Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: ceria

23 Water Gas Shift Activity of PtBi/CeO₂ Catalysts for Hydrogen Production

Authors: N. Laosiripojana, P. Tepamatr

Abstract:

The influence of bismuth on the water gas shift activities of Pt on ceria was studied. The flow reactor was used to study the activity of the catalysts in temperature range 100-400°C. The feed gas composition contains 5%CO, 10% H₂O and balance N₂. The total flow rate was 100 mL/min. The outlet gas was analyzed by on-line gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detector. The catalytic activities of bimetallic 1%Pt1%Bi/CeO₂ catalyst were greatly enhanced when compared with the activities of monometallic 2%Pt/CeO₂ catalyst. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR) and surface area analysis. X-ray diffraction pattern of Pt/CeO₂ and PtBi/CeO₂ indicated slightly shift of diffraction angle when compared with pure ceria. This result was due to strong metal-support interaction between platinum and ceria solid solution, causing conversion of Ce⁴⁺ to larger Ce³⁺. The distortions inside ceria lattice structure generated strain into the oxide lattice and facilitated the formation of oxygen vacancies which help to increase water gas shift performance. The H₂-Temperature Programmed Reduction indicated that the reduction peak of surface oxygen of 1%Pt1%Bi/CeO₂ shifts to lower temperature than that of 2%Pt/CeO₂ causing the enhancement of the water gas shift activity of this catalyst. Pt played an important role in catalyzing the surface reduction of ceria and addition of Bi alter the reduction temperature of surface ceria resulting in the improvement of the water gas shift activity of Pt catalyst.

Keywords: bismuth, platinum, water gas shift, ceria

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22 Effect of Graphene on the Structural and Optical Properties of Ceria:Graphene Nanocomposites

Authors: R. Udayabhaskar, R. V. Mangalaraja, V. T. Perarasu, Saeed Farhang Sahlevani, B. Karthikeyan, David Contreras

Abstract:

Bandgap engineering of CeO₂ nanocrystals is of high interest for many research groups to meet the requirement of desired applications. The band gap of CeO₂ nanostructures can be modified by varying the particle size, morphology and dopants. Anchoring the metal oxide nanostructures on graphene sheets will result in composites with improved properties than the parent materials. The presence of graphene sheets will acts a support for the growth, influences the morphology and provides external paths for electronic transitions. Thus, the controllable synthesis of ceria:graphene composites with various morphologies and the understanding of the optical properties is highly important for the usage of these materials in various applications. The development of ceria and ceria:graphene composites with low cost, rapid synthesis with tunable optical properties is still desirable. By this work, we discuss the synthesis of pure ceria (nanospheres) and ceria:graphene composites (nano-rice like morphology) by using commercial microwave oven as a cost effective and environmentally friendly approach. The influence of the graphene on the crystallinity, morphology, band gap and luminescence of the synthesized samples were analyzed. The average crystallite size obtained by using Scherrer formula of the CeO₂ nanostructures showed a decreasing trend with increasing the graphene loading. The higher graphene loaded ceria composite clearly depicted morphology of nano-rice like in shape with the diameter below 10 nm and the length over 50 nm. The presence of graphene and ceria related vibrational modes (100-4000 cm⁻¹) confirmed the successful formation of composites. We observed an increase in band gap (blue shift) with increasing loading amount of graphene. Further, the luminescence related to various F-centers was quenched in the composites. The authors gratefully acknowledge the FONDECYT Project No.: 3160142 and BECA Conicyt National Doctorado2017 No. 21170851 Government of Chile, Santiago, for the financial assistance.

Keywords: ceria, graphene, luminescence, blue shift, band gap widening

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21 Studies on Corrosion Resistant Composite Coating for Metallic Surfaces

Authors: Navneetinder Singh, Harprabhjot Singh, Harpreet Singh, Supreet Singh

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Many materials are known to mankind that is widely used for synthesis of corrosion resistant hydrophobic coatings. In the current work, novel hydrophobic composite was synthesized by mixing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 20 weight% ceria particles followed by sintering. This composite had same hydrophobic behavior as PTFE. Moreover, composite showed better scratch resistance than virgin PTFE. Pits of plasma sprayed Ni₃Al coating were exploited to hold PTFE composite on the substrate as Superni-75 alloy surface through sintering process. Plasma sprayed surface showed good adhesion with the composite coating during scratch test. Potentiodynamic corrosion test showed 100 fold decreases in corrosion rate of coated sample this may be attributed to inert and hydrophobic nature of PTFE and ceria.

