Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1600

Search results for: task duplication

1600 Task Scheduling on Parallel System Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Jasbir Singh Gill, Baljit Singh

Abstract:

Scheduling and mapping the application task graph on multiprocessor parallel systems is considered as the most crucial and critical NP-complete problem. Many genetic algorithms have been proposed to solve such problems. In this paper, two genetic approach based algorithms have been designed and developed with or without task duplication. The proposed algorithms work on two fitness functions. The first fitness i.e. task fitness is used to minimize the total finish time of the schedule (schedule length) while the second fitness function i.e. process fitness is concerned with allocating the tasks to the available highly efficient processor from the list of available processors (load balance). Proposed genetic-based algorithms have been experimentally implemented and evaluated with other state-of-art popular and widely used algorithms.

Keywords: parallel computing, task scheduling, task duplication, genetic algorithm

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1599 A Mathematical Framework for Expanding a Railway’s Theoretical Capacity

Authors: Robert L. Burdett, Bayan Bevrani

Abstract:

Analytical techniques for measuring and planning railway capacity expansion activities have been considered in this article. A preliminary mathematical framework involving track duplication and section sub divisions is proposed for this task. In railways, these features have a great effect on network performance and for this reason they have been considered. Additional motivations have also arisen from the limitations of prior models that have not included them.

Keywords: capacity analysis, capacity expansion, railways, track sub division, track duplication

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1598 Sequence Analysis of the Effect of HPV-16 E1 Variation on Cervical Carcinogenesis

Authors: Fern Baedyananda, Arkom Chaiwongkot, Somchai Niruthisard, Nakarin Kitkumthorn, Parvapan Bhattarakosol

Abstract:

High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause transformation of the host cells by down-regulating and inhibiting host regulatory proteins such as p53 and pRb by overexpressing the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7. However, the E1 protein which is the only enzyme encoded by HPV has also been shown to cause DNA instability leading to the integration of the virus into the host genome and triggering carcinogenic events. A 63bp duplication in the E1 helicase region has been detected in European patients. However, the clinical prognosis of these patients is still controversial. This study was performed to determine the presence of the HPV-16 E1 63bp duplication in patient cervical samples in Thai women and determine the sequence of the variant in the Thai population. Detection of the HPV-16 E1 duplication in the helicase region was performed in 90 patient cell samples across normal, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I-III, and squamous cervical carcinoma stages by PCR. The PCR products were purified and sequenced to determine the presence of duplication variants.The variant form was found in 10% of all CIN 1 patients. In this study, the presence of the 63 bp duplication variant in the Thai population was found to be present and was further characterized. Interestingly, all samples that exhibited the variant form of HPV-16 E1 were classified as CIN I. Presence of the variant, constricted to mild dysplasia signifies the importance of HPV-16 E1 in carcinogenesis.

Keywords: carcinogenesis, cervical cancer, human papillomavirus, HPV-16 E1

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1597 An Extremely Rare Anatomical Vascular Variant of Lower Limb Arterial System - Duplication of Superficial Femoral Artery

Authors: Manik Sharma

Abstract:

Understanding the anatomy and normal anatomical variations of the lower limb arterial system is undeniably important not only to understand the pathology involving the vessels of the lower limb but also as a part of endovascular intervention and surgical planning in cases that demand them as a part of treatment. There have been very few cases of duplication of SFA cited in the literature, close to six worldwide and this being the seventh case in the world and first to be reported in the Indian population. We incidentally came across this normal variant during US lower limb (US-LL) duplex scan in a patient with claudicating pain in bilateral lower limbs hence suspected of having peripheral vascular disease. It was confirmed on CT-Peripheral Angiography (CT-PA), which was done successively.

Keywords: peripheral vascular disease, claudicating pain, normal anatomical variants, endovascular intervention, duplication, CT-peripheral angiography, duplex scan, Iohexol

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1596 Effects of Pre-Task Activities on the Writing Performance of Second Language Learners

Authors: Wajiha Fatima

Abstract:

Based on Rod Ellis’s (2002) the methodology of task-based teaching, this study explored the effects of pre-task activities on the Job Application letter of 102 ESL students (who were female and undergraduate learners). For this purpose, students were divided among three groups (Group A, Group B, and Group C), kept in control and experimental settings as well. Pre-task phase motivates the learners to perform the actual task. Ellis reportedly discussed four pre-task phases: (1) performing a similar task; (2) providing a model; (3) non-task preparation activities and (4) strategic planning. They were taught through above given three pre-task activities. Accordingly, the learners in control setting were supposed to write without any teaching aid while learners in an experimental situation were provided three different pre-task activities in each group. In order to compare the scores of the pre-test and post-test of the three groups, sample paired t-test was utilized. The obtained results of the written job application by the female students revealed that pre-task activities improved their performance in writing. On the other hand, the comparison of the three pre-task activities revealed that 'providing a model' outperformed the other two activities. For this purpose, ANOVA was utilized.

