Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 838

Search results for: hard alloy-400

838 Reduction of Wear via Hardfacing of Rotavator Blades

Authors: Gurjinder Singh Randhawa, Jonny Garg, Sukhraj Singh, Gurmeet Singh Cheema


A major problem related to the use of rotavator is wear of rotavator blades due to abrasion by soil hard particles, as it seriously affects tillage quality and agricultural production economy. The objective of this study was to increase the wear resistance by covering the rotavator blades with two different hard facing electrodes. These blades are generally produced from low carbon or low alloy steel. During the field work i.e. preparing land for the cultivation these blades are subjected to severe wear conditions. Comparative wear tests on a regular rotavator blade and two kinds of hardfacing with electrodes were conducted in the field. These two different hardfacing electrodes, which are designated HARD ALLOY-400 and HARD ALLOY-650, were used for hardfacing. The wear rate in the field tests was found to be significantly different statistically. When the cost is taken into consideration; HARD ALLOY-650 and HARD ALLOY-400 have been found to be the best hardfacing electrodes.

Keywords: hardfacing, rotavator blades, hard alloy-400, abrasive wear

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837 The Impacts of Soft and Hard Enterprise Resource Planning to the Corporate Business Performance through the Enterprise Resource Planning Integrated System

Authors: Sautma Ronni Basana, Zeplin Jiwa Husada Tarigan, Widjojo Suprapto


Companies have already implemented the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system to increase the data integration so that they can improve their business performance. Although some companies have managed to implement the ERP well, they still need to improve gradually so that the ERP functions can be optimized. To obtain a faster and more accurate data, the key users and IT department have to customize the process to suit the needs of the company. In reality, sustaining the ERP technology system requires soft and hard ERP so it enables to improve the business performance of the company. Soft and hard ERP are needed to build a tough system to ensure the integration among departments running smoothly. This research has three questions. First, is the soft ERP bringing impacts to the hard ERP and system integration. Then, is the hard ERP having impacts to the system integration. Finally, is the business performance of the manufacturing companies is affected by the soft ERP, hard ERP, and system integration. The questionnaires are distributed to 100 manufacturing companies in East Java, and are collected from 90 companies which have implemented the ERP, with the response rate of 90%. From the data analysis using PLS program, it is obtained that the soft ERP brings positive impacts to the hard ERP and system integration for the companies. Then, the hard ERP brings also positive impacts to the system integration. Finally, the business process performance of the manufacturing companies is affected by the system integration, soft ERP, and hard ERP simultaneously.

Keywords: soft ERP, hard ERP, system integration, business performance

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836 Classification of Germinatable Mung Bean by Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

Authors: Kaewkarn Phuangsombat, Arthit Phuangsombat, Anupun Terdwongworakul


Hard seeds will not grow and can cause mold in sprouting process. Thus, the hard seeds need to be separated from the normal seeds. Near infrared hyperspectral imaging in a range of 900 to 1700 nm was implemented to develop a model by partial least squares discriminant analysis to discriminate the hard seeds from the normal seeds. The orientation of the seeds was also studied to compare the performance of the models. The model based on hilum-up orientation achieved the best result giving the coefficient of determination of 0.98, and root mean square error of prediction of 0.07 with classification accuracy was equal to 100%.

Keywords: mung bean, near infrared, germinatability, hard seed

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835 Pioneer Synthesis and Characterization of Boron Containing Hard Materials

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş


The first laboratory synthesis of hard materials such as diamond proceeded to attack of developing materials with high hardness to compete diamond. Boron rich solids are good candidates owing to their short interatomic bond lengths and strong covalent character. Boron containing hard material was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere by using a fuel (glycine or urea), amorphous boron and/or boric acid in appropriate molar ratio. Characterizations were done by x-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analyze (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric/differantial thermal analysis (TG/DTA).

