Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2669

Search results for: dual task paradigm

2669 Exploring Relationship between Attention and Consciousness

Authors: Aarushi Agarwal, Tara Singh, Anju Lata Singh, Trayambak Tiwari, Indramani Lal Singh


The existing interdependent relationship between attention and consciousness has been put to debate since long. To testify the nature, dual-task paradigm has been used to simultaneously manipulate awareness and attention. With central discrimination task which is attentional demanding, participants also perform simple discrimination task in the periphery in near absence of attention. Individual-based analysis of performance accuracy in single and dual condition showed and above chance level performance i.e. more than 80%. In order to widen the understanding of extent of discrimination carried in near absence of attention, natural image and its geometric equivalent shape were presented in the periphery; synthetic objects accounted to lower level of performance than natural objects in dual condition. The gaze plot and heatmap indicate that peripheral performance do not necessarily involve saccade every time, verifying the discrimination in the periphery was in near absence of attention. Thus our studies show an interdependent nature of attention and awareness.

Keywords: attention, awareness, dual task paradigm, natural and geometric images

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2668 Dual-Task–Immersion in the Interactions of Simultaneously Performed Tasks

Authors: M. Liebherr, P. Schubert, S. Kersten, C. Dietz, L. Franz, C. T. Haas


With a long history, dual-task has become one of the most intriguing research fields regarding human brain functioning and cognition. However, findings considering effects of task-interrelations are limited (especially, in combined motor and cognitive tasks). Therefore, we aimed at developing a measurement system in order to analyse interrelation effects of cognitive and motor tasks. On the one hand, the present study demonstrates the applicability of the measurement system and on the other hand first results regarding a systematization of different task combinations are shown. Future investigations should combine imagine technologies and this developed measurement system.

Keywords: dual-task, interference, cognition, measurement

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2667 Neurophysiology of Domain Specific Execution Costs of Grasping in Working Memory Phases

Authors: Rumeysa Gunduz, Dirk Koester, Thomas Schack


Previous behavioral studies have shown that working memory (WM) and manual actions share limited capacity cognitive resources, which in turn results in execution costs of manual actions in WM. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study investigating the neurophysiology of execution costs. The current study aims to fill this research gap investigating the neurophysiology of execution costs of grasping in WM phases (encoding, maintenance, retrieval) considering verbal and visuospatial domains of WM. A WM-grasping dual task paradigm was implemented to examine execution costs. Baseline single task required performing verbal or visuospatial version of a WM task. Dual task required performing the WM task embedded in a high precision grasp to place task. 30 participants were tested in a 2 (single vs. dual task) x 2 (visuo-spatial vs. verbal WM) within subject design. Event related potentials (ERPs) were extracted for each WM phase separately in the single and dual tasks. Memory performance for visuospatial WM, but not for verbal WM, was significantly lower in the dual task compared to the single task. Encoding related ERPs in the single task revealed different ERPs of verbal WM and visuospatial WM at bilateral anterior sites and right posterior site. In the dual task, bilateral anterior difference disappeared due to bilaterally increased anterior negativities for visuospatial WM. Maintenance related ERPs in the dual task revealed different ERPs of verbal WM and visuospatial WM at bilateral posterior sites. There was also anterior negativity for visuospatial WM. Retrieval related ERPs in the single task revealed different ERPs of verbal WM and visuospatial WM at bilateral posterior sites. In the dual task, there was no difference between verbal WM and visuospatial WM. Behavioral and ERP findings suggest that execution of grasping shares cognitive resources only with visuospatial WM, which in turn results in domain specific execution costs. Moreover, ERP findings suggest unique patterns of costs in each WM phase, which supports the idea that each WM phase reflects a separate cognitive process. This study not only contributes to the understanding of cognitive principles of manual action control, but also contributes to the understanding of WM as an entity consisting of separate modalities and cognitive processes.

Keywords: dual task, grasping execution, neurophysiology, working memory domains, working memory phases

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2666 Parallel Processing in near Absence of Attention: A Study Using Dual-Task Paradigm

Authors: Aarushi Agarwal, Tara Singh, I.L Singh, Anju Lata Singh, Trayambak Tiwari


Simple discrimination in near absence of attention has been widely observed. Dual-task studies with natural scenes studies have been claimed as being preattentive in nature that facilitated categorization simultaneously with the attentional demanding task. So in this study, multiple images at the periphery are presented, initiating parallel processing in near absence of attention. For the central demanding task rotated letters were presented in both conditions, while in periphery natural and animal images were presented. To understand the breakpoint of ability to perform in near absence of attention one, two and three peripheral images were presented simultaneously with central task and subjects had to respond when all belong to the same category. Individual participant performance did not show a significant difference in both conditions central and peripheral task when the single peripheral image was shown. In case of two images high-level parallel processing could take place with little attentional resources. The eye tracking results supports the evidence as no major saccade was made in a large number of trials. Three image presentations proved to be a breaking point of the capacities to perform outside attentional assistance as participants showed a confused eye gaze pattern which failed to make the natural and animal image discriminations. Thus, we can conclude attention and awareness being independent mechanisms having limited capacities.