Keywords: polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, ceria, coating, corrosion

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20 Apatite-Forming Ability of Doped-Ceria Coatings for Orthopedic Implants

Authors: Ayda Khosravanihaghighi, Pramod Koshy, Bill Walsh, Vedran Lovric, Charles Christopher Sorrell

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There is an increasing demand for orthopedic implants owing to the increasing numbers of the aging population. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) is a common material used for orthopedic implants owing to its advantageous properties in terms of good corrosion resistance, minimal elastic modulus mismatch with bone, bio-inertness, and high mechanical strength. However, it is important to improve the bioactivity and osseointegration of the titanium alloy and this can be achieved by coating the implant surface with suitable ceramic materials. In the present work, pure and doped-ceria (CeO₂) coatings were deposited by spin coating on the titanium alloy surface in order to enhance the biological interactions between the surface of the implant and the surrounding tissue. In order to examine the bone-binding ability of an implant, simulated body fluid (SBF) tests were conducted in order to assess the capability of apatite layer formation on the surface and thus predict in vivo bone bioactivity. Characterization was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses to determine the extent of apatite formation. Preliminary tests showed that the CeO₂ coatings were biocompatible and that the extent of apatite formation and its characteristics can be enhanced by doping with suitable metal ions.

Keywords: apatite layer, biocompatibility, ceria, orthopaedic implant, SBF, spin coater, Ti-implant

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19 A Novel CeO2-WOx-TiO2 Catalyst for Oxidative Desulfurization of Model Fuel Oil

Authors: Corazon Virtudazo-Ligaray, Mark Daniel G. de Luna, Meng-Wei Wan, Ming-Chun Lu

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A series of ternary compound catalyst with nanocomposites of ceria, tungsten trioxide and titania (CeO2-WOx-TiO2) with different WOx mole fraction (10, 20, 30, 40) have been synthesized by sol-gel method. These nanocomposite catalysts were used for oxidative extractive desulfurization of model fuel oil, which were composed of dibenzothiophene (DBT) dissolved in toluene. The 30% hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 was used as oxidant and acetonitrile as extractant. These catalysts were characterized by SEM-EDS to determine the morphology. Catalytic oxidation results show that the catalysts have high selectivity in refractory fuel oil with organo sulfur contents. The oxidative removal of DBT increases as the HPW content increases. The nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 also shows high selectivity for DBT oxidation in the DBT–toluene acetonitrile system. The catalytic oxidative desulfurization ratio of model fuel reached to 100% with nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 (35-30-35) mol percent catalyst nanocomposition under 333 K in 30 minutes.

Keywords: ceria, oxidative desulfurization, titania, phosphotungstic acid

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18 Structure-Activity Relationship of Gold Catalysts on Alumina Supported Cu-Ce Oxides for CO and Volatile Organic Compound Oxidation

Authors: Tatyana T. Tabakova, Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Yordanka G. Karakirova, Petya Cv. Petrova, Georgi V. Avdeev

Abstract:

The catalytic oxidation of CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is considered as one of the most efficient ways to reduce harmful emissions from various chemical industries. The effectiveness of gold-based catalysts for many reactions of environmental significance was proven during the past three decades. The aim of this work was to combine the favorable features of Au and Cu-Ce mixed oxides in the design of new catalytic materials of improved efficiency and economic viability for removal of air pollutants in waste gases from formaldehyde production. Supported oxides of copper and cerium with Cu: Ce molar ratio 2:1 and 1:5 were prepared by wet impregnation of g-alumina. Gold (2 wt.%) catalysts were synthesized by a deposition-precipitation method. Catalysts characterization was carried out by texture measurements, powder X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The catalytic activity in the oxidation of CO, CH3OH and (CH3)2O was measured using continuous flow equipment with fixed bed reactor. Both Cu-Ce/alumina samples demonstrated similar catalytic behavior. The addition of gold caused significant enhancement of CO and methanol oxidation activity (100 % degree of CO and CH3OH conversion at about 60 and 140 oC, respectively). The composition of Cu-Ce mixed oxides affected the performance of gold-based samples considerably. Gold catalyst on Cu-Ce/γ-Al2O3 1:5 exhibited higher activity for CO and CH3OH oxidation in comparison with Au on Cu-Ce/γ-Al2O3 2:1. The better performance of Au/Cu-Ce 1:5 was related to the availability of highly dispersed gold particles and copper oxide clusters in close contact with ceria.

Keywords: CO and VOCs oxidation, copper oxide, Ceria, gold catalysts

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17 Improved Performance of Mn Substituted Ceria Nanospheres for Water Gas Shift Reaction: Influence of Preparation Conditions

Authors: Bhairi Lakshminarayana, Surajit Sarker, Ch. Subrahmanyam

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The present study reports the development of noble metal free nano catalysts for low-temperature CO oxidation and water gas shift reaction. Mn-substituted CeO2 solid solution catalysts were synthesized by co-precipitation, combustion and hydrothermal methods. The formation of solid solution was confirmed by XRD with Rietveld refinement and the percentage of carbon and nitrogen doping was ensured by CHNS analyzer. Raman spectroscopic confirmed the oxygen vacancies. The surface area, pore volume and pore size distribution confirmed by N2 physisorption analysis, whereas, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and XPS data confirmed the oxidation state of the Mn ion. The particle size and morphology (spherical shape) of the material was confirmed using FESEM and HRTEM analysis. Ce0.8Mn0.2O2-δ was calcined at 400 °C, 600 °C and 800 °C. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the catalyst calcined at 400 °C has the best redox properties. The activity of the designed catalysts for CO oxidation (0.2 vol%), carried out with GHSV of 21,000 h-1 and it has been observed that co-precipitation favored the best active catalyst towards CO oxidation and water gas shift reaction, due to the high surface area, improved reducibility, oxygen mobility and highest quantity of surface oxygen species. The activation energy of low temperature CO oxidation on Ce0.8Mn0.2O2- δ (combustion) was 5.5 kcal.K-1.mole-1. The designed catalysts were tested for water gas shift reaction. The present study demonstrates that Mn ion substituted ceria at 400 °C calcination temperature prepared by co-precipitation method promise to revive a green sustainable energy production approach.

