Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 980

Search results for: thought probe

980 Mind-Wandering and Attention: Evidence from Behavioral and Subjective Perspective

Authors: Riya Mishra, Trayambak Tiwari, Anju Lata Singh, I. L. Singh, Tara Singh


Decrement in vigilance task performance echoes impediment in effortful attention; here attention fluctuated in the realm of external and internal milieu of a person. To examine this fluctuation across time period, we employed two experiments of vigilance task with variation in thought probing rate, which was embedded in the task. The thought probe varies in terms of <2 minute per thought probe and <4 minute per thought probe during vigilance task. A 2x4 repeated measure factorial design was used. 15 individuals participated in this study with an age range of 20-26 years. It was found that thought probing rate has a negative trend with vigilance task performance whereas the subjective measures of mind-wandering have a positive relation with thought probe rate.

Keywords: criterion response, mental status, mind-wandering, thought probe, vigilance

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979 Nanofocusing of Surface Plasmon Polaritons by Partially Metal- Coated Dielectric Conical Probe: Optimal Asymmetric Distance

Authors: Ngo Thi Thu, Kazuo Tanaka, Masahiro Tanaka, Dao Ngoc Chien


Nanometric superfocusing of optical intensity near the tip of partially metal- coated dielectric conical probe of the convergent surface plasmon polariton wave is investigated by the volume integral equation method. It is possible to perform nanofocusing using this probe by using both linearly and radially polarized Gaussian beams as the incident waves. Strongly localized and enhanced optical near-fields can be created on the tip of this probe for the cases of both incident Gaussian beams. However the intensity distribution near the probe tip was found to be very sensitive to the shape of the probe tip.

Keywords: waveguide, surface plasmons, electromagnetic theory

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978 The Pitch Diameter of Pipe Taper Thread Measurement and Uncertainty Using Three-Wire Probe

Authors: J. Kloypayan, W. Pimpakan


The pipe taper thread measurement and uncertainty normally used the four-wire probe according to the JIS B 0262. Besides, according to the EA-10/10 standard, the pipe thread could be measured using the three-wire probe. This research proposed to use the three-wire probe measuring the pitch diameter of the pipe taper thread. The measuring accessory component was designed and made, then, assembled to one side of the ULM 828 CiM machine. Therefore, this machine could be used to measure and calibrate both the pipe thread and the pipe taper thread. The equations and the expanded uncertainty for pitch diameter measurement were formulated. After the experiment, the results showed that the pipe taper thread had the pitch diameter equal to 19.165 mm and the expanded uncertainty equal to 1.88µm. Then, the experiment results were compared to the results from the National Institute of Metrology Thailand. The equivalence ratio from the comparison showed that both results were related. Thus, the proposed method of using the three-wire probe measured the pitch diameter of the pipe taper thread was acceptable.

Keywords: pipe taper thread, three-wire probe, measure and calibration, the universal length measuring machine

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977 Development of Ultrasounf Probe Holder for Automatic Scanning Asymmetric Reflector

Authors: Nabilah Ibrahim, Hafiz Mohd Zaini, Wan Fatin Liyana Mutalib


Ultrasound equipment or machine is capable to scan in two dimensional (2D) areas. However there are some limitations occur during scanning an object. The problem will occur when scanning process that involving the asymmetric object. In this project, the ultrasound probe holder for asymmetric reflector scanning in 3D image is proposed to make easier for scanning the phantom or object that has asymmetric shape. Initially, the constructed asymmetric phantom that construct will be used in 2D scanning. Next, the asymmetric phantom will be interfaced by the movement of ultrasound probe holder using the Arduino software. After that, the performance of the ultrasound probe holder will be evaluated by using the various asymmetric reflector or phantom in constructing a 3D image

Keywords: ultrasound 3D images, axial and lateral resolution, asymmetric reflector, Arduino software

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976 Photophysics and Rotational Relaxation Dynamics of 6-Methoxyquinoline Fluorophore in Cationic Alkyltrimethylammonium Bromide Micelles