Keywords: attention, dual task pardigm, parallel processing, break point, saccade

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2665 The Amount of Information Processing and Balance Performance in Children: The Dual-Task Paradigm

Authors: Chin-Chih Chiou, Tai-Yuan Su, Ti-Yu Chen, Wen-Yu Chiu, Chungyu Chen


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of reaction time (RT) or balance performance as the number of stimulus-response choices increases, the amount of information processing of 0-bit and 1-bit conditions based on Hick’s law, using the dual-task design. Eighteen children (age: 9.38 ± 0.27 years old) were recruited as the participants for this study, and asked to assess RT and balance performance separately and simultaneously as following five conditions: simple RT (0-bit decision), choice RT (1-bit decision), single balance control, balance control with simple RT, and balance control with choice RT. Biodex 950-300 balance system and You-Shang response timer were used to record and analyze the postural stability and information processing speed (RT) respectively for the participants. Repeated measures one-way ANOVA with HSD post-hoc test and 2 (balance) × 2 (amount of information processing) repeated measures two-way ANOVA were used to test the parameters of balance performance and RT (α = .05). The results showed the overall stability index in the 1-bit decision was lower than in 0-bit decision, and the mean deflection in the 1-bit decision was lower than in single balance performance. Simple RTs were faster than choice RTs both in single task condition and dual task condition. It indicated that the chronometric approach of RT could use to infer the attention requirement of the secondary task. However, this study did not find that the balance performance is interfered for children by the increasing of the amount of information processing.

Keywords: capacity theory, reaction time, Hick’s law, balance

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2664 Attentional Differences in Musical Recall and Improvisation

Authors: Krzysztof T. Piotrowski


The main goal of the research was to investigate differences in attention in two kinds of musical performance - recall and improvisation. Musical recall is a sample of convergent production that requires intensively focused attention. Inversely, musical improvisation is a divergent task and probably requires a different way of attentional control. The study was designed in dual task paradigm. Participants were to remember a simple melody and then recall or improvise, simultaneously performing the spatial attentional test on computer screen. The result shows that improvising participants find spatial goals in more disperse way. The conclusion is that musical improvisation requires extensification of attention to occur.

Keywords: attention, creativity, divergent task, musical improvisation

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2663 The Effects of Normal Aging on Reasoning Ability: A Dual-Process Approach

Authors: Jamie A. Prowse Turner, Jamie I. D. Campbell, Valerie A. Thompson


The objective of the current research was to use a dual-process theory framework to explain these age-related differences in reasoning. Seventy-two older (M = 80.0 years) and 72 younger (M = 24.6 years) adults were given a variety of reasoning tests (i.e., a syllogistic task, base rate task, the Cognitive Reflection Test, and a perspective manipulation), as well as independent tests of capacity (working memory, processing speed, and inhibition), thinking styles, and metacognitive ability, to account for these age-related differences. It was revealed that age-related differences were limited to problems that required Type 2 processing and were related to differences in cognitive capacity, individual difference factors, and strategy choice. Furthermore, older adults’ performance can be improved by reasoning from another’s’ perspective and cannot, at this time, be explained by metacognitive differences between young and older adults. All of these findings fit well within a dual-process theory of reasoning, which provides an integrative framework accounting for previous findings and the findings presented in the current manuscript.

Keywords: aging, dual-process theory, performance, reasoning ability

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2662 Existence and Construction of Maximal Rectangular Duals

Authors: Krishnendra Shekhawat


Given a graph G = (V, E), a rectangular dual of G represents the vertices of G by a set of interior-disjoint rectangles such that two rectangles touch if and only if there is an edge between the two corresponding vertices in G. Rectangular duals do not exist for every graph, so we can define maximal rectangular duals. A maximal rectangular dual is a rectangular dual of a graph G such that there exists no graph G ′ with a rectangular dual where G is a subgraph of G ′. In this paper, we enumerate all maximal rectangular duals (or, to be precise, the corresponding planar graphs) up to six nodes and presents a necessary condition for the existence of a rectangular dual. This work allegedly has applications in integrated circuit design and architectural floor plans.