Keywords: boron containing materials, hard materials, microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction

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834 Hard Sludge Formation and Consolidation in Pressurized Water Reactor Steam Generators: An Experimental Study

Authors: R. Fernandez-Saavedra, M. B. Gomez-Mancebo, D. Gomez-Briceno


The gradual corrosion of PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) feedwater, condensate and drain systems results in the inevitable liberation of corrosion products, principally metallic oxides, to the secondary circuit. In addition, other contaminants and impurities are introduced into the makeup water, auxiliary feedwater and by condenser leaks. All these compounds circulating in the secondary flow can eventually be transported to steam generators and be transformed into deposits on their surfaces. Deposits that accumulate on the tube sheet are known as sludge piles and when they consolidate and harden become into hard sludge. Hard sludge is especially detrimental because it favors tube deformation or denting at the top of tube sheet and further stress corrosion cracking (SCC). These failures affect the efficiency of nuclear power plants. In a recent work, a model for the formation and consolidation of hard sludge has been formulated, highlighting the influence of aluminum and silicon compounds in the initial formation of hard sludge. In this work, an experimental study has been performed in order to get a deeper understanding of the behavior of Al and Si species in hard sludge formation and consolidation. For this purpose, the key components of hard sludge (magnetite, aluminum and/or silicon sources) have been isothermally autoclaved in representative secondary circuit conditions during one week, and the resulting products have been chemically and structurally characterized by XRF and XRD techniques, respectively.

Keywords: consolidation, hard sludge, secondary circuit, steam generator

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833 Analysis for Shear Spinning of Tubes with Hard-To-Work Materials

Authors: Sukhwinder Singh Jolly


Metal spinning is one such process in which the stresses are localized to a small area and the material is made to flow or move over the mandrel with the help of spinning tool. Spinning of tubular products can be performed by two techniques, forward spinning and backward spinning. Many researchers have studied the process both experimentally and analytically. An effort has been made to apply the process to the spinning of thin wall, highly precision, small bore long tube in hard-to-work materials such as titanium.

Keywords: metal spinning, hard-to-work materials, roller diameter, power consumption

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832 The Using of Smart Power Concepts in Military Targeting Process

Authors: Serdal AKYUZ


The smart power is the use of soft and hard power together in consideration of existing circumstances. Soft power can be defined as the capability of changing perception of any target mass by employing policies based on legality. The hard power, generally, uses military and economic instruments which are the concrete indicator of general power comprehension. More than providing a balance between soft and hard power, smart power creates a proactive combination by assessing existing resources. Military targeting process (MTP), as stated in smart power methodology, benefits from a wide scope of lethal and non-lethal weapons to reach intended end state. The Smart powers components can be used in military targeting process similar to using of lethal or non-lethal weapons. This paper investigates the current use of Smart power concept, MTP and presents a new approach to MTP from smart power concept point of view.

Keywords: future security environment, hard power, military targeting process, soft power, smart power

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831 Evaluation of Hard Rocks Destruction Effectiveness at Drilling

Authors: Ekaterina Leusheva, Valentin Morenov


Well drilling in hard rocks is coupled with high energy demands which negates the speed of the process and thus reduces overall effectiveness. Aim of this project is to develop the technique of experimental research, which would allow to select optimal washing fluid composition while adding special hardness reducing detergent reagents. Based on the analysis of existing references and conducted experiments, technique dealing with quantitative evaluation of washing fluid weakening influence on drilled rocks was developed, which considers laboratory determination of three mud properties (density, surface tension, specific electrical resistance) and three rock properties (ultimate stress, dynamic strength, micro-hardness). Developed technique can be used in the well drilling technologies and particularly while creating new compositions of drilling muds for increased destruction effectiveness of hard rocks. It can be concluded that given technique introduces coefficient of hard rocks destruction effectiveness that allows quantitative evaluation of different drilling muds on the drilling process to be taken. Correct choice of drilling mud composition with hardness reducing detergent reagents will increase drilling penetration rate and drill meterage per bit.

Keywords: detergent reagents, drilling mud, drilling process stimulation, hard rocks

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830 Screening for Antibacterial, Antifungal and Cytotoxic Agents in Three Hard Coral Species from Persian Gulf

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpou, Majid Afkhami, Flora Mohammadizadeh, Amirhoushang Bahri, Rastin Afkhami


Within the frame of a biodiversity and bioactivity study of marine macro organisms from the Persian Gulf, three hard coral species extracts were investigated for cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activities against five human pathogenic microorganisms. All concentrations of extracts from three hard corals showed no antifungal activity towards the tested strains. In antibacterial assays, the hard coral extracts showed significant activity solely against Staphylococcus aureus with MICs ranging from 3 to 9 μg/ml. The highest antibacterial activity was found in the aqueous methanol extract of Porites compressa with an inhibition zone of 22 mm against Staphylococcus aureus at 18 μg/ml extract concentration. Methanol extracts from Porites harrisoi and Porites compressa exhibited only weak cytotoxic activities. It is important for future research to concentrate on finding the mechanisms employed by corals to defend themselves against invasion, the mechanism of infections and the type of chemical compounds in coral extracts that inhibit antibacterial growth or proliferation in underexplored areas such as the Persian Gulf.