Authors: Tej Varma Y, Debi D. Pant


Photophysics and rotational dynamics of the fluorescent probe, 6-methoxyquinoline (6MQ) with cationic surfactant, alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (nTAB) micelle solutions have been investigated (n = 12, 14 and 16). Absorption and emission peaks of the dye have been observed to shift at concentrations around critical micellar concentration (cmc) of nTAB compared to that of bulk solutions suggesting probe is in a lower polar environment. The probe senses changes in polarity (ET (30)) brought about by variation of surfactant chain length concentration and is invariably solubilized in the aqueous interface or palisade layer. The order of change in polarity observed was DTAB > CTAB > TTAB. The binding constant study shows that the probe binds strongest with TTAB (is of the order TTAB > CTAB > DTAB) due to deeper penetration into the micelle. The anisotropy decay for the probe in all the nTAB micelles studied have been rationalized based on a two-step model consisting of fast-restricted rotation of the probe and slow lateral diffusion of the probe in the micelle that is coupled to the overall rotation of the micelle. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of probe in the cationic micelles demonstrate the close proximity of the 6MQ to the Br - counterions. The fluorescence lifetimes of TTAB and DTAB are much shorter than in CTAB. These results indicate that 6MQ resides to a substantial degree in the head group region of the micelles. All the changes observed in the steady state fluorescence, microenvironment, fluorescence lifetimes, fluorescence anisotropy, and other calculations are in agreement with each other suggesting binding of the cationic surfactant with the neutral dye molecule.

Keywords: photophysics, chain length, ntaB, micelles

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975 The Effect of Contemporary Islamic Thought Liberalization to the Development of Science

Authors: Ibrahim Malik, Vita Fathimah Silondae, Askoning


The liberalization of Islamic thought is not only an impact on the views of Muslim community regarding worldview, but has touched the stage reconstruction of contemporary science. It can be seen from the emergence of Western and Eastern intellectual movements that try to reconstruct contemporary science arguing that scientific culture is not currently able to deliver audiences to change the order of the better society. Such Islamic thought liberalization has a huge influence on the multi-dimensional crisis in various sectors such as the economic, culture, politic, ecology, and other sectors. Therefore, this paper examines the effects of the liberalization of contemporary Islamic thought towards on the development of modern science. The method used in this paper is based on textual study of Al-Qur'an, Hadith (prophetic tradition), and the history of contemporary Islamic thought and comparing it with the reality of the development of science today. So, the influence of Islamic thought liberalization has created a crisis and stagnation of the development of scientific disciplines can be found.

Keywords: liberalization, science, Islam, development of science

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974 The Influence of Modern Islamic Thought Liberalization to the Improvement of Science

Authors: Muhammad Ilham Agus Salim


The liberalization of Islamic thought is not only an impact on the views of Muslim community regarding worldview, but has touched the stage reconstruction of contemporary general science. It can be seen from the emergence of Western and Eastern intellectual movements that try to reconstruct contemporary science arguing that scientific culture is not currently able to deliver audiences to change the order of the better society. Such Islamic thought liberalization has a huge influence on the multidimensional crisis in various sectors such as the economic, culture, politic, ecology, and other sectors. Therefore, this paper examines the effects of the liberalization of contemporary Islamic thought towards on the development of modern science. The method used in this paper is based on textual study of Al -Qur'an, Hadith (prophetic tradition), and the history of contemporary Islamic thought and comparing it with the reality of the development of science today. So the influence of Islamic thought liberalization has created a crisis and stagnation of the development of scientific disciplines can be found.

Keywords: liberalization, science, Islam, al-Qur’an textual studies

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973 A DNA-Based Nano-biosensor for the Rapid Detection of the Dengue Virus in Mosquito

Authors: Lilia M. Fernando, Matthew K. Vasher, Evangelyn C. Alocilja


This paper describes the development of a DNA-based nanobiosensor to detect the dengue virus in mosquito using electrically active magnetic (EAM) nanoparticles as the concentrator and electrochemical transducer. The biosensor detection encompasses two sets of oligonucleotide probes that are specific to the dengue virus: the detector probe labeled with the EAM nanoparticles and the biotinylated capture probe. The DNA targets are double hybridized to the detector and the capture probes and concentrated from nonspecific DNA fragments by applying a magnetic field. Subsequently, the DNA sandwiched targets (EAM-detector probe–DNA target–capture probe-biotin) are captured on streptavidin modified screen printed carbon electrodes through the biotinylated capture probes. Detection is achieved electrochemically by measuring the oxidation–reduction signal of the EAM nanoparticles. Results indicate that the biosensor is able to detect the redox signal of the EAM nanoparticles at dengue DNA concentrations as low as 10 ng/ul.

