Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: VoIP

13 Performance Analysis of VoIP Coders for Different Modulations Under Pervasive Environment

Authors: Jasbinder Singh, Harjit Pal Singh, S. A. Khan


The work, in this paper, presents the comparison of encoded speech signals by different VoIP narrow-band and wide-band codecs for different modulation schemes. The simulation results indicate that codec has an impact on the speech quality and also effected by modulation schemes.

Keywords: VoIP, coders, modulations, BER, MOS

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12 Analysis of Interleaving Scheme for Narrowband VoIP System under Pervasive Environment

Authors: Monica Sharma, Harjit Pal Singh, Jasbinder Singh, Manju Bala


In Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) system, the speech signal is degraded when passed through the network layers. The speech signal is processed through the best effort policy based IP network, which leads to the network degradations including delay, packet loss and jitter. The packet loss is the major issue of the degradation in the VoIP signal quality; even a single lost packet may generate audible distortion in the decoded speech signal. In addition to these network degradations, the quality of the speech signal is also affected by the environmental noises and coder distortions. The signal quality of the VoIP system is improved through the interleaving technique. The performance of the system is evaluated for various types of noises at different network conditions. The performance of the enhanced VoIP signal is evaluated using perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) measurement for narrow band signal.

Keywords: VoIP, interleaving, packet loss, packet size, background noise

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11 CVOIP-FRU: Comprehensive VoIP Forensics Report Utility

Authors: Alejandro Villegas, Cihan Varol


Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) products is an emerging technology that can contain forensically important information for a criminal activity. Without having the user name and passwords, this forensically important information can still be gathered by the investigators. Although there are a few VoIP forensic investigative applications available in the literature, most of them are particularly designed to collect evidence from the Skype product. Therefore, in order to assist law enforcement with collecting forensically important information from variety of Betamax VoIP tools, CVOIP-FRU framework is developed. CVOIP-FRU provides a data gathering solution that retrieves usernames, contact lists, as well as call and SMS logs from Betamax VoIP products. It is a scripting utility that searches for data within the registry, logs and the user roaming profiles in Windows and Mac OSX operating systems. Subsequently, it parses the output into readable text and html formats. One superior way of CVOIP-FRU compared to the other applications that due to intelligent data filtering capabilities and cross platform scripting back end of CVOIP-FRU, it is expandable to include other VoIP solutions as well. Overall, this paper reveals the exploratory analysis performed in order to find the key data paths and locations, the development stages of the framework, and the empirical testing and quality assurance of CVOIP-FRU.

Keywords: betamax, digital forensics, report utility, VoIP, VoIPBuster, VoIPWise

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10 Towards a Security Model against Denial of Service Attacks for SIP Traffic

Authors: Arellano Karina, Diego Avila-Pesántez, Leticia Vaca-Cárdenas, Alberto Arellano, Carmen Mantilla


Nowadays, security threats in Voice over IP (VoIP) systems are an essential and latent concern for people in charge of security in a corporate network, because, every day, new Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks are developed. These affect the business continuity of an organization, regarding confidentiality, availability, and integrity of services, causing frequent losses of both information and money. The purpose of this study is to establish the necessary measures to mitigate DoS threats, which affect the availability of VoIP systems, based on the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). A Security Model called MS-DoS-SIP is proposed, which is based on two approaches. The first one analyzes the recommendations of international security standards. The second approach takes into account weaknesses and threats. The implementation of this model in a VoIP simulated system allowed to minimize the present vulnerabilities in 92% and increase the availability time of the VoIP service into an organization.

Keywords: Denial-of-Service SIP attacks, MS-DoS-SIP, security model, VoIP-SIP vulnerabilities

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9 Voice over IP Quality of Service Evaluation for Mobile Ad Hoc Network in an Indoor Environment for Different Voice Codecs

Authors: Lina Abou Haibeh, Nadir Hakem, Ousama Abu Safia


In this paper, the performance and quality of Voice over IP (VoIP) calls carried over a Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) which has a number of SIP nodes registered on a SIP Proxy are analyzed. The testing campaigns are carried out in an indoor corridor structure having a well-defined channel’s characteristics and model for the different voice codecs, G.711, G.727 and G.723.1. These voice codecs are commonly used in VoIP technology. The calls’ quality are evaluated using four Quality of Service (QoS) metrics, namely, mean opinion score (MOS), jitter, delay, and packet loss. The relationship between the wireless channel’s parameters and the optimum codec is well-established. According to the experimental results, the voice codec G.711 has the best performance for the proposed MANET topology

Keywords: wireless channel modelling, Voip, MANET, session initiation protocol (SIP), QoS

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8 Fast Fourier Transform-Based Steganalysis of Covert Communications over Streaming Media