Keywords: antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, hard corals, Persian Gulf

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829 Analysis of Hard Turning Process of AISI D3-Thermal Aspects

Authors: B. Varaprasad, C. Srinivasa Rao


In the manufacturing sector, hard turning has emerged as vital machining process for cutting hardened steels. Besides many advantages of hard turning operation, one has to implement to achieve close tolerances in terms of surface finish, high product quality, reduced machining time, low operating cost and environmentally friendly characteristics. In the present study, three-dimensional CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) based simulation of  hard turning by using commercial software DEFORM 3D has been compared to experimental results of  stresses, temperatures and tool forces in machining of AISI D3 steel using mixed Ceramic inserts (CC6050). In the present analysis, orthogonal cutting models are proposed, considering several processing parameters such as cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut. An exhaustive friction modeling at the tool-work interfaces is carried out. Work material flow around the cutting edge is carefully modeled with adaptive re-meshing simulation capability. In process simulations, feed rate and cutting speed are constant (i.e.,. 0.075 mm/rev and 155 m/min), and analysis is focused on stresses, forces, and temperatures during machining. Close agreement is observed between CAE simulation and experimental values.

Keywords: hard turning, computer aided engineering, computational machining, finite element method

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828 Investigations in Machining of Hot Work Tool Steel with Mixed Ceramic Tool

Authors: B. Varaprasad, C. Srinivasa Rao


Hard turning has been explored as an alternative to the conventional one used for manufacture of Parts using tool steels. In the present study, the effects of cutting speed, feed rate and Depth of Cut (DOC) on cutting forces, specific cutting force, power and surface roughness in the hard turning are experimentally investigated. Experiments are carried out using mixed ceramic(Al2O3+TiC) cutting tool of corner radius 0.8mm, in turning operations on AISI H13 tool steel, heat treated to a hardness of 62 HRC. Based on Design of Experiments (DOE), a total of 20 tests are carried out. The range of each one of the three parameters is set at three different levels, viz, low, medium and high. The validity of the model is checked by Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Predicted models are derived from regression analysis. Comparison of experimental and predicted values of specific cutting force, power and surface roughness shows that good agreement has been achieved between them. Therefore, the developed model may be recommended to be used for predicting specific cutting force, power and surface roughness in hard turning of tool steel that is AISI H13 steel.

Keywords: hard turning, specific cutting force, power, surface roughness, AISI H13, mixed ceramic

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827 Financial Assessment of the Hard Coal Mining in the Chosen Region in the Czech Republic: Real Options Methodology Application

Authors: Miroslav Čulík, Petr Gurný


This paper is aimed at the financial assessment of the hard coal mining in a given region by real option methodology application. Hard coal mining in this mine makes net loss for the owner during the last years due to the long-term unfavourable mining conditions and significant drop in the coal prices during the last years. Management is going to shut down the operation and abandon the project to reduce the loss of the company. The goal is to assess whether the shutting down the operation is the only and correct solution of the problem. Due to the uncertainty in the future hard coal price evolution, the production might be again restarted if the price raises enough to cover the cost of the production. For the assessment, real option methodology is applied, which captures two important aspect of the financial decision-making: risk and flexibility. The paper is structured as follows: first, current state is described and problem is analysed. Next, methodology of real options is described. At last, project is evaluated by applying real option methodology. The results are commented and recommendations are provided.

Keywords: real option, investment, option to abandon, option to shut down and restart, risk, flexibility

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826 Predictive Modeling of Flank Wear in Hard Turning Using the Taguchi Method

Authors: Suha K. Shihab, Zahid A. Khan, Aas Mohammad, Arshad Noor Siddiquee


This paper presents the influence of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed and depth of cut) on flank wear (VB) in turning of 52100 hard alloy steel using multilayer coated carbide insert under dry condition. Nine experiments were performed based on Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the effects of the cutting parameters on flank wear. The results of the study revealed that the cutting speed (A) and feed rate (B) are the dominant factors affecting flank wear, while the depth of cut (C) has not a significant effect. The optimal combination of the cutting parameters for flank wear is found to be A1B1C1. The mathematical model for flank wear is found to be statistically significant. The predicted and measured values of flank wear are found to be very close to each other.