Keywords: Ce0.8Mn0.2O2-ð, CO oxidation, physicochemical characterization, water gas shift reaction (WGS)

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16 Hydrogen Production from Auto-Thermal Reforming of Ethanol Catalyzed by Tri-Metallic Catalyst

Authors: Patrizia Frontera, Anastasia Macario, Sebastiano Candamano, Fortunato Crea, Pierluigi Antonucci

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The increasing of the world energy demand makes today biomass an attractive energy source, based on the minimizing of CO2 emission and on the global warming reduction purposes. Recently, COP-21, the international meeting on global climate change, defined the roadmap for sustainable worldwide development, based on low-carbon containing fuel. Hydrogen is an energy vector able to substitute the conventional fuels from petroleum. Ethanol for hydrogen production represents a valid alternative to the fossil sources due to its low toxicity, low production costs, high biodegradability, high H2 content and renewability. Ethanol conversion to generate hydrogen by a combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming reactions is generally called auto-thermal reforming (ATR). The ATR process is advantageous due to the low energy requirements and to the reduced carbonaceous deposits formation. Catalyst plays a pivotal role in the ATR process, especially towards the process selectivity and the carbonaceous deposits formation. Bimetallic or trimetallic catalysts, as well as catalysts with doped-promoters supports, may exhibit high activity, selectivity and deactivation resistance with respect to the corresponding monometallic ones. In this work, NiMoCo/GDC, NiMoCu/GDC and NiMoRe/GDC (where GDC is Gadolinia Doped Ceria support and the metal composition is 60:30:10 for all catalyst) have been prepared by impregnation method. The support, Gadolinia 0.2 Doped Ceria 0.8, was impregnated by metal precursors solubilized in aqueous ethanol solution (50%) at room temperature for 6 hours. After this, the catalysts were dried at 100°C for 8 hours and, subsequently, calcined at 600°C in order to have the metal oxides. Finally, active catalysts were obtained by reduction procedure (H2 atmosphere at 500°C for 6 hours). All sample were characterized by different analytical techniques (XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, CHNS, H2-TPR and Raman Spectorscopy). Catalytic experiments (auto-thermal reforming of ethanol) were carried out in the temperature range 500-800°C under atmospheric pressure, using a continuous fixed-bed microreactor. Effluent gases from the reactor were analyzed by two Varian CP4900 chromarographs with a TCD detector. The analytical investigation focused on the preventing of the coke deposition, the metals sintering effect and the sulfur poisoning. Hydrogen productivity, ethanol conversion and products distribution were measured and analyzed. At 600°C, all tri-metallic catalysts show the best performance: H2 + CO reaching almost the 77 vol.% in the final gases. While NiMoCo/GDC catalyst shows the best selectivity to hydrogen whit respect to the other tri-metallic catalysts (41 vol.% at 600°C). On the other hand, NiMoCu/GDC and NiMoRe/GDC demonstrated high sulfur poisoning resistance (up to 200 cc/min) with respect to the NiMoCo/GDC catalyst. The correlation among catalytic results and surface properties of the catalysts will be discussed.

Keywords: catalysts, ceria, ethanol, gadolinia, hydrogen, Nickel

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15 Experimental Investigation of Performance Anode Side of PEM Fuel Cell with Spin Method Coated with YSZ+SDC

Authors: Gürol Önal, Kevser Dinçer, Salih Yayla

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In this study, performance of proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cell was experimentally investigated. Coating on the anode side of the PEM fuel cell was accomplished with the spin method by using YSZ+SDC. A solution having 0,1 gr YttriaStabilized Zirconia (YSZ) + 0,1 Samarium-Doped Ceria (SDC) + 10 mL methanol was prepared. This solution was taken out and filled into a micro-pipette. Then the anode side of PEM fuel cell was coated with YSZ+ SDC by using spin method. In the experimental study, current, voltage and power performances before and after coating were recorded and then compared to each other. It was found that the efficiency of PEM fuel cell increases after the coating with YSZ+SDC.

Keywords: fuel cell, Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM), membrane, spin method

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14 Photocatalytic Conversion of Water/Methanol Mixture into Hydrogen Using Cerium/Iron Oxides Based Structures

Authors: Wael A. Aboutaleb, Ahmed M. A. El Naggar, Heba M. Gobara

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This research work reports the photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water-methanol mixture using three different 15% ceria/iron oxide catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by physical mixing, precipitation, and ultrasonication methods and labeled as catalysts A-C. The structural and texture properties of the obtained catalysts were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET-surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic activity of the three catalysts towards hydrogen generation was then tested. Promising hydrogen productivity was obtained by the three catalysts however different gases compositions were obtained by each type of catalyst. Specifically, catalyst A had produced hydrogen mixed with CO₂ while the composite structure (catalyst B) had generated only pure H₂. In the case of catalyst C, syngas made of H₂ and CO was revealed, as a novel product, for the first time, in such process.