Keywords: dengue, magnetic nanoparticles, mosquito, nanobiosensor

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972 Intrusiveness, Appraisal and Thought Control Strategies in Patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Authors: T. Arshad


A correlation study was done to explore the relationship of intrusiveness, appraisal and thought control strategies in patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Theoretical frame work for the present study was Salkovskis (1985) cognitive model of obsessive compulsive disorder. Sample of 100 patients (men=48, women=52) of age 14-62 years (M=32.13, SD=10.37) was recruited from hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. Revised Obsessional Intrusion Inventory, Stress Appraisal Measure, Thought Control Questionnaire and Symptoms Checklist-R were self-administered. Findings revealed that intrusiveness is correlated with appraisals (controllable by self, controllable by others, uncontrollable, stressfulness) and thought control strategy (punishment). Furthermore, appraisals (uncontrollable, stressfulness, controllable by others) were emerged as strong predictors for different through control strategies (distraction, punishment and social control). Moreover, men have higher frequency of intrusion, whereas women were frequently using social control as thought control strategy. Results implied that intrusiveness, appraisals (controllable by others, uncontrollable, stressfulness) and thought control strategy (punishment) are related which maintains the disorder.

Keywords: appraisal, intrusiveness, obsessive compulsive disorder, thought control strategies

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971 Reliability of Swine Estrous Detector Probe in Dairy Cattle Breeding

Authors: O. O. Leigh, L. C. Agbugba, A. O. Oyewunmi, A. E. Ibiam, A. Hassan


Accuracy of insemination timing is a key determinant of high pregnancy rates in livestock breeding stations. The estrous detector probes are a recent introduction into the Nigerian livestock farming sector. Many of these probes are species-labeled and they measure changes in the vaginal mucus resistivity (VMR) during the stages of the estrous cycle. With respect to size and shaft conformation, the Draminski® swine estrous detector probe (sEDP) is quite similar to the bovine estrous detector probe. We investigated the reliability of the sEDP at insemination time on two farms designated as FM A and FM B. Cows (Bunaji, n=20 per farm) were evaluated for VMR at 16th h post standard OvSynch protocol, with concurrent insemination on FM B only. The difference in the mean VMR between FM A (221 ± 24.36) Ohms and FM B (254 ± 35.59) Ohms was not significant (p > 0.05). Sixteen cows (80%) at FM B were later (day 70) confirmed pregnant via rectal palpation and calved at term. These findings suggest consistency in VMR evaluated with sEDP at insemination as well as a high predictability for VMR associated with good pregnancy rates in dairy cattle. We conclude that Draminski® swine estrous detector probe is reliable in determining time of insemination in cattle breeding stations.

Keywords: dairy cattle, insemination, swine estrous probe, vaginal mucus resistivity

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970 Spectrophotometric Determination of Photohydroxylated Products of Humic Acid in the Presence of Salicylate Probe

Authors: Julide Hizal Yucesoy, Batuhan Yardimci, Aysem Arda, Resat Apak


Humic substances produce reactive oxygene species such as hydroxyl, phenoxy and superoxide radicals by oxidizing in a wide pH and reduction potential range. Hydroxyl radicals, produced by reducing agents such as antioxidants and/or peroxides, attack on salicylate probe, and form 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate species. These species are quantitatively determined by using HPLC Method. Humic substances undergo photodegradation by UV radiation. As a result of their antioxidant properties, they produce hydroxyl radicals. In the presence of salicylate probe, these hydroxyl radicals react with salicylate molecules to form hydroxylated products (dihidroxybenzoate isomers). In this study, humic acid was photodegraded in a photoreactor at 254 nm (400W), formed hydroxyl radicals were caught by salicylate probe. The total concentration of hydroxylated salicylate species was measured by using spectrophotometric CUPRAC Method. And also, using results of time dependent experiments, kinetic of photohydroxylation was determined at different pHs. This method has been applied for the first time to measure the concentration of hydroxylated products. It allows to achieve the results easier than HPLC Method.

Keywords: CUPRAC method, humic acid, photohydroxylation, salicylate probe

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969 Evaluation of Soil Thermal-Entropy Properties with a Single-Probe Heat-Pulse Technique

Authors: Abdull Halim Abdull, Nasiman Sapari, Mohammad Haikal Asyraf Bin Anuar


Although soil thermal properties are required in many areas to improve oil recovery, they are seldom measured on a routine basis. Reasons for this are unclear, but may be related to a lack of suitable instrumentation and entropy theory. We integrate single probe thermal gradient for the radial conduction of a short-duration heat pulse away from a single electrode source, and compared it with the theory for an instantaneously heated line source. By measuring the temperature response at a short distance from the line source, and applying short-duration heat-pulse theory, we can extract all the entropy properties, the thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and conductivity, from a single heat-pulse measurement. Results of initial experiments carried out on air-dry sand and clay materials indicate that this heat-pulse method yields soil thermal properties that compare well with thermal properties measured by single electrode.