Keywords: adjacency, degree sequence, dual graph, rectangular dual

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2661 Investigating the Impact of Task Demand and Duration on Passage of Time Judgements and Duration Estimates

Authors: Jesika A. Walker, Mohammed Aswad, Guy Lacroix, Denis Cousineau


There is a fundamental disconnect between the experience of time passing and the chronometric units by which time is quantified. Specifically, there appears to be no relationship between the passage of time judgments (PoTJs) and verbal duration estimates at short durations (e.g., < 2000 milliseconds). When a duration is longer than several minutes, however, evidence suggests that a slower feeling of time passing is predictive of overestimation. Might the length of a task moderate the relation between PoTJs and duration estimates? Similarly, the estimation paradigm (prospective vs. retrospective) and the mental effort demanded of a task (task demand) have both been found to influence duration estimates. However, only a handful of experiments have investigated these effects for tasks of long durations, and the results have been mixed. Thus, might the length of a task also moderate the effects of the estimation paradigm and task demand on duration estimates? To investigate these questions, 273 participants performed either an easy or difficult visual and memory search task for either eight or 58 minutes, under prospective or retrospective instructions. Afterward, participants provided a duration estimate in minutes, followed by a PoTJ on a Likert scale (1 = very slow, 7 = very fast). A 2 (prospective vs. retrospective) × 2 (eight minutes vs. 58 minutes) × 2 (high vs. low difficulty) between-subjects ANOVA revealed a two-way interaction between task demand and task duration on PoTJs, p = .02. Specifically, time felt faster in the more challenging task, but only in the eight-minute condition, p < .01. Duration estimates were transformed into RATIOs (estimate/actual duration) to standardize estimates across durations. An ANOVA revealed a two-way interaction between estimation paradigm and task duration, p = .03. Specifically, participants overestimated the task more if they were given prospective instructions, but only in the eight-minute task. Surprisingly, there was no effect of task difficulty on duration estimates. Thus, the demands of a task may influence ‘feeling of time’ and ‘estimation time’ differently, contributing to the existing theory that these two forms of time judgement rely on separate underlying cognitive mechanisms. Finally, a significant main effect of task duration was found for both PoTJs and duration estimates (ps < .001). Participants underestimated the 58-minute task (m = 42.5 minutes) and overestimated the eight-minute task (m = 10.7 minutes). Yet, they reported the 58-minute task as passing significantly slower on a Likert scale (m = 2.5) compared to the eight-minute task (m = 4.1). In fact, a significant correlation was found between PoTJ and duration estimation (r = .27, p <.001). This experiment thus provides evidence for a compensatory effect at longer durations, in which people underestimate a ‘slow feeling condition and overestimate a ‘fast feeling condition. The results are discussed in relation to heuristics that might alter the relationship between these two variables when conditions range from several minutes up to almost an hour.

Keywords: duration estimates, long durations, passage of time judgements, task demands

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2660 The Effects of Adding Vibrotactile Feedback to Upper Limb Performance during Dual-Tasking and Response to Misleading Visual Feedback

Authors: Sigal Portnoy, Jason Friedman, Eitan Raveh


Introduction: Sensory substitution is possible due to the capacity of our brain to adapt to information transmitted by a synthetic receptor via an alternative sensory system. Practical sensory substitution systems are being developed in order to increase the functionality of individuals with sensory loss, e.g. amputees. For upper limb prosthetic-users the loss of tactile feedback compels them to allocate visual attention to their prosthesis. The effect of adding vibrotactile feedback (VTF) to the applied force has been studied, however its effect on the allocation if visual attention during dual-tasking and the response during misleading visual feedback have not been studied. We hypothesized that VTF will improve the performance and reduce visual attention during dual-task assignments in healthy individuals using a robotic hand and improve the performance in a standardized functional test, despite the presence of misleading visual feedback. Methods: For the dual-task paradigm, twenty healthy subjects were instructed to toggle two keyboard arrow keys with the left hand to retain a moving virtual car on a road on a screen. During the game, instructions for various activities, e.g. mix the sugar in the glass with a spoon, appeared on the screen. The subject performed these tasks with a robotic hand, attached to the right hand. The robotic hand was controlled by the activity of the flexors and extensors of the right wrist, recorded using surface EMG electrodes. Pressure sensors were attached at the tips of the robotic hand and induced VTF using vibrotactile actuators attached to the right arm of the subject. An eye-tracking system tracked to visual attention of the subject during the trials. The trials were repeated twice, with and without the VTF. Additionally, the subjects performed the modified box and blocks, hidden from eyesight, in a motion laboratory. A virtual presentation of a misleading visual feedback was be presented on a screen so that twice during the trial, the virtual block fell while the physical block was still held by the subject. Results: This is an ongoing study, which current results are detailed below. We are continuing these trials with transradial myoelectric prosthesis-users. In the healthy group, the VTF did not reduce the visual attention or improve performance during dual-tasking for the tasks that were typed transfer-to-target, e.g. place the eraser on the shelf. An improvement was observed for other tasks. For example, the average±standard deviation of time to complete the sugar-mixing task was 13.7±17.2s and 19.3±9.1s with and without the VTF, respectively. Also, the number of gaze shifts from the screen to the hand during this task were 15.5±23.7 and 20.0±11.6, with and without the VTF, respectively. The response of the subjects to the misleading visual feedback did not differ between the two conditions, i.e. with and without VTF. Conclusions: Our interim results suggest that the performance of certain activities of daily living may be improved by VTF. The substitution of visual sensory input by tactile feedback might require a long training period so that brain plasticity can occur and allow adaptation to the new condition.