Keywords: hydrogen production, water splitting, photocatalysts, clean energy

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13 Cerium Salt Effect in 70s Bioactive Glass

Authors: Alessandra N. Santos, Max P. Ferreira, Alexandra R. P. Silva, Agda A. R. de Oliveira, Marivalda M. Pereira

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The literature describes experiments, in which ceria nanoparticles in the bioactive glass significantly improve differentiation of stem cells into osteoblasts and increase production of collagen. It is not known whether this effect observed due to the presence of nanoceria can be also observed in the presence of cerium in the bioactive glass network. The effect of cerium into bioactive glasses using the sol–gel route is the focus of this work, with the goal to develop a material for tissue engineering with the potential to enhance osteogenesis. A bioactive glass composition based on 70% SiO2–30% CaO is produced with the addition of cerium. The analyses XRD, FTIR, SEM/EDS, BET/BJH, in vitro bioactivity test and the Cell viability assay were performed. The results show that cerium remains in the bioactive glass structure. The obtained material present in vitro bioactivity and promote the cell viability.

Keywords: bioactive glass, bioactivity, cerium salt, material characterization, sol-gel method

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12 Electrochemical Activity of NiCo-GDC Cermet Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operated in Methane

Authors: Kamolvara Sirisuksakulchai, Soamwadee Chaianansutcharit, Kazunori Sato

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Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) have been considered as one of the most efficient large unit power generators for household and industrial applications. The efficiency of an electronic cell depends mainly on the electrochemical reactions in the anode. The development of anode materials has been intensely studied to achieve higher kinetic rates of redox reactions and lower internal resistance. Recent studies have introduced an efficient cermet (ceramic-metallic) material for its ability in fuel oxidation and oxide conduction. This could expand the reactive site, also known as the triple-phase boundary (TPB), thus increasing the overall performance. In this study, a bimetallic catalyst Ni₀.₇₅Co₀.₂₅Oₓ was combined with Gd₀.₁Ce₀.₉O₁.₉₅ (GDC) to be used as a cermet anode (NiCo-GDC) for an anode-supported type SOFC. The synthesis of Ni₀.₇₅Co₀.₂₅Oₓ was carried out by ball milling NiO and Co3O4 powders in ethanol and calcined at 1000 °C. The Gd₀.₁Ce₀.₉O₁.₉₅ was prepared by a urea co-precipitation method. Precursors of Gd(NO₃)₃·6H₂O and Ce(NO₃)₃·6H₂O were dissolved in distilled water with the addition of urea and were heated subsequently. The heated mixture product was filtered and rinsed thoroughly, then dried and calcined at 800 °C and 1500 °C, respectively. The two powders were combined followed by pelletization and sintering at 1100 °C to form an anode support layer. The fabrications of an electrolyte layer and cathode layer were conducted. The electrochemical performance in H₂ was measured from 800 °C to 600 °C while for CH₄ was from 750 °C to 600 °C. The maximum power density at 750 °C in H₂ was 13% higher than in CH₄. The difference in performance was due to higher polarization resistances confirmed by the impedance spectra. According to the standard enthalpy, the dissociation energy of C-H bonds in CH₄ is slightly higher than the H-H bond H₂. The dissociation of CH₄ could be the cause of resistance within the anode material. The results from lower temperatures showed a descending trend of power density in relevance to the increased polarization resistance. This was due to lowering conductivity when the temperature decreases. The long-term stability was measured at 750 °C in CH₄ monitoring at 12-hour intervals. The maximum power density tends to increase gradually with time while the resistances were maintained. This suggests the enhanced stability from charge transfer activities in doped ceria due to the transition of Ce⁴⁺ ↔ Ce³⁺ at low oxygen partial pressure and high-temperature atmosphere. However, the power density started to drop after 60 h, and the cell potential also dropped from 0.3249 V to 0.2850 V. These phenomena was confirmed by a shifted impedance spectra indicating a higher ohmic resistance. The observation by FESEM and EDX-mapping suggests the degradation due to mass transport of ions in the electrolyte while the anode microstructure was still maintained. In summary, the electrochemical test and stability test for 60 h was achieved by NiCo-GDC cermet anode. Coke deposition was not detected after operation in CH₄, hence this confirms the superior properties of the bimetallic cermet anode over typical Ni-GDC.