Authors: Jinghui Peng, Shanyu Tang, Jia Li


Steganalysis seeks to detect the presence of secret data embedded in cover objects, and there is an imminent demand to detect hidden messages in streaming media. This paper shows how a steganalysis algorithm based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) can be used to detect the existence of secret data embedded in streaming media. The proposed algorithm uses machine parameter characteristics and a network sniffer to determine whether the Internet traffic contains streaming channels. The detected streaming data is then transferred from the time domain to the frequency domain through FFT. The distributions of power spectra in the frequency domain between original VoIP streams and stego VoIP streams are compared in turn using t-test, achieving the p-value of 7.5686E-176 which is below the threshold. The results indicate that the proposed FFT-based steganalysis algorithm is effective in detecting the secret data embedded in VoIP streaming media.

Keywords: steganalysis, security, Fast Fourier Transform, streaming media

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7 SIP Flooding Attacks Detection and Prevention Using Shannon, Renyi and Tsallis Entropy

Authors: Neda Seyyedi, Reza Berangi


Voice over IP (VOIP) network, also known as Internet telephony, is growing increasingly having occupied a large part of the communications market. With the growth of each technology, the related security issues become of particular importance. Taking advantage of this technology in different environments with numerous features put at our disposal, there arises an increasing need to address the security threats. Being IP-based and playing a signaling role in VOIP networks, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) lets the invaders use weaknesses of the protocol to disable VOIP service. One of the most important threats is denial of service attack, a branch of which in this article we have discussed as flooding attacks. These attacks make server resources wasted and deprive it from delivering service to authorized users. Distributed denial of service attacks and attacks with a low rate can mislead many attack detection mechanisms. In this paper, we introduce a mechanism which not only detects distributed denial of service attacks and low rate attacks, but can also identify the attackers accurately. We detect and prevent flooding attacks in SIP protocol using Shannon (FDP-S), Renyi (FDP-R) and Tsallis (FDP-T) entropy. We conducted an experiment to compare the percentage of detection and rate of false alarm messages using any of the Shannon, Renyi and Tsallis entropy as a measure of disorder. Implementation results show that, according to the parametric nature of the Renyi and Tsallis entropy, by changing the parameters, different detection percentages and false alarm rates will be gained with the possibility to adjust the sensitivity of the detection mechanism.

Keywords: VOIP networks, flooding attacks, entropy, computer networks

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6 Comparative Study of Scheduling Algorithms for LTE Networks

Authors: Samia Dardouri, Ridha Bouallegue


Scheduling is the process of dynamically allocating physical resources to User Equipment (UE) based on scheduling algorithms implemented at the LTE base station. Various algorithms have been proposed by network researchers as the implementation of scheduling algorithm which represents an open issue in Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard. This paper makes an attempt to study and compare the performance of PF, MLWDF and EXP/PF scheduling algorithms. The evaluation is considered for a single cell with interference scenario for different flows such as Best effort, Video and VoIP in a pedestrian and vehicular environment using the LTE-Sim network simulator. The comparative study is conducted in terms of system throughput, fairness index, delay, packet loss ratio (PLR) and total cell spectral efficiency.

Keywords: LTE, multimedia flows, scheduling algorithms, mobile computing

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5 A Novel RLS Based Adaptive Filtering Method for Speech Enhancement

Authors: Pogula Rakesh, T. Kishore Kumar


Speech enhancement is a long standing problem with numerous applications like teleconferencing, VoIP, hearing aids, and speech recognition. The motivation behind this research work is to obtain a clean speech signal of higher quality by applying the optimal noise cancellation technique. Real-time adaptive filtering algorithms seem to be the best candidate among all categories of the speech enhancement methods. In this paper, we propose a speech enhancement method based on Recursive Least Squares (RLS) adaptive filter of speech signals. Experiments were performed on noisy data which was prepared by adding AWGN, Babble and Pink noise to clean speech samples at -5dB, 0dB, 5dB, and 10dB SNR levels. We then compare the noise cancellation performance of proposed RLS algorithm with existing NLMS algorithm in terms of Mean Squared Error (MSE), Signal to Noise ratio (SNR), and SNR loss. Based on the performance evaluation, the proposed RLS algorithm was found to be a better optimal noise cancellation technique for speech signals.