Keywords: pre-task activities, second language learners, task based language teaching, writing

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1595 A Task Scheduling Algorithm in Cloud Computing

Authors: Ali Bagherinia

Abstract:

Efficient task scheduling method can meet users' requirements, and improve the resource utilization, then increase the overall performance of the cloud computing environment. Cloud computing has new features, such as flexibility, virtualization and etc., in this paper we propose a two levels task scheduling method based on load balancing in cloud computing. This task scheduling method meet user's requirements and get high resource utilization, that simulation results in CloudSim simulator prove this.

Keywords: cloud computing, task scheduling, virtualization, SLA

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
1594 FESA: Fuzzy-Controlled Energy-Efficient Selective Allocation and Reallocation of Tasks Among Mobile Robots

Authors: Anuradha Banerjee

Abstract:

Energy aware operation is one of the visionary goals in the area of robotics because operability of robots is greatly dependent upon their residual energy. Practically, the tasks allocated to robots carry different priority and often an upper limit of time stamp is imposed within which the task needs to be completed. If a robot is unable to complete one particular task given to it the task is reallocated to some other robot. The collection of robots is controlled by a Central Monitoring Unit (CMU). Selection of the new robot is performed by a fuzzy controller called Task Reallocator (TRAC). It accepts the parameters like residual energy of robots, possibility that the task will be successfully completed by the new robot within stipulated time, distance of the new robot (where the task is reallocated) from distance of the old one (where the task was going on) etc. The proposed methodology increases the probability of completing globally assigned tasks and saves huge amount of energy as far as the collection of robots is concerned.

Keywords: energy-efficiency, fuzzy-controller, priority, reallocation, task

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1593 Deviations and Defects of the Sub-Task’s Requirements in Construction Projects

Authors: Abdullah Almusharraf, Andrew Whyte

Abstract:

The sub-task pattern in terms of the deviations and defects should be identified and understand in order to improve the quality practices in construction projects. Therefore, the sub-task susceptibility to exposure to deviations and defects have been evaluated and classified via six classifications that have proposed in this study. 34 case studies on specific sub-task (from compression member in construction concrete structure) have been collected from seven construction projects in order to examined study’s classifications. The study revealed that the sub-task has high sensitive to deviation where (91%) of the cases recorded as deviations, however, only (19%) of cases recorded as defects. Another findings were that the actual work during the execution process has high source of deviation for this sub-task (74%) while only (26%) of the deviation source was due to both design documentations with the actual work. These findings significantly imply that it could be used the study’s classifications to determine the pattern of each sub-task and develop the proactive actions to overcome issues of the sub-task deviations and defects.

Keywords: sub-tasks, deviations, defects, quality, construction projects

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1592 Dual-Task–Immersion in the Interactions of Simultaneously Performed Tasks

Authors: M. Liebherr, P. Schubert, S. Kersten, C. Dietz, L. Franz, C. T. Haas

Abstract:

With a long history, dual-task has become one of the most intriguing research fields regarding human brain functioning and cognition. However, findings considering effects of task-interrelations are limited (especially, in combined motor and cognitive tasks). Therefore, we aimed at developing a measurement system in order to analyse interrelation effects of cognitive and motor tasks. On the one hand, the present study demonstrates the applicability of the measurement system and on the other hand first results regarding a systematization of different task combinations are shown. Future investigations should combine imagine technologies and this developed measurement system.

Keywords: dual-task, interference, cognition, measurement

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1591 Implication of Attention Deficit and Task Avoidance on the Mathematics Performance of Pupils with Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Matthew Bamidele Ojuawo

Abstract:

To some parents, task avoidance implies the time when argument ensues between parents and their children in order to get certain things done correctly without being forced. However, some children avoid certain task because of the fears that it is too hard or cannot be done without parental help. Laziness plays a role in task avoidance when children do not want to do something because they do not feel like it is easy enough or if they just want their parent help them get it over with more quickly. Children with attention deficit disorder more often have difficulties with social skills, such as social interaction and forming and maintaining friendships. The focus of this study is how task avoidance and attention deficit have effect on the mathematics performance of pupils in the lower basic classroom. Mathematics performance of pupils with learning disabilities has been seriously low due to avoidance of task and attention deficit posed as carried out in the previous researches, but the research has not been carried out in the lower basic classroom in Oyo, Oyo state, Nigeria.