Keywords: bimetallic catalyst, ceria-based SOFCs, methane oxidation, solid oxide fuel cell

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11 Effect of Aging Time on CeO2 Nanoparticle Size Distribution Synthesized via Sol-Gel Method

Authors: Navid Zanganeh, Hafez Balavi, Farbod Sharif, Mahla Zabet, Marzieh Bakhtiary Noodeh

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Cerium oxide (CeO2) also known as cerium dioxide or ceria is a pale yellow-white powder with various applications in the industry from wood coating to cosmetics, filtration, fuel cell electrolytes, gas sensors, hybrid solar cells and catalysts. In this research, attempts were made to synthesize and characterization of CeO2 nano-particles via sol-gel method. In addition, the effect of aging time on the size of particles was investigated. For this purpose, the aging times adjusted 48, 56, 64, and 72 min. The obtained particles were characterized by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmitted electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET). As a result, XRD patterns confirmed the formation of CeO2 nanoparticles. SEM and TEM images illustrated the nano-particles with cluster shape, spherical and a nano-size range which was in agreement with XRD results. The finest particles (7.3 nm) was obtained at the optimum condition which was aging time of 48 min, calcination temperature at 400 ⁰C, and cerium concentration of 0.004 mol. Average specific surface area of the particles at optimum condition was measured by BET analysis and recorded as 47.57 m2/g.

Keywords: aging time, CeO2 nanoparticles, size distribution, sol-gel

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10 Computational Determination of the Magneto Electronic Properties of Ce₁₋ₓCuₓO₂ (x=12.5%): Emerging Material for Spintronic Devices

Authors: Aicha Bouhlala, Sabah Chettibi

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Doping CeO₂ with transition metals is an effective way of tuning its properties. In the present work, we have performed self-consistent ab-initio calculation using the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method (FP-LAPW), based on the density functional theory (DFT) as implemented in the Wien2k simulation code to study the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the compound Ce₁₋ₓCuₓO₂ (x=12.5%) fluorite type oxide and to explore the effects of dopant Cu in ceria. The exchange correlation potential has been treated using the Perdew-Burke-Eenzerhof revised of solid (PBEsol). In structural properties, the equilibrium lattice constant is observed for the compound, which exists within the value of 5.382 A°. In electronic properties, the spin-polarized electronic bandstructure elucidates the semiconductor nature of the material in both spin channels, with the compound was observed to have a narrow bandgap on the spin-down configuration (0.162 EV) and bandgap on the spin-up (2.067 EV). Hence, the doped atom Cu plays a vital role in increasing the magnetic moments of the supercell, and the value of the total magnetic moment is found to be 2.99438 μB. Therefore, the compound Cu-doped CeO₂ shows a strong ferromagnetic behavior. The predicted results propose the compound could be a good candidate for spintronics applications.

Keywords: Cu-doped CeO₂, DFT, Wien2k, properties

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9 Chemical Mechanical Polishing Wastewater Treatment through Membrane Distillation

Authors: Imtisal-e-Noor, Andrew Martin, Olli Dahl

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Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) has developed as a chosen planarization technique in nano-electronics industries for fabrication of the integrated circuits (ICs). These CMP processes release a huge amount of wastewater that contains oxides of nano-particles (silica, alumina, and ceria) and oxalic acid. Since, this wastewater has high solid content (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and turbidity (NTU); therefore, in order to fulfill the environmental regulations, it needs to be treated up to the local and international standards. The present study proposed a unique CMP wastewater treatment method called Membrane Distillation (MD). MD is a non-isothermal membrane separation process, which allows only volatiles, i.e., water vapors to permeate through the membrane and provides 100% contaminants rejection. The performance of the MD technology is analyzed in terms of total organic carbon (TOC), turbidity, TS, COD, and residual oxide concentration in permeate/distilled water while considering different operating conditions (temperature, flow rate, and time). The results present that high-quality permeate has been recovered after removing 99% of the oxide particles and oxalic acid. The distilled water depicts turbidity < 1 NTU, TOC < 3 mg/L, TS < 50 mg/L, and COD < 100 mg/L. These findings clearly show that the MD treated water can be reused further in industrial processes or allowable to discharge in any water body under the stringent environmental regulations.

Keywords: chemical mechanical polishing, environmental regulations, membrane distillation, wastewater treatment

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8 Supported Gold Nanocatalysts for CO Oxidation in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke

Authors: Krasimir Ivanov, Dimitar Dimitrov, Tatyana Tabakova, Stefka Kirkova, Anna Stoilova, Violina Angelova

Abstract:

It has been suggested that nicotine, CO and tar in mainstream smoke are the most important substances and have been judged as the most harmful compounds, responsible for the health hazards of smoking. As nicotine is extremely important for smoking qualities of cigarettes and the tar yield in the tobacco smoke is significantly reduced due to the use of filters with various content and design, the main efforts of cigarettes researchers and manufacturers are related to the search of opportunities for CO content reduction. Highly active ceria supported gold catalyst was prepared by the deposition-precipitation method, and the possibilities for CO oxidation in the synthetic gaseous mixture were evaluated using continuous flow equipment with fixed bed glass reactor at atmospheric pressure. The efficiently of the catalyst in CO oxidation in the real cigarette smoke was examined by a single port, puf-by-puff smoking machine. Quality assessment of smoking using cigarette holder containing catalyst was carried out. It was established that the catalytic activity toward CO oxidation in cigarette smoke rapidly decreases from 70% for the first cigarette to nearly zero for the twentieth cigarette. The present study shows that there are two critical factors which do not permit the successful use of catalysts to reduce the CO content in the mainstream cigarette smoke: (i) significant influence of the processes of adsorption and oxidation on the main characteristics of tobacco products and (ii) rapid deactivation of the catalyst due to the covering of the catalyst’s grains with condensate.