Keywords: adaptive filter, adaptive noise canceller, mean squared error, noise reduction, NLMS, RLS, SNR, SNR loss

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4 LTE Performance Analysis in the City of Bogota Northern Zone for Two Different Mobile Broadband Operators over Qualipoc

Authors: Víctor D. Rodríguez, Edith P. Estupiñán, Juan C. Martínez


The evolution in mobile broadband technologies has allowed to increase the download rates in users considering the current services. The evaluation of technical parameters at the link level is of vital importance to validate the quality and veracity of the connection, thus avoiding large losses of data, time and productivity. Some of these failures may occur between the eNodeB (Evolved Node B) and the user equipment (UE), so the link between the end device and the base station can be observed. LTE (Long Term Evolution) is considered one of the IP-oriented mobile broadband technologies that work stably for data and VoIP (Voice Over IP) for those devices that have that feature. This research presents a technical analysis of the connection and channeling processes between UE and eNodeB with the TAC (Tracking Area Code) variables, and analysis of performance variables (Throughput, Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR)). Three measurement scenarios were proposed in the city of Bogotá using QualiPoc, where two operators were evaluated (Operator 1 and Operator 2). Once the data were obtained, an analysis of the variables was performed determining that the data obtained in transmission modes vary depending on the parameters BLER (Block Error Rate), performance and SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio). In the case of both operators, differences in transmission modes are detected and this is reflected in the quality of the signal. In addition, due to the fact that both operators work in different frequencies, it can be seen that Operator 1, despite having spectrum in Band 7 (2600 MHz), together with Operator 2, is reassigning to another frequency, a lower band, which is AWS (1700 MHz), but the difference in signal quality with respect to the establishment with data by the provider Operator 2 and the difference found in the transmission modes determined by the eNodeB in Operator 1 is remarkable.

Keywords: BLER, LTE, network, qualipoc, SNR.

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3 Critical Evaluation and Analysis of Effects of Different Queuing Disciplines on Packets Delivery and Delay for Different Applications

Authors: Omojokun Gabriel Aju


Communication network is a process of exchanging data between two or more devices via some forms of transmission medium using communication protocols. The data could be in form of text, images, audio, video or numbers which can be grouped into FTP, Email, HTTP, VOIP or Video applications. The effectiveness of such data exchange will be proved if they are accurately delivered within specified time. While some senders will not really mind when the data is actually received by the receiving device, inasmuch as it is acknowledged to have been received by the receiver. The time a data takes to get to a receiver could be very important to another sender, as any delay could cause serious problem or even in some cases rendered the data useless. The validity or invalidity of a data after delay will therefore definitely depend on the type of data (information). It is therefore imperative for the network device (such as router) to be able to differentiate among the packets which are time sensitive and those that are not, when they are passing through the same network. So, here is where the queuing disciplines comes to play, to handle network resources when such network is designed to service widely varying types of traffics and manage the available resources according to the configured policies. Therefore, as part of the resources allocation mechanisms, a router within the network must implement some queuing discipline that governs how packets (data) are buffered while waiting to be transmitted. The implementation of the queuing discipline will regulate how the packets are buffered while waiting to be transmitted. In achieving this, various queuing disciplines are being used to control the transmission of these packets, by determining which of the packets get the highest priority, less priority and which packets are dropped. The queuing discipline will therefore control the packets latency by determining how long a packet can wait to be transmitted or dropped. The common queuing disciplines are first-in-first-out queuing, Priority queuing and Weighted-fair queuing (FIFO, PQ and WFQ). This paper critically evaluates and analyse through the use of Optimized Network Evaluation Tool (OPNET) Modeller, Version 14.5 the effects of three queuing disciplines (FIFO, PQ and WFQ) on the performance of 5 different applications (FTP, HTTP, E-Mail, Voice and Video) within specified parameters using packets sent, packets received and transmission delay as performance metrics. The paper finally suggests some ways in which networks can be designed to provide better transmission performance while using these queuing disciplines.

Keywords: applications, first-in-first-out queuing (FIFO), optimised network evaluation tool (OPNET), packets, priority queuing (PQ), queuing discipline, weighted-fair queuing (WFQ)

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2 High Efficiency Double-Band Printed Rectenna Model for Energy Harvesting