Keywords: entropy, single probe thermal gradient, soil thermal, probe heat

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968 A Dual-Polarized Wideband Probe for Near-Field Antenna Measurement

Authors: K. S. Sruthi


Antennas are one of the most important parts of a communication chain. They are used for both communication and calibration purposes. New developments in probe technologies have enabled near-field probes with much larger bandwidth. The objective of this paper is to design, simulate and fabricate a dual polarized wide band inverted quad ridged shape horn antenna which can be used as measurement probe for near field measurements. The inverted quad-ridged horn antenna probe not only provides measurement in the much wider range but also provides dual-polarization measurement thus enabling antenna developers to measure UWB, UHF, VHF antennas more precisely and at lower cost. The antenna is designed to meet the characteristics such as high gain, light weight, linearly polarized with suppressed side lobes for near-field measurement applications. The proposed antenna is simulated with commercially available packages such as Ansoft HFSS. The antenna gives a moderate gain over operating range while delivering a wide bandwidth.

Keywords: near-field antenna measurement, inverted quad-ridge horn antenna, wideband Antennas, dual polarized antennas, ansoft HFSS

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967 Investigating the Effect of Aesthetics of Wisdom and Thought on Islamic-Iranian Architecture and Modern Western Architecture: Considering the Position of Islamic Philosophy and Western Philosophy in the Art of Architecture

Authors: Hamid Mohamad Hosein Zadeh Hashemi


In this article, in order to recognize the value of aesthetics of the place of wisdom and mysticism on Islamic art-architecture, and compare it with the influence of philosophy and thought on the "modern art of architecture" of the West, it examines the position of wisdom and philosophy in art Architecture ". In this regard, one can point out the unique status of "art of architecture" in human societies, which in two cultures of the East and West, based on the ideas of Islamic wisdom and Western thought, has taken a dual path, so that even today, even from the original And the basic "art of architecture" of its primary and academic has turned away and has undergone some kind of transformation. To this end, we examine some of the "aesthetics" positions based on the "art of architecture" in the broad sense of the word, in order to reflect on the historical course of this art, and with regard to the position of Islamic thought and Western thought, each of which originated from, but based on The basis of cultures, climate, and sociology, and others, are ultimately the result of an arbitrary result, namely the achievement of the aesthetic position of wisdom and mysticism on the "Islamic-Iranian" architecture of art "and its opposition to the position of philosophy and thought On modern art of modern architecture of the West.

Keywords: aesthetics, art, philosophy, the art of Architecture, wisdom

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966 Reemergence of Behaviorism in Language Teaching

Authors: Hamid Gholami


During the years, the language teaching methods have been the offshoots of schools of thought in psychology. The methods were mainly influenced by their contemporary psychological approaches, as Audiolingualism was based on behaviorism and Communicative Language Teaching on constructivism. In 1950s, the text books were full of repetition exercises which were encouraged by Behaviorism. In 1980s they got filled with communicative exercises as suggested by constructivism. The trend went on to nowadays that sees no specific method as prevalent since none of the schools of thought seem to be illustrative of the complexity in human being learning. But some changes can be notable; some textbooks are giving more and more space to repetition exercises at least to enhance some aspects of language proficiency, namely collocations, rhythm and intonation, and conversation models. These changes may mark the reemergence of one of the once widely accepted schools of thought in psychology; behaviorism.

Keywords: language teaching methods, psychology, schools of thought, Behaviorism

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965 Realization Mode and Theory for Extensible Music Cognition Education: Taking Children's Music Education as an Example

Authors: Yumeng He


The purpose of this paper is to establish the “extenics” of children music education, the “extenics” thought and methods are introduced into the children music education field. Discussions are made from the perspective of children music education on how to generate new music cognitive from music cognitive, how to generate new music education from music education and how to generate music learning from music learning. The research methods including the extensibility of music art, extensibility of music education, extensibility of music capability and extensibility of music learning. Results of this study indicate that the thought and research methods of children’s extended music education not only have developed the “extenics” concept and ideological methods, meanwhile, the brand-new thought and innovative research perspective have been employed in discussing the children music education. As indicated in research, the children’s extended music education has extended the horizon of children music education, and has endowed the children music education field with a new thought and research method.

Keywords: comprehensive evaluations, extension thought, extension cognition music education, extensibility

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964 Rival Conceptions of Sovereignty in Modern South Asian Political Thought: An Analysis Through the Writings of Maulana Syed Abul Ala Maududi and Maulana Hifzurrahman Seoharvi