Keywords: prosthetics, rehabilitation, sensory substitution, upper limb amputation

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2659 The Involvement of Visual and Verbal Representations Within a Quantitative and Qualitative Visual Change Detection Paradigm

Authors: Laura Jenkins, Tim Eschle, Joanne Ciafone, Colin Hamilton


An original working memory model suggested the separation of visual and verbal systems in working memory architecture, in which only visual working memory components were used during visual working memory tasks. It was later suggested that the visuo spatial sketch pad was the only memory component at use during visual working memory tasks, and components such as the phonological loop were not considered. In more recent years, a contrasting approach has been developed with the use of an executive resource to incorporate both visual and verbal representations in visual working memory paradigms. This was supported using research demonstrating the use of verbal representations and an executive resource in a visual matrix patterns task. The aim of the current research is to investigate the working memory architecture during both a quantitative and a qualitative visual working memory task. A dual task method will be used. Three secondary tasks will be used which are designed to hit specific components within the working memory architecture – Dynamic Visual Noise (visual components), Visual Attention (spatial components) and Verbal Attention (verbal components). A comparison of the visual working memory tasks will be made to discover if verbal representations are at use, as the previous literature suggested. This direct comparison has not been made so far in the literature. Considerations will be made as to whether a domain specific approach should be employed when discussing visual working memory tasks, or whether a more domain general approach could be used instead.

Keywords: semantic organisation, visual memory, change detection

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2658 The Inattentional Blindness Paradigm: A Breaking Wave for Attentional Biases in Test Anxiety

Authors: Kritika Kulhari, Aparna Sahu


Test anxiety results from concerns about failure in examinations or evaluative situations. Attentional biases are known to pronounce the symptomatic expression of test anxiety. In recent times, the inattentional blindness (IB) paradigm has shown promise as an attention bias modification treatment (ABMT) for anxiety by overcoming practice and expectancy effects which preexisting paradigms fail to counter. The IB paradigm assesses the inability of an individual to attend to a stimulus that appears suddenly while indulging in a perceptual discrimination task. The present study incorporated an IB task with three critical items (book, face, and triangle) appearing randomly in the perceptual discrimination task. Attentional biases were assessed as detection and identification of the critical item. The sample (N = 50) consisted of low test anxiety (LTA) and high test anxiety (HTA) groups based on the reactions to tests scale scores. Test threat manipulation was done with pre- and post-test assessment of test anxiety using the State Test Anxiety Inventory. A mixed factorial design with gender, test anxiety, presence or absence of test threat, and critical items was conducted to assess their effects on attentional biases. Results showed only a significant main effect for test anxiety on detection with higher accuracy of detection of the critical item for the LTA group. The study presents promising results in the realm of ABMT for test anxiety.

Keywords: attentional bias, attentional bias modification treatment, inattentional blindness, test anxiety

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2657 Teacher-Scaffolding vs. Peer-Scaffolding in Task-Based ILP Instruction: Effects on EFL Learners’ Metapragmatic Awareness

Authors: Amir Zand-Moghadam, Mahnaz Alizadeh


The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of teacher-scaffolding versus peer-scaffolding on EFL learners’ metapragmatic awareness in the paradigm of task-based language teaching (TBLT). To this end, a number of dialogic information-gap tasks requiring two-way interactant relationship were designed for the five speech acts of request, refusal, apology, suggestion, and compliment following Ellis’s (2003) model. Then, 48 intermediate EFL learners were randomly selected, homogenized, and assigned to two groups: 26 participants in the teacher-scaffolding group (Group One) and 22 in the peer-scaffolding group (Group Two). While going through the three phases of pre-task, while-task, and post-task, the participants in the first group completed the designed tasks by the teacher’s interaction, scaffolding, and feedback. On the other hand, the participants in the second group were required to complete the tasks in expert-novice pairs through peer scaffolding in all the three phases of a task-based syllabus. The findings revealed that the participants in the teacher-scaffolding group developed their L2 metapragmatic awareness more than the peer-scaffolding group. Thus, it can be concluded that teacher-scaffolding is more effective than peer scaffolding in developing metapragmatic awareness among EFL learners. It can also be claimed that the use of tasks can be more influential when they are accompanied by teacher-scaffolding. The findings of the present study have implications for language teachers and researchers.

