perform more examinations with less resources available. Using multi-level statistical analysis using five years of examination data, this research shows the increasing technological demand trend. The research then extrapolates the current data into the model created and finds a continued exponential growth curve of said demands is well within the parameters defined earlier on in the research.
Keywords: digital forensics, forensic examination, small device, trendsProcedia PDF Downloads 135
2165 A Passive Digital Video Authentication Technique Using Wavelet Based Optical Flow Variation Thresholding
Authors: R. S. Remya, U. S. Sethulekshmi
Abstract:Detecting the authenticity of a video is an important issue in digital forensics as Video is used as a silent evidence in court such as in child pornography, movie piracy cases, insurance claims, cases involving scientific fraud, traffic monitoring etc. The biggest threat to video data is the availability of modern open video editing tools which enable easy editing of videos without leaving any trace of tampering. In this paper, we propose an efficient passive method for inter-frame video tampering detection, its type and location by estimating the optical flow of wavelet features of adjacent frames and thresholding the variation in the estimated feature. The performance of the algorithm is compared with the z-score thresholding and achieved an efficiency above 95% on all the tested databases. The proposed method works well for videos with dynamic (forensics) as well as static (surveillance) background.
Keywords: discrete wavelet transform, optical flow, optical flow variation, video tamperingProcedia PDF Downloads 293