Keywords: cigarette smoke, CO oxidation, gold catalyst, mainstream

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7 Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Solar Thermochemical Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Selvan Bellan, Koji Matsubara, Nobuyuki Gokon, Tatsuya Kodama, Hyun Seok-Cho

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In concentrated solar thermal industry, fluidized-bed technology has been used to produce hydrogen by thermochemical two step water splitting cycles, and synthetic gas by gasification of coal coke. Recently, couple of fluidized bed reactors have been developed and tested at Niigata University, Japan, for two-step thermochemical water splitting cycles and coal coke gasification using Xe light, solar simulator. The hydrodynamic behavior of the gas-solid flow plays a vital role in the aforementioned fluidized bed reactors. Thus, in order to study the dynamics of dense gas-solid flow, a CFD-DEM model has been developed; in which the contact forces between the particles have been calculated by the spring-dashpot model, based on the soft-sphere method. Heat transfer and hydrodynamics of a solar thermochemical fluidized bed reactor filled with ceria particles have been studied numerically and experimentally for beam-down solar concentrating system. An experimental visualization of particles circulation pattern and mixing of two-tower fluidized bed system has been presented. Simulation results have been compared with experimental data to validate the CFD-DEM model. Results indicate that the model can predict the particle-fluid flow of the two-tower fluidized bed reactor. Using this model, the key operating parameters can be optimized.

Keywords: solar reactor, CFD-DEM modeling, fluidized bed, beam-down solar concentrating system

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6 Steam Reforming of Acetic Acid over Microwave-Synthesized Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 Supported Ni Catalysts

Authors: Panumard Kaewmora, Thirasak Rirksomboon, Vissanu Meeyoo

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Due to the globally growing demands of petroleum fuel and fossil fuels, the scarcity or even depletion of fossil fuel sources could be inevitable. Alternatively, the utilization of renewable sources, such as biomass, has become attractive to the community. Biomass can be converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. In water phase of bio-oil, acetic acid which is one of its main components can be converted to hydrogen with high selectivity over effective catalysts in steam reforming process. Steam reforming of acetic acid as model compound has been intensively investigated for hydrogen production using various metal oxide supported nickel catalysts and yet they seem to be rapidly deactivated depending on the support utilized. A catalyst support such as Ce1-xZrxO2 mixed oxide was proposed for alleviating this problem with the anticipation of enhancing hydrogen yield. However, catalyst preparation methods play a significant role in catalytic activity and performance of the catalysts. In this work, Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 mixed oxide solid solution support was prepared by urea hydrolysis using microwave as heat source. After that nickel metal was incorporated at 15 wt% by incipient wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by several techniques including BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XRF, SEM, and TEM as well as tested for the steam reforming of acetic acid at various operating conditions. Preliminary results showed that a hydrogen yield of ca. 32% with a relatively high acetic conversion was attained at 650°C.

Keywords: acetic acid, steam reforming, microwave, nickel, ceria, zirconia

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5 Performance and Processing Evaluation of Solid Oxide Cells by Co-Sintering of GDC Buffer Layer and LSCF Air Electrode

Authors: Hyun-Jong Choi, Minjun Kwak, Doo-Won Seo, Sang-Kuk Woo, Sun-Dong Kim

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Solid Oxide Cell(SOC) systems can contribute to the transition to the hydrogen society by utilized as a power and hydrogen generator by the electrochemical reaction with high efficiency at high operation temperature (>750 ℃). La1-xSrxCo1-yFeyO3, which is an air electrode, is occurred stability degradations due to reaction and delamination with yittria stabilized zirconia(YSZ) electrolyte in a water electrolysis mode. To complement this phenomenon SOCs need gadolinium doped ceria(GDC) buffer layer between electrolyte and air electrode. However, GDC buffer layer requires a high sintering temperature and it causes a reaction with YSZ electrolyte. This study carried out low temperature sintering of GDC layer by applying Cu-oxide as a sintering aid. The effect of a copper additive as a sintering aid to lower the sintering temperature for the construction of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was investigated. GDC buffer layer with 0.25-10 mol% CuO sintering aid was prepared by reacting GDC power and copper nitrate solution followed by heating at 600 ℃. The sintering of CuO-added GDC powder was optimized by investigating linear shrinkage, microstructure, grain size, ionic conductivity, and activation energy of CuO-GDC electrolytes at temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1400 ℃. The sintering temperature of the CuO-GDC electrolyte decreases from 1400 ℃ to 1100 ℃ by adding the CuO sintering aid. The ionic conductivity of the CuO-GDC electrolyte shows a maximum value at 0.5 mol% of CuO. However, the addition of CuO has no significant effects on the activation energy of GDC electrolyte. GDC-LSCF layers were co-sintering at 1050 and 1100 ℃ and button cell tests were carried out at 750 ℃.