Keywords: task avoidance, parents, children with attention deficit, mathematics

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1590 Improving Students’ Participation in Group Tasks: Case Study of Adama Science and Technology University

Authors: Fiseha M. Guangul, Annissa Muhammed, Aja O. Chikere

Abstract:

Group task is one method to create the conducive environment for the active teaching-learning process. Performing group task with active involvement of students will benefit the students in many ways. However, in most cases all students do not participate actively in the group task, and hence the intended benefits are not acquired. This paper presents the improvements of students’ participation in the group task and learning from the group task by introducing different techniques to enhance students’ participation. For the purpose of this research Carpentry and Joinery II (WT-392) course from Wood Technology Department at Adama Science and Technology University was selected, and five groups were formed. Ten group tasks were prepared and the first five group tasks were distributed to the five groups in the first day without introducing the techniques that are used to enhance participation of students in the group task. On another day, the other five group tasks were distributed to the same groups and various techniques were introduced to enhance students’ participation in the group task. The improvements of students’ learning from the group task after the implementation of the techniques. After implementing the techniques the evaluation showed that significant improvements were obtained in the students’ participation and learning from the group task.

Keywords: group task, students participation, active learning, the evaluation method

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1589 Multi-Level Priority Based Task Scheduling Algorithm for Workflows in Cloud Environment

Authors: Anju Bala, Inderveer Chana

Abstract:

Task scheduling is the key concern for the execution of performance-driven workflow applications. As efficient scheduling can have major impact on the performance of the system, task scheduling is often chosen for assigning the request to resources in an efficient way based on cloud resource characteristics. In this paper, priority based task scheduling algorithm has been proposed that prioritizes the tasks based on the length of the instructions. The proposed scheduling approach prioritize the tasks of Cloud applications according to the limits set by six sigma control charts based on dynamic threshold values. Further, the proposed algorithm has been validated through the CloudSim toolkit. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is effective for handling multiple task lists from workflows and in considerably reducing Makespan and Execution time.

Keywords: cloud computing, priority based scheduling, task scheduling, VM allocation

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1588 The Dangers of Attentional Inertia in the Driving Task

Authors: Catherine Thompson, Maryam Jalali, Peter Hills

Abstract:

The allocation of visual attention is critical when driving and anything that limits attention will have a detrimental impact on safety. Engaging in a secondary task reduces the amount of attention directed to the road because drivers allocate resources towards this task, leaving fewer resources to process driving-relevant information. Yet the dangers associated with a secondary task do not end when the driver returns their attention to the road. Instead, the attentional settings adopted to complete a secondary task may persist to the road, affecting attention, and therefore affecting driver performance. This 'attentional inertia' effect was investigated in the current work. Forty drivers searched for hazards in driving video clips while their eye-movements were recorded. At varying intervals they were instructed to attend to a secondary task displayed on a tablet situated to their left-hand side. The secondary task consisted of three separate computer games that induced horizontal, vertical, and random eye movements. Visual search and hazard detection in the driving clips were compared across the three conditions of the secondary task. Results showed that the layout of information in the secondary task, and therefore the allocation of attention in this task, had an impact on subsequent search in the driving clips. Vertically presented information reduced the wide horizontal spread of search usually associated with accurate driving and had a negative influence on the detection of hazards. The findings show the additional dangers of engaging in a secondary task while driving. The attentional inertia effect has significant implications for semi-autonomous and autonomous vehicles in which drivers have greater opportunity to direct their attention away from the driving task.

Keywords: attention, eye-movements, hazard perception, visual search

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1587 Task Distraction vs. Visual Enhancement: Which Is More Effective?

Authors: Huangmei Liu, Si Liu, Jia’nan Liu

Abstract:

The present experiment investigated and compared the effectiveness of two kinds of methods of attention control: Task distraction and visual enhancement. In the study, the effectiveness of task distractions to explicit features and of visual enhancement to implicit features of the same group of Chinese characters were compared based on their effect on the participants’ reaction time, subjective confidence rating, and verbal report. We found support that the visual enhancement on implicit features did overcome the contrary effect of training distraction and led to awareness of those implicit features, at least to some extent.