Authors: Mohammad Saif


In the post-Westphalianworld order, the concept of sovereignty has been a fundamental area of inquiry in Political Science, International Relations, and International Law. Modern Islamic political thought has also dedicated a fair share of debate on the subject. The debate fundamentally revolves around the ‘ontological differentiation’ between western and Islamic political thought. While the centrality of the individual in western political thought regards the individual as the center of universe, Islamic Political thought provides that space to God. The modern liberal democratic principles suggest sovereignty as one of the major attributes of modern nation state; Islamists regard sovereignty as an attribute of God. However, the position regarding God’ssovereignty in Islamic political thought is not coherent in conception. Some scholars regard such a position as ‘the political interpretation of Islam’. This paper is an attempt to first analyze the fundamental discord between two rival political ideologies (western and Islamic), and then forward a debate on the subject of sovereignty in South Asian Islamic Political thought, particularly between Syed Abul Ala Maududi (ideological father of modern islamist movements) andHifzurrahmanSeoharvi (lesser known in Academia but highly influential in shaping Deobandi position of principles related to political nature of Islamic theology). Maududi regardssovereignty as an attribute of God and the rulers as subservient to Gods will, Seoharvi suggests that God's sovereignty does not entail that the caliph or amir cannot be a ruler or hakim, nor can his command or hukum be an order. Certain references have also been made to contemporary scholars like Sayidd Qutub, Rashid al Ghanouchi, who in one way or the other have contributed to the debate on ‘sovereignty in Islamic thought’.

Keywords: nation state, sovereigty, sovereignty of God (Hakimmiyah), deoband

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963 Enhanced Calibration Map for a Four-Hole Probe for Measuring High Flow Angles

Authors: Jafar Mortadha, Imran Qureshi


This research explains and compares the modern techniques used for measuring the flow angles of a flowing fluid with the traditional technique of using multi-hole pressure probes. In particular, the focus of the study is on four-hole probes, which offer great reliability and benefits in several applications where the use of modern measurement techniques is either inconvenient or impractical. Due to modern advancements in manufacturing, small multi-hole pressure probes can be made with high precision, which eliminates the need for calibrating every manufactured probe. This study aims to improve the range of calibration maps for a four-hole probe to allow high flow angles to be measured accurately. The research methodology comprises a literature review of the successful calibration definitions that have been implemented on five-hole probes. These definitions are then adapted and applied on a four-hole probe using a set of raw pressures data. A comparison of the different definitions will be carried out in Matlab and the results will be analyzed to determine the best calibration definition. Taking simplicity of implementation into account as well as the reliability of flow angles estimation, an adapted technique from a research paper written in 2002 offered the most promising outcome. Consequently, the method is seen as a good enhancement for four-hole probes and it can substitute for the existing calibration definitions that offer less accuracy.

Keywords: calibration definitions, calibration maps, flow measurement techniques, four-hole probes, multi-hole pressure probes

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962 Quantum Localization of Vibrational Mirror in Cavity Optomechanics

Authors: Madiha Tariq, Hena Rabbani


Recently, cavity-optomechanics becomes an extensive research field that has manipulated the mechanical effects of light for coupling of the optical field with other physical objects specifically with regards to dynamical localization. We investigate the dynamical localization (both in momentum and position space) for a vibrational mirror in a Fabry-Pérot cavity driven by a single mode optical field and a transverse probe field. The weak probe field phenomenon results in classical chaos in phase space and spatio temporal dynamics in position |ψ(x)²| and momentum space |ψ(p)²| versus time show quantum localization in both momentum and position space. Also, we discuss the parametric dependencies of dynamical localization for a designated set of parameters to be experimentally feasible. Our work opens an avenue to manipulate the other optical phenomena and applicability of proposed work can be prolonged to turn-able laser sources in the future.

Keywords: dynamical localization, cavity optomechanics, Hamiltonian chaos, probe field

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961 Iron(III)-Tosylate Doped PEDOT and PEG: A Nanoscale Conductivity Study of an Electrochemical System with Biosensing Applications

Authors: Giulio Rosati, Luciano Sappia, Rossana Madrid, Noemi Rozlòsnik


The addition of PEG of different molecular weights has important effects on the physical, electrical and electrochemical properties of iron(III)-tosylate doped PEDOT. This particular polymer can be easily spin coated over plastic discs, optimizing thickness and uniformity of the PEDOT-PEG films. The conductivity and morphological analysis of the hybrid PEDOT-PEG polymer by 4-point probe (4PP), 12-point probe (12PP), and conductive AFM (C-AFM) show strong effects of the PEG doping. Moreover, the conductive films kinetics at the nanoscale, in response to different bias voltages, change radically depending on the PEG molecular weight. The hybrid conductive films show also interesting electrochemical properties, making the PEDOT PEG doping appealing for biosensing applications both for EIS-based and amperometric affinity/catalytic biosensors.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy, biosensors, four-point probe, nano-films, PEDOT

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960 Sri Aurobindo's Views on Heraclitus' Philosophy: A Synthesis