Keywords: flank wear, hard turning, Taguchi approach, optimization

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825 Production of Hard Nickel Particle Reinforced Ti6Al4V Matrix Composites by Hot Pressing

Authors: Ridvan Yamanoglu


In the current study, titanium based composites reinforced by hard nickel alloy particles were produced. Powder metallurgical hot pressing technique was used for the fabrication of composite materials. The composites containing different ratio of hard nickel particles were sintered at 900 oC for 15 and 30 minutes under 50 MPa pressure. All titanium based composites were obtained under a vacuum atmosphere of 10-4 mbar to prevent of oxidation of titanium due to its high reactivity to oxygen. The microstructural characterization of the composite samples was carried out by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the samples were determined by means of hardness and wear tests. The results showed that when the nickel particle content increased the mechanical properties of the composites enhanced. The results are discussed in detail and optimum nickel particle content were determined.

Keywords: titanium, composite, nickel, hot pressing

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824 A New Approach for PE100 Characterization; An in-Reactor HDPE Alloy with Semi Hard and Soft Segments

Authors: Sasan Talebnezhad, Parviz Hamidia


GPC and RMS analysis showed no distinct difference between PE 100 On, Off, and Reference grade. But FTIR spectra and multiple endothermic peaks obtained from SSA analysis, attributed to heterogeneity of ethylene sequence length, lamellar thickness and also the non-uniformity of short chain branching, showed sharp discrepancy and proposed a blend structure of high-density polyethylenes in PE 100 grade. Catalysis along with process parameters dictates poly blend PE 100 structure. This in-reactor blend is a mixture of compatible co-crystallized phases with different crystalinity, forming a physical semi hard and soft segment network responsible for improved impact properties in PE 100 pipe grade. We propose a new approach for PE100 evaluation that is more efficient than normal microstructure characterization.

Keywords: HDPE, pipe grade, in-reactor blend, hard and soft segments

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823 What Children Do and Do Not Like about Taking Part in Sport: Using Focus Groups to Investigate Thoughts and Feelings of Children with Hearing Loss

Authors: S. Somerset, D. J. Hoare, P. Leighton


Limited participation in physical activity and sport has been linked to poorer mental and physical health in children. Studies have shown that children who participate in sports benefit from improved social skills, self-confidence, communication skills and a better quality of life. Children who participate in sport are also more likely to continue their participation into their adult life. Deaf or hard of hearing children should have the same opportunities to participate in sport and receive the benefits as their hearing peers. Anecdotal evidence suggests this isn’t always the case. This is concerning given there are 45,000 children in the UK with permanent hearing loss. The aim of this study was to understand what encourages or discourages deaf or hard of hearing children to take part in sports. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the University of Nottingham School of Medicine ethics committee. We conducted eight focus groups with deaf or hard of hearing children aged 10 to 15 years. A total of 45 children (19 male, 26 female) recruited from local schools and sports clubs took part. Information was gathered on the children’s thoughts and feelings about participation in sport. This included whether they played sports and who with, whether they did or did not like sport, and why they got involved in sport. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Several key themes were identified as being associated with levels of sports participation. These included friendships, family and communication. Deaf or hard of hearing children with active siblings had participated in more sports. Communication was a common theme throughout regardless of the type of hearing-assistive technology a child used. Children found communication easier during sport if they were allowed to use their technology and had particular difficulty during sports such as swimming. Children expressed a desire not to have to identify themselves at a club as having a hearing loss. This affected their confidence when participating in sport. Not surprisingly, children who are deaf or hard of hearing are more likely to participate in sport if they have a good support network of parents, coaches and friends. The key barriers to participation for these children are communication, lack of visual information, lack of opportunity and a lack of awareness. By addressing these issues more deaf and hard of hearing children will take part in sport and will continue their participation.