Keywords: Co-Sintering, GDC-LSCF, Sintering Aid, solid Oxide Cells

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4 Optimal Sputtering Conditions for Nickel-Cermet Anodes in Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: Waqas Hassan Tanveer, Yoon Ho Lee, Taehyun Park, Wonjong Yu, Yaegeun Lee, Yusung Kim, Suk Won Cha

Abstract:

Nickel-Gadolinium Doped Ceria (Ni-GDC) cermet anodic thin films were prepared on Scandia Stabilized Zirconia (ScSZ) electrolyte supports by radio frequency (RF) sputtering, with a range of different sputtering powers (50 – 200W) and background Ar gas pressures (30 – 90mTorr). The effects of varying sputtering power and pressure on the properties of Ni-GDC films were studied using Focused Ion Beam (FIB), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques. The Ni content was found to be always higher than the Ce content, at all sputtering conditions. This increased Ni content was attributed to significantly higher energy transfer efficiency of Ni ions as compared to Ce ions with Ar background sputtering gas. The solid oxide fuel cell configuration was completed by using lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM/YSZ) cathodes on the other side of ScSZ supports. Performance comparison of cells was done by Voltage-Current-Power (VIP) curves, while the resistances of various cell components were observed by nyquist plots. Initial results showed that anode films made by higher powered RF sputtering performed better than lower powered ones for a specific Ar pressure. Interestingly, however, anodes made at highest power and pressure, were not the ones that showed the maximum power output at an intermediate solid oxide fuel cell temperature of 800°C. Finally, an optimal sputtering condition was reported for high performance Ni-GDC anodes.

Keywords: intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells, nickel-cermet anodic thin films, nyquist plots, radio frequency sputtering

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3 CO2 Methanation over Ru-Ni/CeO2 Catalysts

Authors: Nathalie Elia, Samer Aouad, Jane Estephane, Christophe Poupin, Bilal Nsouli, Edmond Abi Aad

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide is one of the main contributors to greenhouse effect and hence to climate change. As a result, the methanation reaction CO2(g) + 4H2(g) →CH4(g) + 2H2O (ΔH°298 = -165 kJ/mol), also known as Sabatier reaction, has received great interest as a process for the valorization of the greenhouse gas CO2 into methane which is a hydrogen-carrier gas. The methanation of CO2 is an exothermic reaction favored at low temperature and high pressure. However, this reaction requires a high energy input to activate the very stable CO2 molecule, and exhibits serious kinetic limitations. Consequently, the development of active and stable catalysts is essential to overcome these difficulties. Catalytic methanation of CO2 has been studied using catalysts containing Rh, Pd, Ru, Co and Ni on various supports. Among them, the Ni-based catalysts have been extensively investigated under various conditions for their comparable methanation activity with highly improved cost-efficiency. The addition of promoters are common strategies to increase the performance and stability of Ni catalysts. In this work, a small amount of Ru was used as a promoter for Ni catalysts supported on ceria and tested in the CO2 methanation reaction. The nickel loading was 5 wt. % and ruthenium loading is 0.5wt. %. The catalysts were prepared by successive impregnation method using Ni(NO3)2.6H2O and Ru(NO)(NO3)3 as precursors. The calcined support was impregnated with Ni(NO3)2.6H2O, dried, calcined at 600°C for 4h, and afterward, was impregnated with Ru(NO)(NO3)3. The resulting solid was dried and calcined at 600°C for 4 h. Supported monometallic catalysts were prepared likewise. The prepared solids Ru(0.5%)/CeO2, Ni(5%)/CeO2 and Ru(0.5%)-Ni(5%)/CeO2 were then reduced prior to the catalytic test under a flow of 50% H2/Ar (50 ml/min) for 4h at 500°C. Finally, their catalytic performances were evaluated in the CO2 methanation reaction, in the temperature range of 100–350°C by using a gaseous mixture of CO2 (10%) and H2 (40%) in Ar balanced at a total flow rate of 100 mL/min. The effect of pressure on the CO2 methanation was studied by varying the pressure between 1 and 10 bar. The various catalysts showed negligible CO2 conversion at temperatures lower than 250°C. The conversion of CO2 increases with increasing reaction temperature. The addition of Ru as promoter to Ni/CeO2 improved the CO2 methanation. It was shown that the CO2 conversion increases from 15 to 70% at 350°C and 1 bar. The effect of pressure on CO2 conversion was also studied. Increasing the pressure from 1 to 5 bar increases the CO2 conversion from 70% to 87%, while increasing the pressure from 5 to 10 bar increases the CO2 conversion from 87% to 91%. Ru–Ni catalysts showed excellent catalytic performance in the methanation of carbon dioxide with respect to Ni catalysts. Therefore the addition of Ru onto Ni catalysts improved remarkably the catalytic activity of Ni catalysts. It was also found that the pressure plays an important role in improving the CO2 methanation.