Authors: Kamaladevi Kunkolienker


This paper appreciates the stimulating and thought-provoking synthesis of Heraclitus’ philosophy offered by Sri Aurobindo. The deep philosophical insights of Heraclitus expressed in aphoristic and cryptic form inspired him and supported his system of Integral Yoga. An attempt is made to reconstruct and synthesize Eastern and Western philosophical insights through hermeneutical treatment of many concepts. Aurobindo points out the sameness and kinship between Heraclitus’ thought and concepts from Vedic and upanishadic texts with illustrations and thus undertakes the task of synthesizing them. This fruitful synthesis also brings out the scientific perspective of Heraclitus’ thought and showcases it as a rare flowering of philosophy. It also enables the thinkers to reflect, reinterpret and synthesize such philosophies to bring out their significance in post-modern philosophy and science.

Keywords: all, change, fire, one

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959 Annealing of the Contact between Graphene and Metal: Electrical and Raman Study

Authors: A. Sakavičius, A. Lukša, V. Nargelienė, V. Bukauskas, G. Astromskas, A. Šetkus


We investigate the influence of annealing on the properties of a contact between graphene and metal (Au and Ni), using circular transmission line model (CTLM) contact geometry. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy are applied for characterization of the surface and interface properties. Annealing causes a decrease of the metal-graphene contact resistance for both Ni and Au.

Keywords: Au/Graphene contacts, graphene, Kelvin force probe microscopy, NiC/Graphene contacts, Ni/Graphene contacts, Raman spectroscopy

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958 Development of Automatic Laser Scanning Measurement Instrument

Authors: Chien-Hung Liu, Yu-Fen Chen


This study used triangular laser probe and three-axial direction mobile platform for surface measurement, programmed it and applied it to real-time analytic statistics of different measured data. This structure was used to design a system integration program: using triangular laser probe for scattering or reflection non-contact measurement, transferring the captured signals to the computer through RS-232, and using RS-485 to control the three-axis platform for a wide range of measurement. The data captured by the laser probe are formed into a 3D surface. This study constructed an optical measurement application program in the concept of visual programming language. First, the signals are transmitted to the computer through RS-232/RS-485, and then the signals are stored and recorded in graphic interface timely. This programming concept analyzes various messages, and makes proper presentation graphs and data processing to provide the users with friendly graphic interfaces and data processing state monitoring, and identifies whether the present data are normal in graphic concept. The major functions of the measurement system developed by this study are thickness measurement, SPC, surface smoothness analysis, and analytical calculation of trend line. A result report can be made and printed promptly. This study measured different heights and surfaces successfully, performed on-line data analysis and processing effectively, and developed a man-machine interface for users to operate.

Keywords: laser probe, non-contact measurement, triangulation measurement principle, statistical process control, labVIEW

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957 Study of Ion Density Distribution and Sheath Thickness in Warm Electronegative Plasma

Authors: Rajat Dhawan, Hitendra K. Malik


Electronegative plasmas comprising electrons, positive ions, and negative ions are advantageous for their expanding applications in industries. In plasma cleaning, plasma etching, and plasma deposition process, electronegative plasmas are preferred because of relatively less potential developed on the surface of the material under investigation. Also, the presence of negative ions avoid the irregularity in etching shapes and also enhance the material working during the fabrication process. The interaction of metallic conducting surface with plasma becomes mandatory to understand these applications. A metallic conducting probe immersed in a plasma results in the formation of a thin layer of charged species around the probe called as a sheath. The density of the ions embedded on the surface of the material and the sheath thickness are the important parameters for the surface-plasma interaction. Sheath thickness will give rise to the information of affected plasma region due to conducting surface/probe. The knowledge of the density of ions in the sheath region is advantageous in plasma nitriding, and their temperature is equally important as it strongly influences the thickness of the modified layer during surface plasma interaction. In the present work, we considered a negatively biased metallic probe immersed in a warm electronegative plasma. For this system, we adopted the continuity equation and momentum transfer equation for both the positive and negative ions, whereas electrons are described by Boltzmann distribution. Finally, we use the Poisson’s equation. Here, we assumed the spherical geometry for small probe radius. Poisson’s equation reveals the behaviour of potential surrounding a conducting metallic probe along with the use of the continuity and momentum transfer equations, with the help of proper boundary conditions. In turn, it gives rise to the information about the density profile of charged species and most importantly the thickness of the sheath. By keeping in mind, the well-known Bohm-Sheath criterion, all calculations are done. We found that positive ion density decreases with an increase in positive ion temperature, whereas it increases with the higher temperature of the negative ions. Positive ion density decreases as we move away from the center of the probe and is found to show a discontinuity at a particular distance from the center of the probe. The distance where discontinuity occurs is designated as sheath edge, i.e., the point where sheath ends. These results are beneficial for industrial applications, as the density of ions embedded on material surface is strongly affected by the temperature of plasma species. It has a drastic influence on the surface properties, i.e., the hardness, corrosion resistance, etc. of the materials.