Keywords: barrier, children, deaf, participation, hard of hearing, sport

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822 Complicated Sinusitis with Sphenopalatine Artery Thrombosis in a Covid-19 Patient

Authors: Sara Mahmood, Omar Ahmed, Youssef Aladham, Moustafa Abdelnaby


The varied complications of COVID-19 present an ongoing challenge to healthcare professionals. A rare presentation of complicated sinusitis with pre-septal cellulitis and hard palatal necrosis in a COVID-19 patient, was reported. A 52-year-old male was admitted to the hospital with typical COVID manifestations where he had two successive COVID-19 positive swabs. During his admission, he developed symptoms of right orbital complications of sinusitis along with both clinical and radiological evidence of ipsilateral hard palatal necrosis. Imaging confirmed a diagnosis of right pan-sinusitis complicated with right pre-septal infection and hard palatal bony defect on the same side. Intra-operatively, the sphenopalatine artery was found to be thrombosed. This case focuses on the possible association between these manifestations and the known thromboembolic complications of COVID-19. Ongoing management of such complicated rare cases should be through a multidisciplinary team.

Keywords: COVID-19, sinusitis, sphenopalatine artery, thrombosis

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821 Modeling of Surface Roughness in Hard Turning of DIN 1.2210 Cold Work Tool Steel with Ceramic Tools

Authors: Mehmet Erdi Korkmaz, Mustafa Günay


Nowadays, grinding is frequently replaced with hard turning for reducing set up time and higher accuracy. This paper focused on mathematical modeling of average surface roughness (Ra) in hard turning of AISI L2 grade (DIN 1.2210) cold work tool steel with ceramic tools. The steel was hardened to 60±1 HRC after the heat treatment process. Cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool nose radius was chosen as the cutting conditions. The uncoated ceramic cutting tools were used in the machining experiments. The machining experiments were performed according to Taguchi L27 orthogonal array on CNC lathe. Ra values were calculated by averaging three roughness values obtained from three different points of machined surface. The influences of cutting conditions on surface roughness were evaluated as statistical and experimental. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95% confidence level was applied for statistical analysis of experimental results. Finally, mathematical models were developed using the artificial neural networks (ANN). ANOVA results show that feed rate is the dominant factor affecting surface roughness, followed by tool nose radius and cutting speed.

Keywords: ANN, hard turning, DIN 1.2210, surface roughness, Taguchi method

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820 A Hybrid Algorithm Based on Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure and Chemical Reaction Optimization for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Hard Time Windows

Authors: Imen Boudali, Marwa Ragmoun


The Vehicle Routing Problem with Hard Time Windows (VRPHTW) is a basic distribution management problem that models many real-world problems. The objective of the problem is to deliver a set of customers with known demands on minimum-cost vehicle routes while satisfying vehicle capacity and hard time windows for customers. In this paper, we propose to deal with our optimization problem by using a new hybrid stochastic algorithm based on two metaheuristics: Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO) and Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP). The first method is inspired by the natural process of chemical reactions enabling the transformation of unstable substances with excessive energy to stable ones. During this process, the molecules interact with each other through a series of elementary reactions to reach minimum energy for their existence. This property is embedded in CRO to solve the VRPHTW. In order to enhance the population diversity throughout the search process, we integrated the GRASP in our method. Simulation results on the base of Solomon’s benchmark instances show the very satisfactory performances of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Benchmark Problems, Combinatorial Optimization, Vehicle Routing Problem with Hard Time Windows, Meta-heuristics, Hybridization, GRASP, CRO

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819 Soft Power in International Politics: Defense and Continued Relevance

Authors: Shivani Yadav


The paper will first elaborate on the concept of soft power as formulated by Joseph Nye, who argues that soft power is as important as hard power in international politics as it replaces coercion with non-coercive forms of co-optation and attraction. The central tenet of the paper is to extrapolate the continued relevance of soft power in international relations in the 21st century. It is argued that the relevance of soft power, in concurrence with hard power, is on the rise in the international system. This is found to be emanating out of two factors. First, the state-centric practice of international relations has expanded to allow other actors to participate in policymaking. This has led to the resources for power generation to become varied, largely move away from the control of governments, and to produce both hard and soft power attributes. Second, as the currency of coercive power seems to be devaluing in global politics, the role of intangible factors like soft power is getting more important in policymaking. The paper will then go on to elaborate on the critiques of the formulation of soft power from various perspectives, as well as the defenses to these critiques presented by soft power proponents. The paper will reflect on the continued relevance of soft power in international politics by giving the example of India, and how soft power has continued to serve its policy objectives over the years. It is observed that even as India is recognized as a rising superpower today, yet it has made a continuous effort in cultivating its soft power resources, which have proven to be its assets in furthering its foreign policy interests. In conclusion, the paper makes the point that soft power, in conjunction with hard power, will shape international politics in the coming times.