Keywords: ILP, metapragmatic awareness, scaffolding, task-based instruction

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2656 Task Space Synchronization Control of Multi-Robot Arms with Position Synchronous Method

Authors: Zijian Zhang, Yangyang Dong


Synchronization is of great importance to ensure the multi-arm robot to complete the task. Therefore, a synchronous controller is designed to coordinate task space motion of the multi-arm in the paper. The position error, the synchronous position error, and the coupling position error are all considered in the controller. Besides, an adaptive control method is used to adjust parameters of the controller to improve the effectiveness of coordinated control performance. Simulation in the Matlab shows the effectiveness of the method. At last, a robot experiment platform with two 7-DOF (Degree of Freedom) robot arms has been established and the synchronous controller simplified to control dual-arm robot has been validated on the experimental set-up. Experiment results show the position error decreased 10% and the corresponding frequency is also greatly improved.

Keywords: synchronous control, space robot, task space control, multi-arm robot

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2655 Dual Band Antenna Design with Compact Radiator for 2.5/5.2/5.8 Ghz Wlan Application Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ramnath Narhete, Saket Pandey, Puran Gour


This paper presents of dual-band planner antenna with a compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 proposed by optimizing its resonant frequency, Bandwidth of operation and radiation frequency using the genetic algorithm. The antenna consists L-shaped and E-shaped radiating element to generate two resonant modes for dual band operation. The above techniques have been successfully used in many applications. Dual band antenna with the compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN application design and radiator size only width 8mm and a length is 11.3 mm. The antenna can we used for various application in the field of communication. Genetic algorithm will be used to design the antenna and impedance matching network.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, dual-band E, dual-band L, WLAN, compact radiator

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2654 Low Power Glitch Free Dual Output Coarse Digitally Controlled Delay Lines

Authors: K. Shaji Mon, P. R. John Sreenidhi


In deep-submicrometer CMOS processes, time-domain resolution of a digital signal is becoming higher than voltage resolution of analog signals. This claim is nowadays pushing toward a new circuit design paradigm in which the traditional analog signal processing is expected to be progressively substituted by the processing of times in the digital domain. Within this novel paradigm, digitally controlled delay lines (DCDL) should play the role of digital-to-analog converters in traditional, analog-intensive, circuits. Digital delay locked loops are highly prevalent in integrated systems.The proposed paper addresses the glitches present in delay circuits along with area,power dissipation and signal integrity.The digitally controlled delay lines(DCDL) under study have been designed in a 90 nm CMOS technology 6 layer metal Copper Strained SiGe Low K Dielectric. Simulation and synthesis results show that the novel circuits exhibit no glitches for dual output coarse DCDL with less power dissipation and consumes less area compared to the glitch free NAND based DCDL.

Keywords: glitch free, NAND-based DCDL, CMOS, deep-submicrometer

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2653 Different Motor Inhibition Processes in Action Selection Stage: A Study with Spatial Stroop Paradigm

Authors: German Galvez-Garcia, Javier Albayay, Javiera Peña, Marta Lavin, George A. Michael


The aim of this research was to investigate whether the selection of the actions needs different inhibition processes during the response selection stage. In Experiment 1, we compared the magnitude of the Spatial Stroop effect, which occurs in response selection stage, in two motor actions (lifting vs reaching) when the participants performed both actions in the same block or in different blocks (mixed block vs. pure blocks).Within pure blocks, we obtained faster latencies when lifting actions were performed, but no differences in the magnitude of the Spatial Stroop effect were observed. Within mixed block, we obtained faster latencies as well as bigger-magnitude for Spatial Stroop effect when reaching actions were performed. We concluded that when no action selection is required (the pure blocks condition), inhibition works as a unitary system, whereas in the mixed block condition, where action selection is required, different inhibitory processes take place within a common processing stage. In Experiment 2, we investigated this common processing stage in depth by limiting participants’ available resources, requiring them to engage in a concurrent auditory task within a mixed block condition. The Spatial Stroop effect interacted with Movement as it did in Experiment 1, but it did not significantly interact with available resources (Auditory task x Spatial Stroop effect x Movement interaction). Thus, we concluded that available resources are distributed equally to both inhibition processes; this reinforces the likelihood of there being a common processing stage in which the different inhibitory processes take place.