Keywords: task distraction, visual enhancement, attention, awareness, learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
1586 Task Evoked Pupillary Response for Surgical Task Difficulty Prediction via Multitask Learning

Authors: Beilei Xu, Wencheng Wu, Lei Lin, Rachel Melnyk, Ahmed Ghazi

Abstract:

In operating rooms, excessive cognitive stress can impede the performance of a surgeon, while low engagement can lead to unavoidable mistakes due to complacency. As a consequence, there is a strong desire in the surgical community to be able to monitor and quantify the cognitive stress of a surgeon while performing surgical procedures. Quantitative cognitiveload-based feedback can also provide valuable insights during surgical training to optimize training efficiency and effectiveness. Various physiological measures have been evaluated for quantifying cognitive stress for different mental challenges. In this paper, we present a study using the cognitive stress measured by the task evoked pupillary response extracted from the time series eye-tracking measurements to predict task difficulties in a virtual reality based robotic surgery training environment. In particular, we proposed a differential-task-difficulty scale, utilized a comprehensive feature extraction approach, and implemented a multitask learning framework and compared the regression accuracy between the conventional single-task-based and three multitask approaches across subjects.

Keywords: surgical metric, task evoked pupillary response, multitask learning, TSFresh

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1585 Mind-Wandering and Attention: Evidence from Behavioral and Subjective Perspective

Authors: Riya Mishra, Trayambak Tiwari, Anju Lata Singh, I. L. Singh, Tara Singh

Abstract:

Decrement in vigilance task performance echoes impediment in effortful attention; here attention fluctuated in the realm of external and internal milieu of a person. To examine this fluctuation across time period, we employed two experiments of vigilance task with variation in thought probing rate, which was embedded in the task. The thought probe varies in terms of <2 minute per thought probe and <4 minute per thought probe during vigilance task. A 2x4 repeated measure factorial design was used. 15 individuals participated in this study with an age range of 20-26 years. It was found that thought probing rate has a negative trend with vigilance task performance whereas the subjective measures of mind-wandering have a positive relation with thought probe rate.

Keywords: criterion response, mental status, mind-wandering, thought probe, vigilance

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1584 Teacher-Scaffolding vs. Peer-Scaffolding in Task-Based ILP Instruction: Effects on EFL Learners’ Metapragmatic Awareness

Authors: Amir Zand-Moghadam, Mahnaz Alizadeh

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of teacher-scaffolding versus peer-scaffolding on EFL learners’ metapragmatic awareness in the paradigm of task-based language teaching (TBLT). To this end, a number of dialogic information-gap tasks requiring two-way interactant relationship were designed for the five speech acts of request, refusal, apology, suggestion, and compliment following Ellis’s (2003) model. Then, 48 intermediate EFL learners were randomly selected, homogenized, and assigned to two groups: 26 participants in the teacher-scaffolding group (Group One) and 22 in the peer-scaffolding group (Group Two). While going through the three phases of pre-task, while-task, and post-task, the participants in the first group completed the designed tasks by the teacher’s interaction, scaffolding, and feedback. On the other hand, the participants in the second group were required to complete the tasks in expert-novice pairs through peer scaffolding in all the three phases of a task-based syllabus. The findings revealed that the participants in the teacher-scaffolding group developed their L2 metapragmatic awareness more than the peer-scaffolding group. Thus, it can be concluded that teacher-scaffolding is more effective than peer scaffolding in developing metapragmatic awareness among EFL learners. It can also be claimed that the use of tasks can be more influential when they are accompanied by teacher-scaffolding. The findings of the present study have implications for language teachers and researchers.

Keywords: ILP, metapragmatic awareness, scaffolding, task-based instruction

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1583 Simulation of a Cost Model Response Requests for Replication in Data Grid Environment

Authors: Kaddi Mohammed, A. Benatiallah, D. Benatiallah

Abstract:

Data grid is a technology that has full emergence of new challenges, such as the heterogeneity and availability of various resources and geographically distributed, fast data access, minimizing latency and fault tolerance. Researchers interested in this technology address the problems of the various systems related to the industry such as task scheduling, load balancing and replication. The latter is an effective solution to achieve good performance in terms of data access and grid resources and better availability of data cost. In a system with duplication, a coherence protocol is used to impose some degree of synchronization between the various copies and impose some order on updates. In this project, we present an approach for placing replicas to minimize the cost of response of requests to read or write, and we implement our model in a simulation environment. The placement techniques are based on a cost model which depends on several factors, such as bandwidth, data size and storage nodes.