Keywords: foreign policy, India’s soft power, international politics, smart power, soft power

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818 Study of Buried Interfaces in Fe/Si Multilayer by Hard X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy

Authors: Hina Verma, Karine Le Guen, Renaud Dalaunay, Iyas Ismail, Vita Ilakovac, Jean Pascal Rueff, Yunlin Jacques Zheng, Philippe Jonnard


To the extent of our knowledge, X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has been applied in the soft x-ray region (photon energy ≤ 2 keV) to study the buried layers and interfaces of stacks of nanometer-thin films. Now we extend the methodology to study the buried interfaces in the hard X-ray region (i.e., ≥ five keV). The emission spectra allow us to study the interactions between elements in the buried layers from the analysis of their valence states, thereby providing sensitive information about the physical-chemical environment of the emitting element in multilayers. We exploit the chemical sensitivity of XES to study the interfaces between Fe and Si layers in the Fe/Si multilayer from the Fe Kβ₂,₅ emission spectra (7108 eV). The Fe Kβ₅ emission line results from the electronic transition from occupied 3d to 1s levels (i.e., valence to core transition) and is hence sensitive to the chemical state of emitting Fe atoms. The comparison of emission spectra recorded for Fe/Si multilayer with Fe and FeSi₂ references reveal the formation of FeSi₂ at the Fe-Si interfaces inside the multilayer stack. The interfacial thickness was calculated to be 1.4 ± 0.2 nm by taking into consideration the intensity of Fe atoms emitted from the interface and the Fe layer. The formation of FeSi₂ at the interface was further confirmed by the X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy done on the Fe/Si multilayer. Hence, we can conclude that the XES in the hard X-ray range could be used to study multilayers and their interfaces and obtain information both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Keywords: buried interfaces, hard X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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817 Simplified Ultimate Strength Assessment of Ship Structures Based on Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia Rules for Hull

Authors: Sukron Makmun, Topan Firmandha, Siswanto


Ultimate Strength Assessment on ship cross section in accordance with Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia (BKI) Rules for Hull, follows step by step incremental iterative approach. In this approach, ship cross section is divided into plate-stiffener combinations and hard corners element. The average stress-strain relationship (σ-ε) for all structural elements will be defined, where the subscript k refers to the modes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4. These results would be verified with a commercial software calculation in similar cases. The numerical calculations of buckling strength are in accordance with the commercial software (GL Rules ND). Then the comparison of failure behaviours of stiffened panels and hard corners are presented. Where failure modes 3 are likely to occur first follows the failure mode 4 and the last one is the failure mode 1.

Keywords: ultimate strength assessment, BKI rules, incremental, plate-stiffener combination and hard corner, commercial software

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816 Impact of Hard Limited Clipping Crest Factor Reduction Technique on Bit Error Rate in OFDM Based Systems

Authors: Theodore Grosch, Felipe Koji Godinho Hoshino


In wireless communications, 3GPP LTE is one of the solutions to meet the greater transmission data rate demand. One issue inherent to this technology is the PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation. This high PAPR affects the efficiency of power amplifiers. One approach to mitigate this effect is the Crest Factor Reduction (CFR) technique. In this work, we simulate the impact of Hard Limited Clipping Crest Factor Reduction technique on BER (Bit Error Rate) in OFDM based Systems. In general, the results showed that CFR has more effects on higher digital modulation schemes, as expected. More importantly, we show the worst-case degradation due to CFR on QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM signals in a linear system. For example, hard clipping of 9 dB results in a 2 dB increase in signal to noise energy at a 1% BER for 64-QAM modulation.