Keywords: inhibition process, motor processes, selective inhibition, dual task

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2652 A Development of Portable Intrinsically Safe Explosion-Proof Type of Dual Gas Detector

Authors: Sangguk Ahn, Youngyu Kim, Jaheon Gu, Gyoutae Park


In this paper, we developed a dual gas leak instrument to detect Hydrocarbon (HC) and Monoxide (CO) gases. To two kinds of gases, it is necessary to design compact structure for sensors. And then it is important to draw sensing circuits such as measuring, amplifying and filtering. After that, it should be well programmed with robust, systematic and module coding methods. In center of them, improvement of accuracy and initial response time are a matter of vital importance. To manufacture distinguished gas leak detector, we applied intrinsically safe explosion-proof structure to lithium ion battery, main circuits, a pump with motor, color LCD interfaces and sensing circuits. On software, to enhance measuring accuracy we used numerical analysis such as Lagrange and Neville interpolation. Performance test result is conducted by using standard Methane with seven different concentrations with three other products. We want raise risk prevention and efficiency of gas safe management through distributing to the field of gas safety. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by Small and Medium Business Administration under the research theme of ‘Commercialized Development of a portable intrinsically safe explosion-proof type dual gas leak detector’, (task number S2456036).

Keywords: gas leak, dual gas detector, intrinsically safe, explosion proof

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2651 Open Innovation Strategy (OIS) Paradigm and an OIS Capabilities Model

Authors: Anastasis D. Petrou


Innovation and strategy discussions do highlight open innovation as a new paradigm in business. Yet, a number of stumbling blocks in the form of closed innovation principles weaved into the fabric of a traditional business model stand in the way of the new paradigm’s momentum to increase value in various business contexts. The paper argues that businesses considering an engagement with the open innovation paradigm would need to take steps to improve their multiplicative, absorptive and relational capabilities, respectively. The needed improvements would amount to a business model evolutionary transformation and eventually bring about a paradigm overhaul in business. The transformation is worth staging over time to ensure that open innovation is developed across interconnected and partnered areas of strategic importance. This article develops an open innovation strategy (OIS) capabilities model, and employs examples from different industries to briefly discuss OIS’s potential to augment business value in a number of suggested areas for future research.

Keywords: close innovation, open innovation paradigm, open innovation strategy (OIS) paradigm, OIS capabilities model, multiplicative capability, absorptive capability, relational capability

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2650 Hamiltonian Related Properties with and without Faults of the Dual-Cube Interconnection Network and Their Variations

Authors: Shih-Yan Chen, Shin-Shin Kao


In this paper, a thorough review about dual-cubes, DCn, the related studies and their variations are given. DCn was introduced to be a network which retains the pleasing properties of hypercube Qn but has a much smaller diameter. In fact, it is so constructed that the number of vertices of DCn is equal to the number of vertices of Q2n +1. However, each vertex in DCn is adjacent to n + 1 neighbors and so DCn has (n + 1) × 2^2n edges in total, which is roughly half the number of edges of Q2n+1. In addition, the diameter of any DCn is 2n +2, which is of the same order of that of Q2n+1. For selfcompleteness, basic definitions, construction rules and symbols are provided. We chronicle the results, where eleven significant theorems are presented, and include some open problems at the end.

Keywords: dual-cubes, dual-cube extensive networks, dual-cube-like networks, hypercubes, fault-tolerant hamiltonian property

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2649 Effects of Pre-Task Activities on the Writing Performance of Second Language Learners

Authors: Wajiha Fatima


Based on Rod Ellis’s (2002) the methodology of task-based teaching, this study explored the effects of pre-task activities on the Job Application letter of 102 ESL students (who were female and undergraduate learners). For this purpose, students were divided among three groups (Group A, Group B, and Group C), kept in control and experimental settings as well. Pre-task phase motivates the learners to perform the actual task. Ellis reportedly discussed four pre-task phases: (1) performing a similar task; (2) providing a model; (3) non-task preparation activities and (4) strategic planning. They were taught through above given three pre-task activities. Accordingly, the learners in control setting were supposed to write without any teaching aid while learners in an experimental situation were provided three different pre-task activities in each group. In order to compare the scores of the pre-test and post-test of the three groups, sample paired t-test was utilized. The obtained results of the written job application by the female students revealed that pre-task activities improved their performance in writing. On the other hand, the comparison of the three pre-task activities revealed that 'providing a model' outperformed the other two activities. For this purpose, ANOVA was utilized.