Keywords: electronegative plasmas, plasma surface interaction positive ion density, sheath thickness

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956 AFM Probe Sensor Designed for Cellular Membrane Components

Authors: Sarmiza Stanca, Wolfgang Fritzsche, Christoph Krafft, Jürgen Popp


Independent of the cell type a thin layer of a few nanometers thickness surrounds the cell interior as the cellular membrane. The transport of ions and molecules through the membrane is achieved in a very precise way by pores. Understanding the process of opening and closing the pores due to an electrochemical gradient across the membrane requires knowledge of the pore constitutive proteins. Recent reports prove the access to the molecular level of the cellular membrane by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This technique also permits an electrochemical study in the immediate vicinity of the tip. Specific molecules can be electrochemically localized in the natural cellular membrane. Our work aims to recognize the protein domains of the pores using an AFM probe as a miniaturized amperometric sensor, and to follow the protein behavior while changing the applied potential. The intensity of the current produced between the surface and the AFM probe is amplified and detected simultaneously with the surface imaging. The AFM probe plays the role of the working electrode and the substrate, a conductive glass on which the cells are grown, represent the counter electrode. For a better control of the electric potential on the probe, a third electrode Ag/AgCl wire is mounted in the circuit as a reference electrode. The working potential is applied between the electrodes with a programmable source and the current intensity in the circuit is recorded with a multimeter. The applied potential considers the overpotential at the electrode surface and the potential drop due to the current flow through the system. The reported method permits a high resolved electrochemical study of the protein domains on the living cell membrane. The amperometric map identifies areas of different current intensities on the pore depending on the applied potential. The reproducibility of this method is limited by the tip shape, the uncontrollable capacitance, which occurs at the apex and a potential local charge separation.

Keywords: AFM, sensor, membrane, pores, proteins

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955 DNA-Based Gold Nanoprobe Biosensor to Detect Pork Contaminant

Authors: Rizka Ardhiyana, Liesbetini Haditjaroko, Sri Mulijani, Reki Ashadi Wicaksono, Raafqi Ranasasmita


Designing a sensitive, specific and easy to use method to detect pork contamination in the food industry remains a major challenge. In the current study, we developed a sensitive thiol-bond AuNP-Probe biosensor that will change color when detecting pork DNA in the Cytochrome B region. The interaction between the biosensors and DNA sample is measured by spectrophotometer at 540 nm. The biosensor is made by reducing gold with trisodium citrate to produce gold nanoparticle with 39.05 nm diameter. The AuNP-Probe biosensor (gold nanoprobe) achieved 16.04 ng DNA/µl limit of detection and 53.48 ng DNA/µl limit of quantification. The linearity (R2) between color absorbance changes and DNA concentration is 0.9916. The biosensor has a good specificty as it does not cross-react with DNA of chicken and beef. To verify specificity towards the target sequence, PCR was tested to the target sequence and reacted to the PCR product with the biosensor. The PCR DNA isolate resulted in a 2.7 fold higher absorbance compared to pork-DNA isolate alone (without PCR). The sensitivity and specificity of the method show the promising application of the thiol-bond AuNP biosensor in pork-detection.

Keywords: biosensor, DNA probe, gold nanoparticle (AuNP), pork meat, qPCR

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954 The Use of Bleomycin and Analogues to Probe the Chromatin Structure of Human Genes

Authors: Vincent Murray


The chromatin structure at the transcription start sites (TSSs) of genes is very important in the control of gene expression. In order for gene expression to occur, the chromatin structure at the TSS has to be altered so that the transcriptional machinery can be assembled and RNA transcripts can be produced. In particular, the nucleosome structure and positioning around the TSS has to be changed. Bleomycin is utilized as an anti-tumor agent to treat Hodgkin's lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and testicular cancer. Bleomycin produces DNA damage in human cells and DNA strand breaks, especially double-strand breaks, are thought to be responsible for the cancer chemotherapeutic activity of bleomycin. Bleomycin is a large glycopeptide with molecular weight of approximately 1500 Daltons and hence its DNA strand cleavage activity can be utilized as a probe of chromatin structure. In this project, Illumina next-generation DNA sequencing technology was used to determine the position of DNA double-strand breaks at the TSSs of genes in intact cells. In this genome-wide study, it was found that bleomycin cleavage preferentially occurred at the TSSs of actively transcribed human genes in comparison with non-transcribed genes. There was a correlation between the level of enhanced bleomycin cleavage at TSSs and the degree of transcriptional activity. In addition, bleomycin was able to determine the position of nucleosomes at the TSSs of human genes. Bleomycin analogues were also utilized as probes of chromatin structure at the TSSs of human genes. In a similar manner to bleomycin, the bleomycin analogues 6′-deoxy-BLM Z and zorbamycin preferentially cleaved at the TSSs of human genes. Interestingly this degree of enhanced TSS cleavage inversely correlated with the cytotoxicity (IC50 values) of BLM analogues. This indicated that the degree of cleavage by bleomycin analogues at the TSSs of human genes was very important in the cytotoxicity of bleomycin and analogues. It also provided a deeper insight into the mechanism of action of this cancer chemotherapeutic agent since actively transcribed genes were preferentially targeted.