Keywords: bit error rate, crest factor reduction, OFDM, physical layer simulation

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815 Comparative Study of the Effect of Three Fungicides: Tilt and Artea Amistarxtra about Growing Wheat, Hard, and Soft and Their Impact on Grain Yield and Its Components in the Semi-Arid Zone of Setif

Authors: Cheniti Khalissa, Dekhili Mohamed


Several fungal diseases may infect hard and soft wheat, which directly affect the yield and thus the economy of the homeland. So, a treatment fungicide is one of means of diseases control. In this context, we studied two varieties of wheat; Waha for soft wheat and Hidhab for hard wheat, at the level of the Technical Institute of crops (ITGC) in the wilaya of Setif under semi-arid conditions. This study consists of a successive application of three fungicides (Tilt, Artea, and Armistarxtra) according to three treatments (T1, T2, and T3) in addition to the witness (T0) at different stages of plant development (respectively, Montaison, earing and after flowering) whose purpose is to test and determine the effectiveness of these products used sequentially. The study showed good efficacy when we use the sum of these pesticides The comparison between these different treatments indicates that the T3 treatment reduced yield losses significantly; which is evident in the main yield components such as fertility, grain yield and weight of 1000 grains. The various components of yield and final yield are all parameters to be taken into account in such a study. In general, the fungal treatment is an effective way of improving profitability. In general, the fungal treatment is an effective way of improving profitability and positioning interventions in time is one of the requirements for an appreciable efficiency.

Keywords: hard wheat, soft wheat, diseases, fungicide treatment, fertility, 1000-grain weight, semi-arid zone

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814 Evaluation of the Matching Optimization of Human-Machine Interface Matching in the Cab

Authors: Yanhua Ma, Lu Zhai, Xinchen Wang, Hongyu Liang


In this paper, by understanding the development status of the human-machine interface in today's automobile cab, a subjective and objective evaluation system for evaluating the optimization of human-machine interface matching in automobile cab was established. The man-machine interface of the car cab was divided into a software interface and a hard interface. Objective evaluation method of software human factor analysis is used to evaluate the hard interface matching; The analytic hierarchy process is used to establish the evaluation index system for the software interface matching optimization, and the multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to evaluate hard interface machine. This article takes Dongfeng Sokon (DFSK) C37 model automobile as an example. The evaluation method given in the paper is used to carry out relevant analysis and evaluation, and corresponding optimization suggestions are given, which have certain reference value for designers.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, fuzzy comprehension evaluation method, human-machine interface, matching optimization, software human factor analysis

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813 Overview on Sustainable Coastal Protection Structures

Authors: Suresh Reddi, Mathew Leslie, Vishnu S. Das


Sustainable design is a prominent concept across all sectors of engineering and its importance is widely recognized within the Arabian Gulf region. Despite that sustainable or soft engineering options are not widely deployed in coastal engineering projects and a preference for utilizing ‘hard engineering’ solutions remain. The concept of soft engineering lies in “working together” with the nature to manage the coastline. This approach allows hard engineering options, such as breakwaters or sea walls, to be minimized or even eliminated altogether. Hard structures provide a firm barrier to wave energy or flooding, but in doing so they often have a significant impact on the natural processes of the coastline. This may affect the area locally or impact on neighboring zones. In addition, they often have a negative environmental impact and may create a sense of disconnect between the marine environment and local users. Soft engineering options, seek to protect the coastline by working in harmony with the natural process of sediment transport/budget. They often consider new habitat creation and creating usable spaces that will increase the sense of connection with nature. Often soft engineering options, where appropriately deployed can provide a low-maintenance, aesthetically valued, natural line of coastal protection. This paper deals with an overview of the following: The widely accepted soft engineering practices across the world; How this approach has been considered by Ramboll in some recent projects in Middle East and Asia; Challenges and barriers to use in using soft engineering options in the region; Way forward towards more widespread adoption.

Keywords: coastline, hard engineering, low maintenance, soft engineering options

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812 Variation in the Morphology of Soft Palate

Authors: Hema Lattupalli


Introduction: The palate forms a partition between the oral cavity and nasal cavity. The palate is made up of two parts hard palate and soft palate. The Hard palate forms the anterior part of the palate, the soft palate forms a movable muscular fold covered by mucous membrane that is suspended from the posterior border of a hard palate. Aim and Objectives: Soft palate morphological variations have a great paucity in the literature. It’s also believed that the soft palate has no such important anatomical variations. There is a variable presentation of the soft palate morphology in the lateral cephalograms. The aim of this study is to identify the velar morphology. Materials and Methods: 100 normal subjects between the age group of 20 – 35 were taken for the study. Method: Lateral Cephalogram (radiologic study). Results: Different shapes of the soft palate were observed in the lateral cephalograms. The morphology of soft palate was classified into six types 1.Leaf like (50 cases) most common type, 2.Straight line (20 cases), 3.S shaped (4 cases) very rare, 4.Butt like (10 cases), 5. Rat tail (6 cases), 6. Hook shaped (10 cases). Conclusion: This classification helps us to understand the better diversity of the velar morphology in mid-sagittal plane. These findings help us to understand the etiology of OSAS.