Keywords: CO2, methanation, nickel, ruthenium

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2 Effect of Water Addition on Catalytic Activity for CO2 Purification from Oxyfuel Combustion

Authors: Joudia Akil, Stephane Siffert, Laurence Pirault-Roy, Renaud Cousin, Christophe Poupin

Abstract:

Oxyfuel combustion is a promising method that enables to obtain a CO2 rich stream, with water vapor ( ̴10%), unburned components such as CO and NO, which must be cleaned before the use of CO2. Our objective is then the final treatment of CO and NO by catalysis. Three-way catalysts are well-developed material for simultaneous conversion of NO, CO and hydrocarbons. Pt and/or Rh ensure a quasi-complete removal of NOx, CO and HC and there is also a growing interest in partly replacing Pt with less-expensive Pd. The use of alumina and ceria as support ensures, respectively, the stabilization of such species in active state and discharging or storing oxygen to control the oxidation of CO and HC and the reduction of NOx. In this work, we will compare different metals (Pd, Rh and Pt) supported on Al2O3 and CeO2, for CO2 purification from oxyfuel combustion. The catalyst must reduce NO by CO in an oxidizing environment, in the presence of CO2 rich stream and resistant to water. In this study, Al2O3 and CeO2 were used as support materials of the catalysts. 1wt% M/Support where M = Pd, Rh or Pt catalysts were obtained by wet impregnation on supports with a precursor of palladium [Pd(acac)2], rhodium [Rh(NO3)3] and platinum [Pt(NO2)2(NO3)2]. Materials were characterized by BET surface area, H2 chemisorption, and TEM. Catalytic activity was evaluated in CO2 purification which is carried out in a fixed-bed flow reactor containing 150 mg of catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The flow of the reactant gases is composed of: 20% CO2, 10% O2, 0.5% CO, 0.02% NO and 8.2% H2O (He as eluent gas) with a total flow of 200 mL.min−1, with same GHSV (2.24x104 h-1). The catalytic performances of the samples were investigated with and without water. It shows that the total oxidation of CO occurred over the different materials. This study evidenced an important effect of the nature of the metals, supports and the presence or absence of H2O during the reduction of NO by CO in oxyfuel combustions conditions. Rh based catalysts show that the addition of water has a very positive influence especially on the Rh catalyst on CeO2. Pt based catalysts keep a good activity despite the addition of water on the both supports studied. For the NO reduction, addition of water act as a poison with Pd catalysts. The interesting results of Rh based catalysts with water can be explained by a production of hydrogen through the water gas shift reaction. The produced hydrogen acts as a more effective reductant than CO for NO removal. Furthermore, in TWCs, Rh is the main component responsible for NOx reduction due to its especially high activity for NO dissociation. Moreover, cerium oxide is a promotor for WGSR.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, environmental chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis

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1 The Power of in situ Characterization Techniques in Heterogeneous Catalysis: A Case Study of Deacon Reaction

Authors: Ramzi Farra, Detre Teschner, Marc Willinger, Robert Schlögl

Abstract:

Introduction: The conventional approach of characterizing solid catalysts under static conditions, i.e., before and after reaction, does not provide sufficient knowledge on the physicochemical processes occurring under dynamic conditions at the molecular level. Hence, the necessity of improving new in situ characterizing techniques with the potential of being used under real catalytic reaction conditions is highly desirable. In situ Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) is a rapidly developing chemical analytical technique that enables us experimentally to assess the coverage of surface species under catalytic turnover and correlate these with the reactivity. The catalytic HCl oxidation (Deacon reaction) over bulk ceria will serve as our example. Furthermore, the in situ Transmission Electron Microscopy is a powerful technique that can contribute to the study of atmosphere and temperature induced morphological or compositional changes of a catalyst at atomic resolution. The application of such techniques (PGAA and TEM) will pave the way to a greater and deeper understanding of the dynamic nature of active catalysts. Experimental/Methodology: In situ Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) experiments were carried out to determine the Cl uptake and the degree of surface chlorination under reaction conditions by varying p(O2), p(HCl), p(Cl2), and the reaction temperature. The abundance and dynamic evolution of OH groups on working catalyst under various steady-state conditions were studied by means of in situ FTIR with a specially designed homemade transmission cell. For real in situ TEM we use a commercial in situ holder with a home built gas feeding system and gas analytics. Conclusions: Two complimentary in situ techniques, namely in situ PGAA and in situ FTIR were utilities to investigate the surface coverage of the two most abundant species (Cl and OH). The OH density and Cl uptake were followed under multiple steady-state conditions as a function of p(O2), p(HCl), p(Cl2), and temperature. These experiments have shown that, the OH density positively correlates with the reactivity whereas Cl negatively. The p(HCl) experiments give rise to increased activity accompanied by Cl-coverage increase (opposite trend to p(O2) and T). Cl2 strongly inhibits the reaction, but no measurable increase of the Cl uptake was found. After considering all previous observations we conclude that only a minority of the available adsorption sites contribute to the reactivity. In addition, the mechanism of the catalysed reaction was proposed. The chlorine-oxygen competition for the available active sites renders re-oxidation as the rate-determining step of the catalysed reaction. Further investigations using in situ TEM are planned and will be conducted in the near future. Such experiments allow us to monitor active catalysts at the atomic scale under the most realistic conditions of temperature and pressure. The talk will shed a light on the potential and limitations of in situ PGAA and in situ TEM in the study of catalyst dynamics.

Keywords: CeO2, deacon process, in situ PGAA, in situ TEM, in situ FTIR

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