Keywords: anti-cancer activity, chromatin structure, cytotoxicity, gene expression, next-generation DNA sequencing

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953 Calculation of Orbital Elements for Sending Interplanetary Probes

Authors: Jorge Lus Nisperuza Toledo, Juan Pablo Rubio Ospina, Daniel Santiago Umana, Hector Alejandro Alvarez


This work develops and implements computational codes to calculate the optimal launch trajectories for sending a probe from the earth to different planets of the Solar system, making use of trajectories of the Hohmann and No-Hohmann type and gravitational assistance in intermediate steps. Specifically, the orbital elements, the graphs and the dynamic simulations of the trajectories for sending a probe from the Earth towards the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are obtained. A detailed study was made of the state vectors of the position and orbital velocity of the considered planets in order to determine the optimal trajectories of the probe. For this purpose, computer codes were developed and implemented to obtain the orbital elements of the Mariner 10 (Mercury), Magellan (Venus), Mars Global Surveyor (Mars) and Voyager 1 (Jupiter and Saturn) missions, as an exercise in corroborating the algorithms. This exercise gives validity to computational codes, allowing to find the orbital elements and the simulations of trajectories of three future interplanetary missions with specific launch windows.

Keywords: gravitational assistance, Hohmann’s trajectories, interplanetary mission, orbital elements

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952 Ultrasonic Measurement of Elastic Properties of Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials

Authors: Hatice Guzel, Imran Oral, Huseyin Isler


In this study, elastic constants, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratios, and shear moduli of orthotropic composite materials, consisting of E-glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy, were calculated by ultrasonic velocities which were measured using ultrasonic pulse-echo method. 35 MHz computer controlled analyzer, 60 MHz digital oscilloscope, 5 MHz longitudinal probe, and 2,25 MHz transverse probe were used for the measurements of ultrasound velocities, the measurements were performed at ambient temperature. It was understood from the data obtained in this study that, measured ultrasound velocities and the calculated elasticity coefficients were depending on the fiber orientations.

Keywords: composite materials, elastic constants, orthotropic materials, ultrasound

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951 An Energy Transfer Fluorescent Probe System for Glucose Sensor at Biomimetic Membrane Surface

Authors: Hoa Thi Hoang, Stephan Sass, Michael U. Kumke


Concanavalin A (conA) is a protein has been widely used in sensor system based on its specific binding to α-D-Glucose or α-D-Manose. For glucose sensor using conA, either fluoresence based techniques with intensity based or lifetime based are used. In this research, liposomes made from phospholipids were used as a biomimetic membrane system. In a first step, novel building blocks containing perylene labeled glucose units were added to the system and used to decorate the surface of the liposomes. Upon the binding between rhodamine labeled con A to the glucose units at the biomimetic membrane surface, a Förster resonance energy transfer system can be formed which combines unique fluorescence properties of perylene (e.g., high fluorescence quantum yield, no triplet formation) and its high hydrophobicity for efficient anchoring in membranes to form a novel probe for the investigation of sugar-driven binding reactions at biomimetic surfaces. Two glucose-labeled perylene derivatives were synthesized with different spacer length between the perylene and glucose unit in order to probe the binding of conA. The binding interaction was fully characterized by using high-end fluorescence techniques. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques (e.g., fluorescence depolarization) in combination with single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy techniques (fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, FCS) were used to monitor the interaction with conA. Base on the fluorescence depolarization, the rotational correlation times and the alteration in the diffusion coefficient (determined by FCS) the binding of the conA to the liposomes carrying the probe was studied. Moreover, single pair FRET experiments using pulsed interleaved excitation are used to characterize in detail the binding of conA to the liposome on a single molecule level avoiding averaging out effects.

Keywords: concanavalin A, FRET, sensor, biomimetic membrane

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