Keywords: response time, query, consistency, bandwidth, storage capacity, CERN

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1582 The Efficacy of Contractual Governance on Task and Relationship Conflict in Construction Projects

Authors: Jingya You, Yongqiang Chen, Yuanyuan Hua, Wenqian Wang

Abstract:

Conflict is commonplace in construction projects, and construction projects always involve designing contracts between the owner and the contractor. However, how the contract affects the level of conflict between the owner and the contractor has not been elaborated. The purpose of this paper is to explain the effects of contractual complexity on the level of conflict, including task conflict and relationship conflict, and then to demonstrate the moderating role played by the interdependence between the owner and the contractor. Using data from owners and general contractors in the Chinese construction industry, this research reveals that contractual control will reduce relationship conflict. Contractual coordination will also reduce relationship conflict by the mediating effect of task conflict. Besides, under high joint interdependence, the positive relationship between task conflict and relationship conflict is strengthened, while high interdependence asymmetry has effects on weakening the relationship between task conflict and relationship conflict. The findings provide guidance for contract designers to draft suitable contracts in order to effectively deal with conflict. Additionally, this research implies that project managers should highlight the importance of contract in conflict management.

Keywords: construction projects, contract governance, interdependence, relationship conflict, task conflict

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1581 Pain and Lumbar Muscle Activation before and after Functional Task in Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Lídia E. O. Cruz, Adriano P. C. Calvo, Renato J. Soares, Regiane A. Carvalho

Abstract:

Individuals with non-specific chronic low back pain may present altered movement patterns during functional activities. However, muscle behavior before and after performing a functional task with different load conditions is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study is to analyze lumbar muscle activity before and after performing the functional task of picking up and placing an object on the ground (with and without load) in individuals with nonspecific chronic low back pain. 20 subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain and 20 healthy subjects participated in this study. A surface electromyography was performed in the ilio-costal, longissimus and multifidus muscles to evaluate lumbar muscle activity before and after performing the functional task of picking up and placing an object on the ground, with and without load. The symptomatic participants had greater lumbar muscle activation compared to the asymptomatic group, more evident in performing the task without load, with statistically significant difference (p = 0,033) between groups for the right multifidus muscle. This study showed that individuals with nonspecific chronic low back pain have higher muscle activation before and after performing a functional task compared to healthy participants.

Keywords: chronic low back pain, functional task, lumbar muscles, muscle activity

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1580 The Correlation between Users’ Star Rating and Usability on Mobile Applications

Authors: Abdulmohsen A. AlBesher, Richard T. Stone

Abstract:

Star rating for mobile applications is a very useful way to differentiate between the best and worst rated applications. However, the question is whether the rating reflects the level of usability or not. The aim of this paper is to find out if the user’ star ratings on mobile apps correlate with the usability of those apps. Thus, we tested three mobile apps, which have different star ratings: low, medium, and high. Participating in the study, 15 mobile phone users were asked to do one single task for each of the three tested apps. After each task, the participant evaluated the app by answering a survey based on the System Usability Scale (SUS). The results found that there is no major correlation between the star rating and the usability. However, it was found that the task completion time and the numbers of errors that may happen while completing the task were significantly correlated to the usability.

Keywords: mobile applications, SUS, star rating, usability

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1579 Efficacy of Task Based Language Teaching in a Second Language Classroom Context

Authors: Wajiha Fatima

Abstract:

Various approaches and methods for second language classroom teaching have been proposed since the nineteenth century. Task Based Language Teaching has been prevailing approach in a second language classroom context. It is an approach which immerses students in a naturalistic setting. Tasks are the core unit of planning and instruction. This paper aims at expounding the concept of Task Based Language Teaching and how it has been evolved. In this study, researcher will highlight the usefulness of TBLT and the role it played as a powerful tool for learning and teaching in a second language setting. The article will reflect the implementation of various tasks based activities as well as the roles played by learners and teachers and the problems faced by them. In the end, researcher will discuss how TBLT can be implemented in second language classroom pedagogy.