Authors: Rakelane A. Mendes, Sandro T. M. Goncalves, Raphaella L. R. Silva


The concepts of energy harvesting and wireless energy transfer have been widely discussed in recent times. There are some ways to create autonomous systems for collecting ambient energy, such as solar, vibratory, thermal, electromagnetic, radiofrequency (RF), among others. In the case of the RF it is possible to collect up to 100 μW / cm². To collect and/or transfer energy in RF systems, a device called rectenna is used, which is defined by the junction of an antenna and a rectifier circuit. The rectenna presented in this work is resonant at the frequencies of 1.8 GHz and 2.45 GHz. Frequencies at 1.8 GHz band are e part of the GSM / LTE band. The GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is a frequency band of mobile telephony, it is also called second generation mobile networks (2G), it came to standardize mobile telephony in the world and was originally developed for voice traffic. LTE (Long Term Evolution) or fourth generation (4G) has emerged to meet the demand for wireless access to services such as Internet access, online games, VoIP and video conferencing. The 2.45 GHz frequency is part of the ISM (Instrumentation, Scientific and Medical) frequency band, this band is internationally reserved for industrial, scientific and medical development with no need for licensing, and its only restrictions are related to maximum power transfer and bandwidth, which must be kept within certain limits (in Brazil the bandwidth is 2.4 - 2.4835 GHz). The rectenna presented in this work was designed to present efficiency above 50% for an input power of -15 dBm. It is known that for wireless energy capture systems the signal power is very low and varies greatly, for this reason this ultra-low input power was chosen. The Rectenna was built using the low cost FR4 (Flame Resistant) substrate, the antenna selected is a microfita antenna, consisting of a Meandered dipole, and this one was optimized using the software CST Studio. This antenna has high efficiency, high gain and high directivity. Gain is the quality of an antenna in capturing more or less efficiently the signals transmitted by another antenna and/or station. Directivity is the quality that an antenna has to better capture energy in a certain direction. The rectifier circuit used has series topology and was optimized using Keysight's ADS software. The rectifier circuit is the most complex part of the rectenna, since it includes the diode, which is a non-linear component. The chosen diode is the Schottky diode SMS 7630, this presents low barrier voltage (between 135-240 mV) and a wider band compared to other types of diodes, and these attributes make it perfect for this type of application. In the rectifier circuit are also used inductor and capacitor, these are part of the input and output filters of the rectifier circuit. The inductor has the function of decreasing the dispersion effect on the efficiency of the rectifier circuit. The capacitor has the function of eliminating the AC component of the rectifier circuit and making the signal undulating.

Keywords: dipole antenna, double-band, high efficiency, rectenna

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1 Health and Climate Changes: "Ippocrate" a New Alert System to Monitor and Identify High Risk

Authors: A. Calabrese, V. F. Uricchio, D. di Noia, S. Favale, C. Caiati, G. P. Maggi, G. Donvito, D. Diacono, S. Tangaro, A. Italiano, E. Riezzo, M. Zippitelli, M. Toriello, E. Celiberti, D. Festa, A. Colaianni


Climate change has a severe impact on human health. There is a vast literature demonstrating temperature increase is causally related to cardiovascular problem and represents a high risk for human health, but there are not study that improve a solution. In this work, it is studied how the clime influenced the human parameter through the analysis of climatic conditions in an area of the Apulia Region: Capurso Municipality. At the same time, medical personnel involved identified a set of variables useful to define an index describing health condition. These scientific studies are the base of an innovative alert system, IPPOCRATE, whose aim is to asses climate risk and share information to population at risk to support prevention and mitigation actions. IPPOCRATE is an e-health system, it is designed to provide technological support to analysis of health risk related to climate and provide tools for prevention and management of critical events. It is the first integrated system of prevention of human risk caused by climate change. IPPOCRATE calculates risk weighting meteorological data with the vulnerability of monitored subjects and uses mobile and cloud technologies to acquire and share information on different data channels. It is composed of four components: Multichannel Hub. Multichannel Hub is the ICT infrastructure used to feed IPPOCRATE cloud with a different type of data coming from remote monitoring devices, or imported from meteorological databases. Such data are ingested, transformed and elaborated in order to be dispatched towards mobile app and VoIP phone systems. IPPOCRATE Multichannel Hub uses open communication protocols to create a set of APIs useful to interface IPPOCRATE with 3rd party applications. Internally, it uses non-relational paradigm to create flexible and highly scalable database. WeHeart and Smart Application The wearable device WeHeart is equipped with sensors designed to measure following biometric variables: heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, body temperature and blood glucose for diabetic subjects. WeHeart is designed to be easy of use and non-invasive. For data acquisition, users need only to wear it and connect it to Smart Application by Bluetooth protocol. Easy Box was designed to take advantage from new technologies related to e-health care. EasyBox allows user to fully exploit all IPPOCRATE features. Its name, Easy Box, reveals its purpose of container for various devices that may be included depending on user needs. Territorial Registry is the IPPOCRATE web module reserved to medical personnel for monitoring, research and analysis activities. Territorial Registry allows to access to all information gathered by IPPOCRATE using GIS system in order to execute spatial analysis combining geographical data (climatological information and monitored data) with information regarding the clinical history of users and their personal details. Territorial Registry was designed for different type of users: control rooms managed by wide area health facilities, single health care center or single doctor. Territorial registry manages such hierarchy diversifying the access to system functionalities. IPPOCRATE is the first e-Health system focused on climate risk prevention.

Keywords: climate change, health risk, new technological system

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