Keywords: pre-task activities, second language learners, task based language teaching, writing

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2648 Pool Fire Tests of Dual Purpose Casks for Spent Nuclear Fuel

Authors: K. S. Bang, S. H. Yu, J. C. Lee, K. S. Seo, S. H. Lee


Dual purpose casks are used for storage and transport of spent nuclear fuel assemblies. Therefore, they satisfy the requirements prescribed in the Korea NSSC Act 2013-27, the IAEA Safety Standard Series No. SSR-6, and US 10 CFR Part 71. These regulatory guidelines classify the dual purpose cask as a Type B package, and state that a Type B package must be able to withstand a temperature of 800°C for a period of 30 min. Therefore, a fire test was conducted using a one-sixth slice of a real cask to estimate the thermal integrity of the dual purpose cask at a temperature of 800°C. The neutron shield reached a maximum temperature of 183°C, which indicates that dual purpose cask was properly insulated from the heat of the flames. The temperature rise of the basket during the fire test was 29°C. Therefore, the integrity of a spent nuclear fuel is estimated to be maintained. The temperature was lower when a cooling pin was installed. The neutron shielding was therefore protected adequately by cooling pin. As a result, the thermal integrity of the dual purpose cask was maintained and the cask is judged to be sufficiently safe for temperatures under 800°C.

Keywords: dual purpose cask, spent nuclear fuel, pool fire test, integrity

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2647 Distraction from Pain: An fMRI Study on the Role of Age-Related Changes in Executive Functions

Authors: Katharina M. Rischer, Angelika Dierolf, Ana M. Gonzalez-Roldan, Pedro Montoya, Fernand Anton, Marian van der Meulen


Even though age has been associated with increased and prolonged episodes of pain, little is known about potential age-related changes in the ˈtop-downˈ modulation of pain, such as cognitive distraction from pain. The analgesic effects of distraction result from competition for attentional resources in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region that is also involved in executive functions. Given that the PFC shows pronounced age-related atrophy, distraction may be less effective in reducing pain in older compared to younger adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of aging on task-related analgesia and the underpinning neural mechanisms, with a focus on the role of executive functions in distraction from pain. In a first session, 64 participants (32 young adults: 26.69 ± 4.14 years; 32 older adults: 68.28 ± 7.00 years) completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. In a second session, participants underwent a pain distraction paradigm, while fMRI images were acquired. In this paradigm, participants completed a low (0-back) and a high (2-back) load condition of a working memory task while receiving either warm or painful thermal stimuli to their lower arm. To control for age-related differences in sensitivity to pain and perceived task difficulty, stimulus intensity, and task speed were individually calibrated. Results indicate that both age groups showed significantly reduced activity in a network of regions involved in pain processing when completing the high load distraction task; however, young adults showed a larger neural distraction effect in different parts of the insula and the thalamus. Moreover, better executive functions, in particular inhibitory control abilities, were associated with a larger behavioral and neural distraction effect. These findings clearly demonstrate that top-down control of pain is affected in older age, and could explain the higher vulnerability for older adults to develop chronic pain. Moreover, our findings suggest that the assessment of executive functions may be a useful tool for predicting the efficacy of cognitive pain modulation strategies in older adults.

Keywords: executive functions, cognitive pain modulation, fMRI, PFC

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2646 Dual-Network Memory Model for Temporal Sequences

Authors: Motonobu Hattori


In neural networks, when new patters are learned by a network, they radically interfere with previously stored patterns. This drawback is called catastrophic forgetting. We have already proposed a biologically inspired dual-network memory model which can much reduce this forgetting for static patterns. In this model, information is first stored in the hippocampal network, and thereafter, it is transferred to the neocortical network using pseudo patterns. Because, temporal sequence learning is more important than static pattern learning in the real world, in this study, we improve our conventional dual-network memory model so that it can deal with temporal sequences without catastrophic forgetting. The computer simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed dual-network memory model.

Keywords: catastrophic forgetting, dual-network, temporal sequences, hippocampal

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2645 Study of Dual Fuel Engine as Environmentally Friendly Engine

Authors: Nilam S. Octaviani, Semin


The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses compressed air to combust. The diesel engines are widely used in the world because it has the most excellent combustion efficiency than other types of internal combustion engine.  However, the exhaust emissions of it produce pollutants that are harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, natural gas used as an alternative fuel using on compression ignition engine to respond those environment issues. This paper aims to discuss the comparison of the technical characteristics and exhaust gases emission from conventional diesel engine and dual fuel diesel engine. According to the study, the dual fuel engine applications have a lower compression pressure and has longer ignition delay compared with normal diesel mode. The engine power is decreased at dual fuel mode. However, the exhaust gases emission on dual fuel engine significantly reduce the nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particular metter (PM) emissions.