Keywords: implementation, second language classroom, tasks, task based language teaching

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1578 Investigating the Impact of Task Demand and Duration on Passage of Time Judgements and Duration Estimates

Authors: Jesika A. Walker, Mohammed Aswad, Guy Lacroix, Denis Cousineau

Abstract:

There is a fundamental disconnect between the experience of time passing and the chronometric units by which time is quantified. Specifically, there appears to be no relationship between the passage of time judgments (PoTJs) and verbal duration estimates at short durations (e.g., < 2000 milliseconds). When a duration is longer than several minutes, however, evidence suggests that a slower feeling of time passing is predictive of overestimation. Might the length of a task moderate the relation between PoTJs and duration estimates? Similarly, the estimation paradigm (prospective vs. retrospective) and the mental effort demanded of a task (task demand) have both been found to influence duration estimates. However, only a handful of experiments have investigated these effects for tasks of long durations, and the results have been mixed. Thus, might the length of a task also moderate the effects of the estimation paradigm and task demand on duration estimates? To investigate these questions, 273 participants performed either an easy or difficult visual and memory search task for either eight or 58 minutes, under prospective or retrospective instructions. Afterward, participants provided a duration estimate in minutes, followed by a PoTJ on a Likert scale (1 = very slow, 7 = very fast). A 2 (prospective vs. retrospective) × 2 (eight minutes vs. 58 minutes) × 2 (high vs. low difficulty) between-subjects ANOVA revealed a two-way interaction between task demand and task duration on PoTJs, p = .02. Specifically, time felt faster in the more challenging task, but only in the eight-minute condition, p < .01. Duration estimates were transformed into RATIOs (estimate/actual duration) to standardize estimates across durations. An ANOVA revealed a two-way interaction between estimation paradigm and task duration, p = .03. Specifically, participants overestimated the task more if they were given prospective instructions, but only in the eight-minute task. Surprisingly, there was no effect of task difficulty on duration estimates. Thus, the demands of a task may influence ‘feeling of time’ and ‘estimation time’ differently, contributing to the existing theory that these two forms of time judgement rely on separate underlying cognitive mechanisms. Finally, a significant main effect of task duration was found for both PoTJs and duration estimates (ps < .001). Participants underestimated the 58-minute task (m = 42.5 minutes) and overestimated the eight-minute task (m = 10.7 minutes). Yet, they reported the 58-minute task as passing significantly slower on a Likert scale (m = 2.5) compared to the eight-minute task (m = 4.1). In fact, a significant correlation was found between PoTJ and duration estimation (r = .27, p <.001). This experiment thus provides evidence for a compensatory effect at longer durations, in which people underestimate a ‘slow feeling condition and overestimate a ‘fast feeling condition. The results are discussed in relation to heuristics that might alter the relationship between these two variables when conditions range from several minutes up to almost an hour.

Keywords: duration estimates, long durations, passage of time judgements, task demands

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1577 Effect of Perceived Importance of a Task in the Prospective Memory Task

Authors: Kazushige Wada, Mayuko Ueda

Abstract:

In the present study, we reanalyzed lapse errors in the last phase of a job, by re-counting near lapse errors and increasing the number of participants. We also examined the results of this study from the perspective of prospective memory (PM), which concerns future actions. This study was designed to investigate whether perceiving the importance of PM tasks caused lapse errors in the last phase of a job and to determine if such errors could be explained from the perspective of PM processing. Participants (N = 34) conducted a computerized clicking task, in which they clicked on 10 figures that they had learned in advance in 8 blocks of 10 trials. Participants were requested to click the check box in the start display of a block and to click the checking off box in the finishing display. This task was a PM task. As a measure of PM performance, we counted the number of omission errors caused by forgetting to check off in the finishing display, which was defined as a lapse error. The perceived importance was manipulated by different instructions. Half the participants in the highly important task condition were instructed that checking off was very important, because equipment would be overloaded if it were not done. The other half in the not important task condition was instructed only about the location and procedure for checking off. Furthermore, we controlled workload and the emotion of surprise to confirm the effect of demand capacity and attention. To manipulate emotions during the clicking task, we suddenly presented a photo of a traffic accident and the sound of a skidding car followed by an explosion. Workload was manipulated by requesting participants to press the 0 key in response to a beep. Results indicated too few forgetting induced lapse errors to be analyzed. However, there was a weak main effect of the perceived importance of the check task, in which the mouse moved to the “END” button before moving to the check box in the finishing display. Especially, the highly important task group showed more such near lapse errors, than the not important task group. Neither surprise, nor workload affected the occurrence of near lapse errors. These results imply that high perceived importance of PM tasks impair task performance. On the basis of the multiprocess framework of PM theory, we have suggested that PM task performance in this experiment relied not on monitoring PM tasks, but on spontaneous retrieving.