Keywords: soft palate, cephalometric radiographs, morphology, cleft palate, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

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811 Comprehensive Study of X-Ray Emission by APF Plasma Focus Device

Authors: M. Habibi


The time-resolved studies of soft and hard X-ray were carried out over a wide range of argon pressures by employing an array of eight filtered photo PIN diodes and a scintillation detector, simultaneously. In 50% of the discharges, the soft X-ray is seen to be emitted in short multiple pulses corresponding to different compression, whereas it is a single pulse for hard X-rays corresponding to only the first strong compression. It should be stated that multiple compressions dominantly occur at low pressures and high pressures are mostly in the single compression regime. In 43% of the discharges, at all pressures except for optimum pressure, the first period is characterized by two or more sharp peaks.The X–ray signal intensity during the second and subsequent compressions is much smaller than the first compression.

Keywords: plasma focus device, SXR, HXR, Pin-diode, argon plasma

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810 Investigation of Nd-Al-Fe Added Nd-Fe-B Alloy Produced by Arc Melting

Authors: Gülten Sadullahoğlu, Baki Altuncevahir


The scope of this study, to investigate the magnetic properties and microstructure of Nd₂Fe₁₄B₁ by alloying with Nd₃₃.₄Fe₆₂.₆Al₄, and heat treating it at different temperatures. The stoichiometric Nd₂Fe₁₄B hard magnetic alloy and Nd₃₃.₄Fe₆₂.₆Al₄ composition was produced by arc melting under argon atmosphere. The Nd₃₃.₄Fe₆₂.₆Al₄ alloy has added to the 2:14:1 hard magnetic alloy with 48% by weight, and melted again by arc melting. Then, it was heat treated at 600, 700 and 800˚C for 3h under vacuum. In AC magnetic susceptibility measurements, for the as-cast sample, the signals decreased sharply at 101 ˚C and 313 ˚C corresponding to the Curie temperatures of the two ferromagnetic phases in addition to Fe phase. For the sample annealed at 600 ˚C, two Curie points were observed at about 257˚C and at 313˚C. However, the phase corresponding to the Curie temperature of 101 ˚C was disappeared. According to the magnetization measurements, the saturation magnetization has the highest value of 99.8 emu/g for the sample annealed at 600 ˚C, and decreased to 57.66 and 28.6 emu/g for the samples annealed at 700˚ and 800 ˚C respectively. Heat treatment resulted in an evolution of the new phase that caused changes in magnetic properties of the alloys. In order to have a clear picture, the identification of these phases are being under the investigation by XRD and SEM–EDX analysis.

Keywords: NdFeB hard magnets, bulk magnetic materials, arc melting, Curie temperature, heat treatment

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809 A Model-Reference Sliding Mode for Dual-Stage Actuator Servo Control in HDD

Authors: S. Sonkham, U. Pinsopon, W. Chatlatanagulchai


This paper presents a method of sliding mode control (SMC) designing and developing for the servo system in a dual-stage actuator (DSA) hard disk drive. Mathematical modelling of hard disk drive actuators is obtained, extracted from measuring frequency response of the voice-coil motor (VCM) and PZT micro-actuator separately. Matlab software tools are used for mathematical model estimation and also for controller design and simulation. A model-reference approach for tracking requirement is selected as a proposed technique. The simulation results show that performance of a model-reference SMC controller design in DSA servo control can be satisfied in the tracking error, as well as keeping the positioning of the head within the boundary of +/-5% of track width under the presence of internal and external disturbance. The overall results of model-reference SMC design in DSA are met per requirement specifications and significant reduction in %off track is found when compared to the single-state actuator (SSA).

Keywords: hard disk drive, dual-stage actuator, track following, hdd servo control, sliding mode control, model-reference, tracking control

Procedia PDF Downloads 246