Keywords: diesel engine, dual fuel diesel engine, emission reduction, technical characteristics

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2644 Research on the Torsional Vibration of a Power-Split Hybrid Powertrain Equipped with a Dual Mass Flywheel

Authors: Xiaolin Tang, Wei Yang, Xiaoan Chen


The research described in this paper was aimed at exploring the torsional vibration characteristics of a power-split hybrid powertrain equipped with a dual mass flywheel. The dynamic equations of governing torsional vibration for this hybrid driveline are presented, and the multi-body dynamic model for the powertrain is established with the software of ADAMS. Accordingly, different parameters of dual mass flywheel are investigated by forced vibration to reduce the torsional vibration of hybrid drive train. The analysis shows that the implementation of a dual mass flywheel is an effective way to decrease the torsional vibration of the hybrid powertrain. At last, the optimal combination of parameters yielding the lowest vibration is provided.

Keywords: dual mass flywheel, hybrid electric vehicle, torsional vibration, powertrain, dynamics

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2643 Mediating Role of Burnout in Personality and Marital Satisfaction of Single and Dual Career Couples

Authors: Sara Subhan


Married couples tend to experience various bio-psycho-social issues that may eventually impact the quality of their marital relationship and mental wellbeing. This study aimed to find out the comparison between the single and dual-career couples’ personality, burnout and marital satisfaction. For that purpose Big Five Inventory, Couple Satisfaction Inventory, and Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used to measure the relationship between variables. The main study was carried out on 200 samples of single and dual-earner couples with the age range of 23-52 (mean= 34.58; standard deviation= 6.51) by using a purposive sampling strategy. The results showed that burnout tendencies like exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy are playing a mediation role between the personality and marital satisfaction of both single and dual career couples. Also, the results revealed that dual-career couples are more likely to have marital satisfaction as compared to single career couples. The results were further discussed in the light of its implications in its cultural context and counseling areas.

Keywords: dual career couples, marital satisfaction, burnout tendencies, personality

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2642 A Performance Study of Fixed, Single-Axis and Dual-Axis Photovoltaic Systems in Kuwait

Authors: A. Al-Rashidi, A. El-Hamalawi


In this paper, a performance study was conducted to investigate single and dual-axis PV systems to generate electricity in five different sites in Kuwait. Relevant data were obtained by using two sources for validation purposes. A commercial software, PVsyst, was used to analyse the data, such as metrological data and other input parameters, and compute the performance parameters such as capacity factor (CF) and final yield (YF). The results indicated that single and dual-axis PV systems would be very beneficial to electricity generation in Kuwait as an alternative source to conventional power plants, especially with the increased demand over time. The ranges were also found to be competitive in comparison to leading countries using similar systems. A significant increase in CF and YF values around 24% and 28.8% was achieved related to the use of single and dual systems, respectively.

Keywords: single-axis and dual-axis photovoltaic systems, capacity factor, final yield, Kuwait

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2641 Effect of Martensite Content and Its Morphology on Mechanical Properties of Microalloyed Dual Phase Steel

Authors: M. K. Manoj, V. Pancholi, S. K. Nath


Microalloyed dual phase steels have been prepared by intercritical austenitisation (ICA) treatment of normalized steel at different temperature and time. Water quenching wad carried to obtain different martensite volume fraction (MVF) in DP steels. DP steels and normalized steels have been characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, Vickers hardness measurements and tensile properties determination. The effect of MVF and martensite morphology on mechanical properties and fracture behavior of microalloyed dual phase steels have been explained in the present work.

Keywords: dual phase steel, martensite morphology, hardness, tensile strength

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2640 A Study of Curriculum for a Dual Bachelor’s Degree Including a Teaching Certificate

Authors: Hyeon Seok Kim, Inhoi Lee, Seong Baeg Kim, Kyunghee Ko, Kyung Eon Lee, Dong Sik Kang


In the age of globalization, higher education institutions attempt to equip students with global competence. In response, most universities have been developing and running various international programs. However, teacher education has been a neglected area in this trend. Therefore, in this study, we suggest a program that offers a dual bachelor’s degree from both universities located on different countries, focusing on teacher education institutions with different policies and regulations of teacher education programs that may become obstacles to designing a dual degree program. We discuss a possible way to get a dual degree including a teaching certificate at a specialized college, college of secondary education. To be specific, this research presents a way to attain two diplomas from Jeju National University (JNU) in Korea and Boise State University (BSU) in the U.S. It attempts to build an effective plan for students to declare simultaneous degrees at both universities. From the study, we find that it takes about 5 years to fulfill requirements for the dual degree at the undergraduate level.

Keywords: dual degree, curriculum, teaching certificate, college of secondary education, international program

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