Keywords: prospective memory, perceived importance, lapse errors, multi process framework of prospective memory.

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1576 Neurophysiology of Domain Specific Execution Costs of Grasping in Working Memory Phases

Authors: Rumeysa Gunduz, Dirk Koester, Thomas Schack

Abstract:

Previous behavioral studies have shown that working memory (WM) and manual actions share limited capacity cognitive resources, which in turn results in execution costs of manual actions in WM. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study investigating the neurophysiology of execution costs. The current study aims to fill this research gap investigating the neurophysiology of execution costs of grasping in WM phases (encoding, maintenance, retrieval) considering verbal and visuospatial domains of WM. A WM-grasping dual task paradigm was implemented to examine execution costs. Baseline single task required performing verbal or visuospatial version of a WM task. Dual task required performing the WM task embedded in a high precision grasp to place task. 30 participants were tested in a 2 (single vs. dual task) x 2 (visuo-spatial vs. verbal WM) within subject design. Event related potentials (ERPs) were extracted for each WM phase separately in the single and dual tasks. Memory performance for visuospatial WM, but not for verbal WM, was significantly lower in the dual task compared to the single task. Encoding related ERPs in the single task revealed different ERPs of verbal WM and visuospatial WM at bilateral anterior sites and right posterior site. In the dual task, bilateral anterior difference disappeared due to bilaterally increased anterior negativities for visuospatial WM. Maintenance related ERPs in the dual task revealed different ERPs of verbal WM and visuospatial WM at bilateral posterior sites. There was also anterior negativity for visuospatial WM. Retrieval related ERPs in the single task revealed different ERPs of verbal WM and visuospatial WM at bilateral posterior sites. In the dual task, there was no difference between verbal WM and visuospatial WM. Behavioral and ERP findings suggest that execution of grasping shares cognitive resources only with visuospatial WM, which in turn results in domain specific execution costs. Moreover, ERP findings suggest unique patterns of costs in each WM phase, which supports the idea that each WM phase reflects a separate cognitive process. This study not only contributes to the understanding of cognitive principles of manual action control, but also contributes to the understanding of WM as an entity consisting of separate modalities and cognitive processes.

Keywords: dual task, grasping execution, neurophysiology, working memory domains, working memory phases

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1575 ACO-TS: an ACO-based Algorithm for Optimizing Cloud Task Scheduling

Authors: Fahad Y. Al-dawish

Abstract:

The current trend by a large number of organizations and individuals to use cloud computing. Many consider it a significant shift in the field of computing. Cloud computing are distributed and parallel systems consisting of a collection of interconnected physical and virtual machines. With increasing request and profit of cloud computing infrastructure, diverse computing processes can be executed on cloud environment. Many organizations and individuals around the world depend on the cloud computing environments infrastructure to carry their applications, platform, and infrastructure. One of the major and essential issues in this environment related to allocating incoming tasks to suitable virtual machine (cloud task scheduling). Cloud task scheduling is classified as optimization problem, and there are several meta-heuristic algorithms have been anticipated to solve and optimize this problem. Good task scheduler should execute its scheduling technique on altering environment and the types of incoming task set. In this research project a cloud task scheduling methodology based on ant colony optimization ACO algorithm, we call it ACO-TS Ant Colony Optimization for Task Scheduling has been proposed and compared with different scheduling algorithms (Random, First Come First Serve FCFS, and Fastest Processor to the Largest Task First FPLTF). Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is random optimization search method that will be used for assigning incoming tasks to available virtual machines VMs. The main role of proposed algorithm is to minimizing the makespan of certain tasks set and maximizing resource utilization by balance the load among virtual machines. The proposed scheduling algorithm was evaluated by using Cloudsim toolkit framework. Finally after analyzing and evaluating the performance of experimental results we find that the proposed algorithm ACO-TS perform better than Random, FCFS, and FPLTF algorithms in each of the makespaan and resource utilization.

Keywords: cloud Task scheduling, ant colony optimization (ACO), cloudsim, cloud computing

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1574 Resource Allocation and Task Scheduling with Skill Level and Time Bound Constraints

Authors: Salam Saudagar, Ankit Kamboj, Niraj Mohan, Satgounda Patil, Nilesh Powar

Abstract:

Task Assignment and Scheduling is a challenging Operations Research problem when there is a limited number of resources and comparatively higher number of tasks. The Cost Management team at Cummins needs to assign tasks based on a deadline and must prioritize some of the tasks as per business requirements. Moreover, there is a constraint on the resources that assignment of tasks should be done based on an individual skill level, that may vary for different tasks. Another constraint is for scheduling the tasks that should be evenly distributed in terms of number of working hours, which adds further complexity to this problem. The proposed greedy approach to solve assignment and scheduling problem first assigns the task based on management priority and then by the closest deadline. This is followed by an iterative selection of an available resource with the least allocated total working hours for a task, i.e. finding the local optimal choice for each task with the goal of determining the global optimum. The greedy approach task allocation is compared with a variant of Hungarian Algorithm, and it is observed that the proposed approach gives an equal allocation of working hours among the resources. The comparative study of the proposed approach is also done with manual task allocation and it is noted that the visibility of the task timeline has increased from 2 months to 6 months. An interactive dashboard app is created for the greedy assignment and scheduling approach and the tasks with more than 2 months horizon that were waiting in a queue without a delivery date initially are now analyzed effectively by the business with expected timelines for completion.

Keywords: assignment, deadline, greedy approach, Hungarian algorithm, operations research, scheduling

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1573 A Literature Review of Emotional Labor and Non-Task Behavior

Authors: Yeong-Gyeong Choi, Kyoung-Seok Kim

Abstract:

This study, literature review research, intends to deal with the problem of conceptual ambiguity among research on emotional labor, and to look into the evolutionary trends and changing aspects of defining the concept of emotional labor. In addition, in existing studies, deep acting and surface acting are highly related to a positive outcome variable and a negative outcome variable, respectively. It was confirmed that for employees performing emotional labor, deep acting and surface acting are highly related to OCB and CWB, respectively. While positive emotion that employees come to experience during job performance process can easily trigger a positive non-task behavior such as OCB, negative emotion that employees experience through excessive workload or unfair treatment can easily induce a negative behavior like CWB. The two management behaviors of emotional labor, surface acting and deep acting, can have either a positive or negative effect on non-task behavior of employees, depending on which one they would choose. Thus, the purpose of this review paper is to clarify the relationship between emotional labor and non-task behavior more specifically.

Keywords: emotion labor, non-task behavior, OCB, CWB

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1572 Task Space Synchronization Control of Multi-Robot Arms with Position Synchronous Method

Authors: Zijian Zhang, Yangyang Dong

Abstract:

Synchronization is of great importance to ensure the multi-arm robot to complete the task. Therefore, a synchronous controller is designed to coordinate task space motion of the multi-arm in the paper. The position error, the synchronous position error, and the coupling position error are all considered in the controller. Besides, an adaptive control method is used to adjust parameters of the controller to improve the effectiveness of coordinated control performance. Simulation in the Matlab shows the effectiveness of the method. At last, a robot experiment platform with two 7-DOF (Degree of Freedom) robot arms has been established and the synchronous controller simplified to control dual-arm robot has been validated on the experimental set-up. Experiment results show the position error decreased 10% and the corresponding frequency is also greatly improved.

Keywords: synchronous control, space robot, task space control, multi-arm robot

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1571 Parallel Processing in near Absence of Attention: A Study Using Dual-Task Paradigm

Authors: Aarushi Agarwal, Tara Singh, I.L Singh, Anju Lata Singh, Trayambak Tiwari

Abstract:

Simple discrimination in near absence of attention has been widely observed. Dual-task studies with natural scenes studies have been claimed as being preattentive in nature that facilitated categorization simultaneously with the attentional demanding task. So in this study, multiple images at the periphery are presented, initiating parallel processing in near absence of attention. For the central demanding task rotated letters were presented in both conditions, while in periphery natural and animal images were presented. To understand the breakpoint of ability to perform in near absence of attention one, two and three peripheral images were presented simultaneously with central task and subjects had to respond when all belong to the same category. Individual participant performance did not show a significant difference in both conditions central and peripheral task when the single peripheral image was shown. In case of two images high-level parallel processing could take place with little attentional resources. The eye tracking results supports the evidence as no major saccade was made in a large number of trials. Three image presentations proved to be a breaking point of the capacities to perform outside attentional assistance as participants showed a confused eye gaze pattern which failed to make the natural and animal image discriminations. Thus, we can conclude attention and awareness being independent mechanisms having limited capacities.

Keywords: attention, dual task pardigm, parallel processing, break point, saccade

Procedia PDF Downloads 97